22207 Records out of 22207 Records

The modernization of Swahili technical terminologies : an investigation of the linguistics and literature terminologies

Author: Mwansoko, Hermas

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Linguistics ; Swahili language ; Jargon ;

Abstract:

It is now more than a decade since `planned' modernization of Swahili technical terminologies for use in specialist communication was begun in Tanzania. But during all this period there has been no clear model of Swahili terminology expansion; the procedures involved in preparing and formally approving the terminology lists have been very cumbersome and time-consuming and are not based on any particular terminology theory. Terminology expansion in any language is only likely to succeed if it is based on a theoretical model designed to generate the required terminologies following the specific needs of the prospective register users. The present thesis is an attempt to fill the `theoretical gap' which is being experienced in the course of modernizing the Swahili technical terms in Tanzania. The thesis examines the theoretical and methodological aspects of terminological modernization as laid down by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and their implementation in the language modernization programmes of various countries, thereby providing a motivated framework for the study of terminology expansion in Swahili. The study discusses the ways in which Swahili technical terms are being coined, standardized and disseminated to the target populations. It critically evaluates these processes and their limitations and, on the basis of the ISO's terminology theory and the register users' attitudes towards the Swahili terminological modernization programme, proposes a more systematic approach to Swahili terminological modernization which reduces the time factor in the code elaboration process, facilitates a quicker and more effective dissemination of the terms and improves their chances of acceptance by the register users.

Christ's role in Christian marriage with reference to marriage customs among the Bakusu of Western Kenya.

Author: Lumbasi, Gabriel W

Awarding University: Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: Catholic University of Eastern Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Christianity ; Social life and customs ; Marriage ; Bukusu (African people) ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Knowledge attitudes and practices of registered nurses on scientific nursing research at the Kenyatta National Hospital

Author: Mukthar, Vincent Kiprono

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: Nurses ; Nursing ; Research ; Attitude surveys ;

Abstract:

Scientific Nursing Research is defined as the systematic process of investigating phenomena related to nursing with the aim of adding to the nursing body of knowledge, to improve practice and for better health care outcomes (Endrawes, 2000). This was a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice ofRNs on Scientific Nursing Research at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The study was undertaken-in 36 weeks, sample selection was by both stratified and convenient sampling. Data collection instrument was Structured Questionnaires. The findings were summarized, and presented in form of tables, graphs, and pie charts. Data analysis was done using Chi Square test of significance. The study findings indicate that whereby most of the RNs had been introduced to basic research concepts during training, only a minority (23%) had undertaken research, which corresponded with the percentage that undertaken update course. Over 50% of the respondent had positive attitudes and over 50% agreed that the factors hindering the access to research are lack of funds, lack of time and lack of supportive authorities. It was also established that only 30% had used research findings in their practice. In conclusion, most of the registered nurses are knowledgeable and have positive attitudes towards research. Though most of them exude confidence in performance of research, their practice is limited by factors of access to research e.g. funds, time and supportive authorities. The RNs use of research findings in their practice and attendance of update courses in research is wanting. The factors that significantly influenced the practice of research include ward placement, professional training background and attendance of update courses.

Pastoral care for Catholic students in schools : a case study of selected schools in the Catholic Diocese of Nakuru

Author: Mwango, Gabriel R

Awarding University: Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: Catholic University of Eastern Africa Library ; . ;

Subject Terms: Catholic Church, Nakuru Diocese, Kenya ; Academic guidance counseling ; Student counseling USE Academic guidance counseling ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Comparison of simple interrupted Gambee and crushing techniques for intestinal anastomosis in cattle

Author: Mbiuki, Stanley Mbaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level :

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ; University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Comparative studies ; Intestinal anastomosis ; Animal care ; Cattle ;

Abstract:

End-on approximating techniques for intestinal anastomosis have been found to be more advantageous than everting and inverting techniques by different- investigators. The simple interrupted, gambeeand crushing anastomotic techriiques whEfn evaluated independently have usually been found to be superior to the techniques with which they were compared. Comparison of simple interrupted, gambee and crushing techniques together have not been previously reported. The purpose of -: this investigation .is to make a comparative study of the simple interrupted, gambee and crushing approximating techniques as used for intestinal anastomosis in cattle. Twenty four male cattle were used to perform anastomoses in the small intestine utilizing simple interrupted, gambee and crushing techniques for comparative studies. Six anastomoses were performed in each of 8 animals using any one of the techniques to make a total of 48 anastomoses per technique. Therefore one hundred fourty four anastomoses were performed using the three techniques. Evaluation'procedures were carried out at 4, 14, 28 and 56 days post-operatively to assess -c the efficacy of the respective techniques. Parameters investigated were: time per anastomosis and per stitch, adhesion formation,- stenosis (external and internal) and histopathologic changes. From the histologic sections, epitbelializati~n, inflammatory reaction, muscle layer approximation, cellular intensity and cell types were evaluated. I~crease in-thickness of anastomotic site relative to the adjacent and normal areas were also evaluated. Results of adhesion formation, external stenosis, epithelialization, inflammatory reaction, and muscle layer approximation were given numerical scores to make the comparison objective and easier to visualize. The results showed that time per suture was found to be a more reliable indicator of the time taken to perform an intestinal anastomosis. The simple interrupted technique took the least mean time per suture (36~6 sec.) followed by gambee technique (49.5 sec.) and crusbing technique was last with 57.4 seconds. There were no adhesions in 11% .of gambee' anastomoses, 58%.of crushing anastomoses and ? 21% of simple interrupted anastomoses. This clearly demonstrated gambee as the technique that induces least adhesions. Stenosis as seen externally was absent in 62% of gambee anastomoses, 531 of simple interrupted anastomoses and 40% o~ crushing anastomoses indicating that gamhee was a better technique in this regard. Luminal stenosis evaluated 1rom radio- graphs showed a mean narrowing o~ 30.6% in gambee anastomoses, 36% in simple interrupted anastomoses and 38.9% in crushi'I1? anastomoses, thus implying gambee was a superior technique. Epithelial healing was more or less complete at 4 days in simple in~errupted anastomoses followed by gambeeoastomoses with crushing anastomoses having poor epithe lia1 healing. However at 14 days. the healing in the crushing anastomoses overtook that in the other techniques. Simple interrupted anastomoses were inferior in the epithelial bealing to the anastomoses performed us i ng the other two techniques at 14 days. After 14 days all the anastomoses showed a similar degree of epithelial healing . Overall, gambee anastomoses had a slightly better epithelial he~ling than the other two techniques. Generally, inflammatory reaction decreased with time. There was a greater decrease in gambee anastomoses followed by crushing ana- stomoses and simple interrupted anastomoses? showed the greatest inflammatory reaction. Muscle layer approximation apparently did not change with time but remained as it was after anastomosis for all techniques. However, gambee anastomoses showed the best alignment followed by crushing anastomoses and simple interrupted anastomoses had least efficacy in alignment of the muscle layer. Cellular intensity was high in all the techniques at 4 days due to the increased number of cells in the early proliferative phase and late lag

Habitat selection and social group dynamics of African elephants in Amboseli, Kenya.

Author: Lindsay, William Keith

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level :

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Amboseli, Kenya ; Elephants ; Loxodonta africana ; Ecology ; Animal behavior ;

Abstract:

The selection and use of habitats by African elephants were examined in relation to vegetation abundance and elephant social grouping patterns. I conducted the study in the Amboseli basin and surrounding semi-arid bushlands in southern Kenya from November 1978 to October 1979. Elephant habitat distributions in the basin in 1978/79 were monitored in a series of 88 ground surveys, while data from 54 aerial counts from 1975 to 1980 were examined for a longer term view. Plant density and biomass were monitored in permanent vegetation plots located in different habitat types in the Amboseli basin and bushlands. Habitat types were defined, described, and compared. Herbaceous (grass/forb) biomass was more abundant than browse (twig/leaf)- biomass at all times within habitat types,' but -in the dry season, the woody layer of some habitat types, such as the swamp edge woodlands and dense bushlands, was more abundant than the herb layer of other habitats, such as the open grasslands. Bushlands and woodlands had highest diversity of herbaceous and woody biomass. Biomass production was significantly related to wet season rainfall in all habitats. The herb layers of swamp edge habitats consistently had the highest biomass and lowest nutritional quality (exemplified by crude protein content), and were abundant well into the dry season. Woodland and bushland habitat types had herb layers which were only seasonally abundant, but of higher protein content through the year. Elephants preferred woodlands (and, in drier years, bushlands} in the wet seasons and swamps in the dry seasons. Elephant numbers in the woodlands and grasslands were positively related to monthly rainfall and herb layer biomass, and numbers in the wet swamps and in the swamp edge grasslands and woodlands were negatively related to the same variables. There was a large amount of variance associated with these relationships. The ranking of habitat use by elephants was significantly correlated with the ranking of herb layer biomass across habitats in the dry season, but not in the wet season, when less abundant, but more nutritious, vegetation was available in the woodlands and bushlands. There were no clear relationships between elephant numbers and browse biomass or percent woody cover across habitat types. Groups of cows and calves were larger in the the rainy seasons, and in years with higher rainfall, and smaller in low rainfall seasons and years. Bachelor bull groups showed some similar patterns but group sizes and the range of variation were always fairly small. There was an apparent shift by the larger cow/calf groups to the high biomass habitats, and possibly more open habitats, with changes in plant abundance in the dry season. The number of large groups was not correlated with elephant density in habitat types. This supports the hypothesis that large social group size is maintained by habitat selection, rather than random encounters of groups. The larger bachelor bull groups did not shift habitats in this way. Although their habitat use patterns were similar overall, bachelor bulls used the wet swamps and open woodlands more in the dry season while cow/calf herds preferred the open woodlands more in the wet seasons and swamp edge grasslands more in the dry seasons. Explanations of these differences relating to physiological and social differences between the gender classes were offered. Elephant habitat selection strategy appears to consist of a 'stable element' centered on the predictable dry season habitats and an 'opportunistic element' in less predictable, but more profitable, wet season habitats.

Steering response analysis of an animal-drawn mouldboard plough [Kenya].

Author: Mutua, J M

Awarding University: Cranfield University, England

Level : PhD

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture ; Agricultural machinery ; Performance evaluation ;

Abstract:

The importance of the animal-drawn mouldboard plough in Kenyan small-scale farming sector is reviewed and the operational problems associated with the implement leading to poor seedbed, poor weed control and operator fatigue. The research aims at firstly providing an insight on the dynamic behaviour of the Victory mouldboard plough when responding to a steering input, and secondly, based on the findings of the dynamic behaviour, advises on design and operational criteria aimed at improving the dynamic performance, hence the quality of work and reduced operator fatigue. There are three parts to this research: part one deals with the theoretical analysis. Here the mathematical equations governing the lateral dynamic behaviour of the animal-drawn mouldboard plough are developed. Part two deals with the experimental verification of the theories developed in part one. Extensive experiments were carried out in the soil bin using a fully instrumented Victory mouldboard plough to test its response to a steering input under different set of parameters viz: two hitch lengths, two hitch points and three different sizes of landsides. Part three advises on the operational criteria aimed at improving the lateral stability and steering responses of the plough under different operating conditions