22207 Records out of 22207 Records

The politics and administration of agricultural development in Kenya : the Kenya Tea Development Authority

Author: Steeves, Jeffrey Sayre

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 19975

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Politics/Agricultural economics/Kenya Tea Development Authority/ ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Tea Development Authority is one of the most successful agricultural development programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike re-settlement schemes such as the Gezira in the Sudan or the ujaama villages in Tanzania, the Authority has introduced a new cash crop among widely scattered small farmers within the former African Reserves of Kenya. Its achievement seems even more remarkable in that it has introduced a technically demanding estate crop as a viable smallholder enterprise. Utilizing an integrated approach to agricultural development, that is, the provision of a wide range of services for the farmer within one institutional framework, the Authority has staked a leading position within the world tea industry. The central reason for this success has been the institution's early ability to generate local enthusiasm for tea-growing and a system of tight central control. The first can be traced to a credit system which offered credit in kind and on terms sufficient to allow all strata within the farming community to participate in the programme. The second is due to a system of close field supervision with strong links to the central offices. Over time, however, for financial reasons the K.T.D.A. found it necessary to restrict and then eliminate credit; this led to a fundamental challenge to the Authority's structured system of control. It was found that the ability of the institution to plan, direct and implement its policies depended directly on the participation of all strata of the farming community. This study identifies the strata which were relevant to the tea programme and their significance for central goals. The research was undertaken in Kenya during 1970 and 19]1 a particularly interesting period for it was during this time that the full effects of the elimination of credit were being felt. The author spent six months studying the central offices of the Authority and in addition lived in each of Nyeri, Meru, Murang'a, Kericho, Kisii and Kakamega Districts for a minimum period of one month conducting interviews and analyzing documentary materials. Documents pertaining to the other t ea-gr-owfng districts were also analyzed in combination with follow .?.. up interviews in the core districts. The research findings reveal the complexi~y of the agricultural community, The credit revisions of the 1960's and the field reaction illustrate the importance of the strata divisions within the farming community. The full effects of the exclusion of lower strata farmers from formal and legal participation led to aq alliance between lower strata farmers and lower field staff. This alliance directly threatened central control. The study has, therefore, direct relevance to public policy formation and development efforts related to rural Kenya. The major conclusions can be stated as follows: A.Implementation of integrated agricultural development programmes requires control. B. Control depends on an organization establishing its legitimacy within the total farming community. C. The legitimacy of the organization is directly tied to the participation of all strata levels on a continuing basis in the programme of development. Thus, implementation can only be realized by the inclusion of all strata at terms and on conditions which they can meet,

The role of media in curbing corruption in Kenya : the case of the Nation and the Standard media groups

Author: Mutala, Ruth Ngina

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2912

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Media coverage ; Corruption ; Nation Media Group ; Standard Media Group ;

Abstract:

This study focuses on corruption in Kenya and the roles that the media play in curbing the problem. According to the Transparency International corruption Index 20 II, Kenya lies towards the bottom as one of the most corrupt countries, at position 154 out of 183 with a perception Index of2.2. Over the years, billions of shillings have been lost through numerous corruption deals, hence deepening the levels of poverty in the country. The problem of corruption in Kenya has existed since independence and seems to only have increased with every new government. Due to the magnitude of the problem, it has become necessary to use all means possible to curb the menace. This study examined the roles that media play in the fight against corruption. Through the agenda setting function, the media have the potential to create awareness by keeping the corruption stories high on the public agenda. At the same time, the media through various gatekeepers, the reporters, the editors and the managers decide what information gets to the masses. The amount and type of information published in the dailies is influenced by various factors such as governance, media regulation and ownership. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used to investigate the roles that media play, the effect of reporting corruption stories and some of the challenges the media experience in performing these roles. Among the findings of the study were that the war against corruption cannot be won without the involvement of media. That the media playa crucial role in creating awareness as well as in putting the government in check and pressuring it to prosecute cases that were reported. It was also found out that a lot of gatekeeping was done from the various levels of management, the editorial team and that many corruption stories went unreported. The media were experiencing numerous challenges such as political influence and the influence of the owners of the media firms. There was need to enhance the freedom of the press (to protect journalists) both through the law and the in-house regulation, thus to ensure more effective and objective reporting of corruption stories and other stories of human interest.

Performance and dynamics of African firms : a comparative analysis of garment firms in Kenya and Bangladesh

Author: Fukunishi, T

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2013

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, England ;

Subject Terms: Labour ; Exports ; Clothing industry ; Labour economics ; Bangladesh ;

Abstract:

This thesis attempts to understand the causes behind the stagnation of the African manufacturing sector based on comparative case studies. We specifically compare the garment industries in Kenya and Bangladesh, which have similar endowments including income per capita and business environment, but contrast in the development of the typical labour-intensive industry. Our comparison between countries with similar endowments simplifies the causes of the divergent performance, since it effectively controls possible reverse causation. Additionally, the focus on a labour-intensive industry demonstrates obstacles at the early stage of industrialisation. The fact that the Kenyan industry had growth opportunity in the period of analysis, from 2002 to 2008, makes the comparison meaningful. Using firm data and in-depth interviews, the comparison is based on a microeconomic perspective so that it incorporates firm heterogeneity. The main analysis is extended in three chapters. Sources of the competitiveness gap between the two industries are explored in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 demonstrates the dynamics of non-exporters in Kenya, while the dynamics in the export market, namely export participation, are analysed in Chapter 6. We found that the most influential source of the competitiveness gap is labour cost rather than productivity; the wages in Kenya are far higher than those in Bangladesh. Due to the large cost gap, the Kenyan garment industry experienced a drastic contraction in the liberalized local and export markets. Consequently, Kenyan local firms specialised in the local uniform growth and discouraging participation to the export market. High labour costs relative to income per capita can be an important cause of the stagnation of the manufacturing sector in some other African countries where the labour cost is as high as it is in Kenya.

Conceptualisation and operationalisation of the right to a fair trial in criminal justice in Kenya

Author: Ouma, Jack Busalile Mwimali

Awarding University: University of Birmingham, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2013

Holding Libraries: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Criminal justice ; Trials ; Constitutions ; Criminal law ; Judicial process ;

Abstract:

This thesis explores issues concerning the conceptualisation and operationalisation of the right to a fair trial in the Kenyan criminal justice system. In particular, it looks at how and why there have been many difficulties with the implementation of this universal set of values that have been recognised since the adoption of the formal legal system in Kenya, and which have been enshrined in the Constitution since independence. It addresses a number of overarching questions. First, it identifies the factors that hindered the full realisation of the right to a fair trial. Secondly, it enquires into whether the shortcomings of the recently repealed Constitution in that regard have been fully addressed by the new Constitution adopted in 2010. Thirdly, it identifies and analyse the impact of factors outside the formal law which may have affected the practical operation of certain core elements of the right to a fair trial. Finally, in light of the above, it explores a number of approaches that might be used to address these other factors so as to help achieve at least a better, enforcement of fair trial rights in the country.

Potential role of biochar in water management in rainfed agriculture

Author: Flavia, Namagembe

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Biochar ; Sugarcane ; Saccharum officinarum ; Bamboo ; Arundinaria alpina ; Soils ;

Abstract:

The economies of the three East African region (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania), which is the region of interest in this study still rely largely on rainfed agriculture accounting to approximately 80% of the total agricultural production. With the increasing threats from climate variability, the region is prone to extreme conditions of drought and floods. Inadequate soil moisture and low soil fertility have been the challenges facing rainfed agriculture in the region and several approaches have been employed to help manage agricultural water sustainably. Previous studies indicate that incorporation of biochar into sandy soil improves its water retention capacity. This study demonstrates how addition of biochar produced from different feedstock biomass of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn) trash and bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) leaves and branches, all obtained from the region using both the laboratory controlled equipment at 350 oC, 450 oC and 550 oC and a traditional stove, to sandy soil has the potential improve the soil?s water holding capacity. This way, biochar can thus play a significant role in water management in agriculture in the East African region with the aim of reducing agricultural input and maximizing crop yields. For the traditional stove, it was difficult to control the temperature while producing the biochar but the highest steady temperature reached during production was recorded. The hydrologic properties including water holding capacity and hydrophobicity of sandy soil, biochars and soil-biochar mixtures were measured using the gravimetric method and the molarity of ethanol drop test respectively. Additionally, porosity was determined using the mercury porosimetry method in order to compare the pore size distribution of the biochars with their hydrologic properties. Biochars produced from different feedstock biomass under different production conditions varied in their hydrologic behavior and influenced soil?s hydrologic properties differently when added to it. The study demonstrates water retention increases in a sandy soil after addition of 2, 5 and 7 weight % biochar (20, 50, and 70 t ha-1 respectively).

Factors influencing girl-child academic performance in selected secondary schools in Kinango district Kwale county, Kenya

Author: Ikua, Aurelia Njeri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kinango District/Gender/Secondary school students/Enrollments/Girls/Academic achievement/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This research project was conceived as a result of observing disparity between the girls' education performance as compared to boys and the fact that there is gender discrimination in our society where the girl child is segregated against the boy child. It therefore sought to study 'factors influencing girl-child academic performance in secondary schools in Kinango District Kwale, County.' The data for the study was sourced from the DEOs office Kinango which clearly indicated that there is both low enrollment and poor performance for girls against the boys since 2007-2010. The disparity in performance was found to be 1 point with the girls lagging behind and the gap increasing each year. The historical background of the study adopting conceptual and theoretical framework, the problem statement, objectives of the study, research questions and hypothesis of the study and the purpose of the study were first carried out. The literature showed gender inequality in education has widely been acknowledged with the girl child lagging behind in academic performance as a result of many factors among them cultural factors, irresponsible sexual behaviour and harassments, lack of role models, overburdening them with household chores and the distance that they make to school. These were found to be embedded by the fact that our society is male dominated and roles are allocated on the basis of gender. The study sought to establish if academic performance is influenced by cultural beliefs discriminating the girl child, domestic chores assigned to the girl child, role models, sexual behavior of the girl and sexual harassments and school quality and location . A descriptive survey of quantitive and qualitative data was the most appropriate in collecting in-depth information using questionnaires and interview instruments. Prerequisite information to note the problem was gotten from the DEO's office. This included an analysis of KCSE results from schools that participated in the last five years, their enrollments data in terms of gender in order to get the population. Permission to collect data was sought from the principals of the schools by way of letter of transmittal. Questionnaires were then dropped in the sampled schools after prior arrangements with the principal. They were then filled by the students and the principals of the schools and collected at a later date. The DEO as Education Policies implementer was interviewed through visitation after prior arrangements were made to meet him and information was collected using notes taking technique. It was then coded and analyzed using SPSS and percentages got to determine how the factors that were studied affect performance of the girl child. The hypothesis of the study was also tested using chi square inference analysis technique. The findings were that the girl child's academic performance in Kinango is influenced by culture, domestic chores, role models, sexual harassments and distance. The conclusion was that poor academic performance was a matter of concern and needed to be looked into by all stakeholders. The study therefore recommended that community should be educated on the importance of the girl child, the government to put all the girls in a boarding school at subsidized fee to reduce the distance they make to and fro; lessen their involvement in domestic chores and reduce cases of sexual harassments on the way, separate girls' and boys' schools, post more female teachers and promote them into leadership positions and strengthen the guidance and counseling in schools. It also gave suggestions for further research on the factors determining the girl child secondary school enrollment in the region, a study into gender disparity of the teachers in the area, social economic factors influencing boys and girls performance in the region and finally a replication of the study in another district in the region. '

Institutional factors influencing head teachers' instructional supervision practices in secondary schools in Mandera East district, Kenya

Author: Issa, Yarrow Abdille

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Secondary schools/Mandera East District/Educators/School administration/Supervision/Teaching ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the institutional factors influencing head teachers' instructional supervision practices in secondary schools in Mandera East District. The objectives were (1) To establish the extent to which work load affects the instructional supervision of the head teachers in Mandera East District; (2) To investigate the extent to which the work environment affects the instructional supervision of the head teachers in Mandera East District; (3) To examine the extent to which the adequacy of teaching staff affects the instructional supervision of the head teachers in ManderaEast District; (4) To find out the extent to which effective communication affects the head teacher's instructional supervision in Mandera East District; (5) To determine the extent to which support from the quality assurance officers affects the instructional supervision of the head teachers in Mandera East District. A sample size of sixty respondents consisting of ten head teachers was drawn from the target population of 177. The findings indicate that workload of the head teachers affected their position to a great extent with a Likert mean scale rating of 4.3443. The ability of the head teacher to integrate with other subsystems with a mean Likert scale rating of 4.066. On the work environment, the study established that 50% of the schools were well equipped. On the adequacy of the teaching staff, the study established that the schools were well staffed with teacher - student ratio of 1 :4. It was also found that there was mutual communication between head teachers and teachers with only 10% as having problems with communication systems. Further, the study also found that QASO never visited schools with 80%. of the teachers indicating that they never saw QASO officers in the schools. The study adopted a descriptive survey design approach whereby the process entailed data collection to answer questions concerning the current status in schools with the aim of determining the institutional factors affecting the instructional supervision of the head teachers in Mandera East District. The study recommends that (a) the DEOs need to address the issues of understaffing of the physics subject since it is one of the key subjects is that used to determine their qualification for colleges after the secondary school education and it is important for industrialization towards vision 2030; (b) the stake holders in the school enhance the environments in the school to further act as the head teachers motivator in promoting performance of the schools; (c) since the communication systems within the schools are used to convey information in a manner that promotes cohesion and interaction, the head teacher should strive to establish proper communication strategies and encourages communication channels that promote conducive environment and constructive criticism, (d) finally the Ministry of Education should formulate a frame work that would ensure that the QASOs frequently visit schools so as to ensure that the policies and regulations are implemented as expected. Through these visits they will be in a position to assist the head teachers in dealing with matters arising in schools on time.

A case-control study of environmental and behavioural risk factors associated with multiple parasitic infections in Western Kenya

Author: Juma, Elijah Omondi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Parasites/Zoonoses/Epidemiology/Western Province/Busia, Kenya/Lake Victoria, Kenya/Health risk assessment/ ;

Abstract:

Many rural African villages are characterized by high prevalence of endemic parasitic diseases with cases of multiple parasite infections often too being common. This study was conducted in the Western Province of Kenya within a 45 km radius from Busia town, falling within the Lake Victoria Crescent Zone. The study aimed at determining whether there was a relationship between contact with particular environmental features, or specific human social behaviour and the risk of infection with multiple parasitic diseases. The sample frame for this nested case-control study comprised the 467 individuals randomly selected and sampled from this study site as part of a larger, on-going, cross-sectional study. The participants had been screened for a variety of zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases and questionnaires administered to obtain information on specific aspects of their social behaviour. From the sample frame, 24 subjects with multiple parasitic infections defined as cases, were randomly selected and matched for age and sex with 24 other individuals who had one or no infection, herein defined as controls. Cases and controls were followed to their daily activity points using a GPS waypoint data of the activity points mapped. The study revealed high prevalence of parasitic infections. The infections co-occurred spatially within the same geographic setting with cases of sampled individuals bearing multiple infections at anyone time being common. Cases and controls displayed a relatively homogeneous social behaviour and visited nearly the same activity points. Conditional logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant difference between cases and controls with respect to any difference in their social behaviour and . interaction with potentially risky environments and thus perceived odds of acquiring parasitic infections. These findings are an initial step to further research into the dynamics of human-environment-parasite interaction in an environment where parasitic infections are co-endemic. The findings will also be vital in helping design long-term strategies for control.

E-waste management framework for Kenyan universities

Author: Itere, Benson Maina

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Electronics/Waste disposal/Hazardous substances/Colleges and universities ;

Abstract:

Electricals and electronic industry is one of the fastest growing industries which is largely due to technological advancement. This has resulted to computers and other related equipment becoming obsolete with a very short period of just few years. According to Rachna (2008) the rise of information society, increased affordability of new product and technological achievements which make it easy to purchase a new electronic equipment rather than repairing or upgrading old products, have all led to increase in the amount of e-waste materials produced. The biggest concern with e-waste materials is the presence of toxic materials such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, PVC containing plastics, printer cartridge inks and toners that pose significant health and environmental risks when end-of-life equipment are disposed of. Most of the Universities in the country do not have an e-waste management guideline despite being among the highest consumers of electrical and electronic equipment. In carrying out the study, the researcher studied both public and private Universities that are within the Nairobi environs. For every University, two categories of questionnaires were administered; one to the head ofICT and the other for the general staff. The study established that, the amount of e-waste generated by Kenya Universities is increasing at a rate of more than 100% per annum due to the continued increase in the use of computers and other related equipment. However, about 40% of the e-waste generated remains in stores for years before disposal due to lack of proper e-waste management systems. It was also revealed that, sale of e-waste material as second hand to individuals and other organizations was the most preferred disposal pathway followed by donation to other needy organizations. Conclusively, we recommended that, both the Universities and electronic and electrical equipment suppliers to create more awareness and disseminate information on the dangers associated with improper handling of e-waste materials and on the available disposal options. Another recommendation we made was on the Universities to establish more collaborations, alliances and partnerships with other stakeholders to facilitate and allow knowledge and ideas to be shared in order to ensure that, the more appropriate decisions are being made when managing e-waste materials.

Factors that influnce the dropout of boys in public primary schools in Kenya, case of Kakamega Central district

Author: Inganga, Irene

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kakamega Central District/School dropouts/Boys/Primary school students/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

School dropout is a serious issue resulting from various causes. There is overwhelming statistics that higher number of boys is dropping out of school as compared to the girls. The underlying causes of dropout remains obscured and that is why this study sought to investigate the factors that influence dropout of boys in public primary schools. The general objective for this study is to investigate factors that influence boys' dropout in Kakamega Central District. The study was guided by the following specific objectives; to assess the extent to which school related factors, family economical background and environmental factors influences dropout rate of boys in public primary schools. The study employed descriptive survey design. The boys who dropped but came back to school were established through the school records such as class registers and the admission book. The current record from EMIS indicated that 2540 boys had dropped out but came back to school. From this population 104 boys were selected both from schools and out of school to participate in the study. Schools were selected proportionally by simple random sampling. Simple Random Sampling was also used on the 88 sampled schools to select the head teachers in Kakamega Central District. The head teachers, pupils and parents were the respondents for this study. Purposive sampling used to select school dropouts who not presently in school to be respondents. Purposive sampling is one that is selected in a deliberative and non random fashion to achieve a certain goal. The main instruments for data collection were questionnaires, interview schedules and school records. Data collected was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through descriptive statistics. Validity of the instruments was checked by consultation from my supervisor from the School of Continuing and Distance Education. Reliability will be measured by test-retest technique. Operational definition of variables was used to guide in data analysis. The family background that had an immense influence on boys drop out were parents socio-economic status which include; family income, occupation, literacy level, family size and poverty. The study established that school related factors that causing dropout of boys were poor academic performance, teachers attitude, too much work in school and failure to pay school extra levies. Repeating of classes also discouraged pupils and had to drop out of school. Activities within the surrounding of the school and home were found to attract boys into cheap labor jobs. Most of the findings indicated that they chose to be out of school to create income in order to subsidize their parents' low income. The study recommends that the school head teachers should avoid forcing children to repeat classes unless they so wish. Repeated examinations should not be used as a means to sieve those who do not perform well instead they should be counseled to improve their performance. In this study the government was called upon to give a guideline on the extra levies charged in schools in order to curb the dropout of boys from schools. The community should be sensitized through the ministry of education on the importance of education. The study also recommends that the government to come with a law on age that should be allowed to ride bicycles and motor cycles as a business mean. As a basis for further research, the study should be conducted in the in the whole country to have an overview of the nation and apply the present findings.