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Author: Flavia, Namagembe

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Biochar ; Sugarcane ; Saccharum officinarum ; Bamboo ; Arundinaria alpina ; Soils ;

Abstract:

The economies of the three East African region (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania), which is the region of interest in this study still rely largely on rainfed agriculture accounting to approximately 80% of the total agricultural production. With the increasing threats from climate variability, the region is prone to extreme conditions of drought and floods. Inadequate soil moisture and low soil fertility have been the challenges facing rainfed agriculture in the region and several approaches have been employed to help manage agricultural water sustainably. Previous studies indicate that incorporation of biochar into sandy soil improves its water retention capacity. This study demonstrates how addition of biochar produced from different feedstock biomass of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn) trash and bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) leaves and branches, all obtained from the region using both the laboratory controlled equipment at 350 oC, 450 oC and 550 oC and a traditional stove, to sandy soil has the potential improve the soil?s water holding capacity. This way, biochar can thus play a significant role in water management in agriculture in the East African region with the aim of reducing agricultural input and maximizing crop yields. For the traditional stove, it was difficult to control the temperature while producing the biochar but the highest steady temperature reached during production was recorded. The hydrologic properties including water holding capacity and hydrophobicity of sandy soil, biochars and soil-biochar mixtures were measured using the gravimetric method and the molarity of ethanol drop test respectively. Additionally, porosity was determined using the mercury porosimetry method in order to compare the pore size distribution of the biochars with their hydrologic properties. Biochars produced from different feedstock biomass under different production conditions varied in their hydrologic behavior and influenced soil?s hydrologic properties differently when added to it. The study demonstrates water retention increases in a sandy soil after addition of 2, 5 and 7 weight % biochar (20, 50, and 70 t ha-1 respectively).

Author: Gathumbi, Jason Kimotho

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kirinyaga South District ; Pesticides ; Environmental conditions ; Health hazards ; Soils ; Fish ; Food contamination and poisoning ;

Abstract:

Exposure to pesticides, heavy metals and other chemical residues poses health risk to human beings and farm animals. This may occur directly or indirectly especially during pesticide application by farmers when carrying out various agricultural activities. This study was therefore carried out in Kirinyaga South district with an overall objective of identifying factors that are associated with potential exposure of farmers and farm workers to commonly used pesticides and determining levels of copper, lead and organochlorine pesticide residues in fish and soil sediments. Information was gathered from one hundred and fifty two (152) farmers and farm workers on the extent of possible exposure to pesticides. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires, on some agricultural practices that may lead to exposure of human to pesticides. The levels of copper, lead and organochlorine residues were determined in tilapia, catfish and soil sediments which were sampled during the months of December 2009 and May 2010 from Thiba and Nyamindi Rivers and the Canal joining the two rivers. The concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in each sample was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The types and quantities of organochlorines were determined using Gas Liquid Chromatography technique. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to tests level of significance at 95% confidence limit using Statistical Package for Social Scientists Statistics 17.0 version. The results showed that commonly used pesticides belonged to chemical groups of organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, Ivermectin, amitraz, strobilurin and neonicotinoid. The biological pesticide used was Bacillus thurigiensis. Farmers who reported having been trained on handling of the pesticides were 13.8%. Majority (85%) of the farmers kept farm chemicals in a store away from the living house. Use of Personal Protection Equipment was reported by 49.3% of the farmers. Types of Personal Protection Equipment used by famers included gumboots, coats and jackets 19.1 %, gumboots and overall 17.1 % and gumboots, overall and facial masks 8.55%. Disposal methods of empty pesticide containers were burning 27.6%, burying 16.5%, and both burning and burying 37.5%. A total of twenty nine (29) health effects were reported, where itchy skin accounted for 20.8 %, runny nose 13.1 %, eye problems 9.8% and dry throat 9.3 %. The mean concentration oflead in tilapia was 5.61?1.81 ppm ranging from 2.50 to 9.66 ppm and in catfish was 5.64?1.79 ppm ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 ppm. The mean concentration of copper in tilapia was 8.28?8.87 ppm, ranging from 0.50 to 33.33 ppm and in catfish was 3.63?5.20 ppm, ranging from 0.50 to 25.66 ppm. The mean concentration for copper was significantly different (p <0.05) between tilapia and cat fish such that tilapia had significantly high levels. Concentration of copper was also significantly different (p <0.05) between the sampling months of December and May such that December had significantly high levels. The mean concentration oflead in soil sediment was 18.73?9.59 ppm ranging from 6.80 to 66.40 ppm. The mean concentration of copper in soil sediment was 19.26?5.75 ppm ranging from 11.20 to 34.40 ppm. Soil sediment from Thiba River had the highest amount of lead, 66.40 ppm while the lowest level of 6.80 ppm was from Nyamindi River. The Canal soil sediment had the highest amount of copper, 34.40 ppm and the lowest level of 11.20 ppm was from Nyamindi river. The mean level of copper was significantly different (p <0.05) between the sampling sites such that the canal had significantly high levels. In the analysis of organochlorines in fish samples, p,p'DDE was the only detected organochlorine in 38% of the samples. The mean p,p'DDE concentration in fish from Nyamindi river was 16.9 ?5.4Jlglg ranging from 9.1 to 21.6 ug/g while that in Thiba river was 24.1? 11.48 j.lg/g ranging from 10.3 to 50 Jl

Author: Aller, Deborah

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Biochar ; Evironmental degradation ; Soils ; Eichhornia crassipes ; Prosopis juliflora ; Northern Kenya ;

Abstract:

Environmental degradation, agricultural productivity, food security, fresh water scarcity, and the adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are all significant concerns of the 21st century. Biochar is a highly porous, carbon rich material which is a natural soil amendment being investigated to address these current issues. Expanding agricultural production into dryland environments where sandy soils dominate is highly likely to be of great importance for ensuring future global food security, as population and food demands continue to increase. Sandy soils have little ability to store water, making food production difficult and crop yields an unreliable source of food and income for inhabitants living in these environments. This study looked at the water holding capacity (WHC) and hydrophobicity of Eichhornia crassipes and Prosopis juliflora for use as biochar, to potentially enhance soil moisture storage and thus agricultural productivity, with a particular focus on arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and northern Kenya. Both are invasive species found in Kenya which was the reason for their selection for use in this study. Biochar was produced at 350?C, 450?C, and 550?C in a Carbolite furnace and also in a Sampada gasification stove, to mimic traditional kiln char production. Biochar WHC was examined at mixtures of 2%, 5%, and 7%, corresponding to a field application rate of roughly 20 t ha-1, 50 t ha-1, and 70 t ha-1, respectively. Results demonstrated that both biochars increase soil WHC the greatest at a 7% application rate. The greatest hydrophobicity values were apparent at 350?C, with E. crassipes the more hydrophobic of the two. Mercury porosimetry analysis, which compares various characteristics of the pore space in relation to physical properties of the biochar, is consistent with the WHC data, revealing that as the total intruded volume increases the water holding capacity increases. Overall E. crassipes and P. juliflora show potential for use as biochar, but P. juliflora with its greater lignin content, is likely the better choice.

Author: Uduogu, Austin O Denis

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tillage/Rangelands/Soils/Plant reproduction/Insects/Isinya District/ ;

Abstract:

Anthropogenic perturbations have varying short and long terms effects on structure and function of an ecosystem. How and the extent to which irrigated tillage and crop rotation affect agricultural beneficial belowground microorganisms as well as above ground structure in cultivated tropical rangelands are not adequately understood. This knowledge is key to efficient ecosystem management through land reclamation or restoration, in addition to providing understanding for affordable and environmentally benign means for soil fertility replenishment. The study explored how the introduction of irrigated legumebased rotational cropping system impacts on soil assemblages of rhizobia, insect species richness and abundance, as well as soil seed bank density and composition in a managed rangeland. The study involved three independent but related experiments comprising field activities and laboratory procedures carried out between January and December 2011. The fieldwork was carried out at three agro-pastoral farms and their adjacent natural grasslands located within the range unit of Isinya District, Kajiado County. The location is about 70 km south of the Kenya capital, Nairobi. Soil samples were systematically taken from experimental blocks to assess rhizobia assemblage and seed bank composition. The Most Probable Number plant infection method (MPN) was used to compare rhizobia assemblages between the natural range and cultivated plots under different crop rotation regimes. Seed bank assessment was carried out using the seedling germination method. Sweep nets and water traps were used to sample insets population during the dry and wet seasons. Multiple diversity indices were calculated to understand the effects of cover type on insect visitation. Rhizobia population was found to vary between disturbed and undisturbed range sites, and the degree of differences significantly depended on cover crops and rotation regimes. This suggested that in soils containing significant amounts of rhizobia, the necessity of inoculating legumes seeds with the bacteria innoculum prior to planting diminishes with repeated precropping of compatible grain legumes. Secondly, with respect to the insect assessment, higher taxonomic diversity of pollinators was found in the French bean plots compared to the natural grasslands. The dominant pollinators were of the Apidae family (bees). However, majority of the pollinators found in the unmanaged range were absent in the cultivated areas including the French bean plot. Many other arthropods found in the adjacent grassland were absent in the cultivated plots. This showed that although monocrops of nectar rich legumes provided habitat resources for some pollinators, the cultivation of the range was detrimental to many others insects that dot not derive direct benefit from agricultural crops. The study also found that tillage was both a sink and a pool of seed bank. Tillage was detrimental to natural seeds because it entailed soil turning, which brought deep buried propaules closer to the surface where condition was favorable for their germination, only for germinants to be destroyed and wasted as weed. At the same time it caused seeds of agriculture associated plants to be buried in the soil thereby changing the seed bank composition over time. The most resilient natural seeds included those of Crotalaria sp and Trifolium sp, which belong to the pea family known for their affinity for pollinators and ability to colonize rhizobia. Tillage is likely to engineer structural composition of abandoned agricultural fields within East African rangelands.

Author: Otwoma, David

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Radioactivity ; Environmental impact ; Radiation ; Radioactive materials ; Carbon ; Stone ; Soils ; Homa Mountain, Kenya ; Nyanza Province ; Babies ; Teenagers ;

Abstract:

The level of radiation due to the naturally occurring radioactive materials was investigated and the radiological hazard was calculated for Homa Mountain located at the intersection of longitude 330 26' E and 340 34; E latitude 00 30' N and 00 20'N in southwestern Kenya. The absorbed dose rate in air at 1 meter above the ground was measured using calibrated hand held survey meters that could be coupled to sodium iodide (NaI) radiation detector. The measured mean dose rate of 474.1 nSv h-I translated to annual dose due to external radioactivity of 4.15 mSv y-I. The radioactivity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in rock and soil samples were measured using gamma ray spectroscopy from two different institutions for comparison purposes of accuracy and precision. The cumulative mean activity concentrations obtained were 915.6, 195.3 and 409.5 Bq kg-I of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. The calculated mean absorbed dose rate was 383.33 nGy h-I; the radium equivalent activity mean was 838.6 Bq kg+; the representative level index mean value was 5.93; the gamma activity index mean value was 2.96; the external hazard index mean was 2.26 and the internal hazard index mean was 2.77. It was observed that the pattern of high values of the radiological indices follows that of the corresponding activity concentrations. These indices are important parameters for the radiological protection of the population since soils are used for making earthen huts and pottery while bricks and rocks for building human habitations. The resultant total effective dose (TED) equivalent was 5.03 mSv Y' 1. Using RESRAD software program, the impact of these naturally occurring radioactive materials on the environment was evaluated for different age sets of the population and the results showed that infants and teenagers receive more effective doses than other segments of the populations. The RESRAD code enabled modeling of 40K, 232Th and 238U environmental pathways. This led to exposure pathways of external radiation, inhalation and ingestion resulting in total effective dose equivalent to exposed individuals estimated as 4.93 mSv y-I. The excellent correlation of similar TED derived from the different measurements and modeling methodologies increased the certainty of the conclusions arrived at for the work done. The Homa Mountain study has established data on radiation dose to the population and qualifies the region as a high background radiation area due to dominance of carbonatite rocks. Investigations of the health hazards of radiation and the impacts of high levels of background radiation on the local inhabitants can be done in future epidemiological studies. The exploration of the possible economic benefits that can be derived from the minerals associated with carbonatite deposits, Rare Earth Elements and Thorium is open for consideration.

Author: Mashedi, Peter Shigoli

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Antibiotics ; Drug resistance ; Bacteria ; Soils ; Nairobi Kenya ; Proteus salmonicida ;

Abstract:

Soil is able to contain enteric bacteria and other pathogens in great concentrations, as it is normally a recipient of solid and liquid waste materials frequently. Recent studies elicit that soil may have a greater role in the transmission of enteric diseases than previously expected, even though its role as a reservoir of certain bacterial pathogens is not in doubt. Enteric bacteria are responsible for causing most gastrointestinal infections, for example salmouellosis, dysentery, typhoid fever and other infections caused by Yersinia sp. and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and many other strains. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of enteric bacteria from various soil samples collected around Nairobi, and to compare their drug susceptibility profile with those from clinical samples. The soil samples were collected from various locations in Nairobi within a radius of 30km from Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Microbiology Research in Nairobi, with their Global Position System CGPS) location recorded down, then transported to the laboratory. Ten grams of each of the soil samples were serially diluted then plated on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 30?C overnight, the colonies were Gram stained and the Gram-negative colonies inoculated on Analytic Profile Index kit (API 20E) for further identification. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done using Disc Diffusion method and then compared with clinical isolates. Out of the soil samples (n=236) inoculated onto Mueller- Hinton agar, 17 were positive for Proteus salmonicida, which represents a prevalence of 7.2% of enteric bacteria in the soil. The other isolated Gram negative bacteria were Myroides spp, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophila and Alcaligenes spp. Proteus salmonicida showed a higher sensitivity to the antibiotics compared to the clinical Proteus except for Cefotaxime antibiotic which was resistant to it. In conclusion, soil may be a significant a reservoir for the enteric bacteria contributing to antibiotic resistance as indicated by Proteus salmonicida with resistance to Cefotaxime antibiotic, compared to Proteus species from the clinical sources which was sensitive to the same antibiotic.

Author: Madadi, Vincent Odongo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pesticides ; Phosphorus ; Sediments ; Soils ; Water ; Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya ;

Abstract:

1890 field samples comprising of 630 sediments, 630 soils and 630 later samples were collected quarterly over a period of 21 months covering the wet, dry and short rain seasons experienced in Lake Victoria Basin. Sampling sites covered lakeshores, river mouths and effluent discharge points. Physico-chemical parameters, total reactive phosphorus, total hydrolysable phosphorus, total phosphorus and pesticides residues were analysed in water, sediment exchangeable phosphorus and sediment bio-available phosphorus were analysed in sediments, whereas available phosphorus was measured in soil. Pesticides residues were analysed in all the three matrices. Most of the water samples from both the rivers and the lake were found to contain phosphorus levels higher than the recommended guidelines for aquatic life indicating the influence of anthropogenic sources, whereas soils contained 10 to 100 times higher concentrations than sediments and water. The total phosphorus in water samples had mean concentrations of 4.61, 3.43, 2.45 and 2.30 mg/l for wet, short rain and dry seasons 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the total reactive phosphorus had mean concentrations of 2.22, 2.08, 1.12 and 1.61 mgll for the same seasons. Sediment bio-available phosphorus was higher than exchangeable phosphorus, with the highest mean concentrations of 24.45 and 8.22 mg/kg obtained during the dry season and wet season, respectively. The mean concentrations of soil available phosphorus ranged between 639 and 1,076 mglkg. The high levels of phosphorus measured In sediments signified accumulation of phosphorus over time. Therefore, through exchange processes, the trapped phosphorus could continue to replenish the fraction in the water column over a longer period . The concentration of pesticide residues varied from one season to the other in all the matrices analysed. Sediments contained the highest levels followed by soil and water. However, there was no clear temporal trend in terms of reduction of pesticide levels in the samples. This was attributed to the diffused nature of the source of pesticides in the catchment. The most dominant pesticides in the lake basin were p,p'-DDT, endrinaldehyde, P-HCH, dieldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor, 8-HCH, y-HCH and endrin. Studies of pesticides fate in the catchment revealed a strong influence of soil organic carbon and other physico-chemical properties such as texture, pH and minerals composition, whereas calculation of phosphorus loading revealed that the contribution of phosphorus from the drainage basin into Lake Victoria is higher than the figures reported in the previous studies.

Author: Githae, Eunice Wamuyu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Acacia senegal ; Trees ; Agroforestry ; Soils ; Arid and semi-arid regions ;

Abstract:

Acacia senegal is a dryland multipurpose tree species highly valued for gum Arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control. The aim of this study was to investigate the edaphic and genetic factors that affect distribution of the three Kenyan indigenous varieties (A. senegal var. senegal, var. kerensis and var. leiorhaehis) for the purpose of conservation of genetic resources and improvement of smallholder livelihoods in the drylands of Kenya. In the first part of research, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast micro satellites (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal (Kajiado, Magadi, Kibwezi, Ntumburi, Ngarendare, Daaba and Kulamawe) embracing the three putative varieties. In the second part, soil physicochemical properties were assessed by collecting soil samples under the canopies of the three varieties taking into account distance from the trunks (0, 1 and 2 m) at a depth of 0 - 25 em and comparing with the soils from the open canopies. The third part estimated the potential of the three varieties to fix nitrogen in their natural ecosystems using 15N natural abundance method using two reference species namely; Balanites aegyptiaea and Commiphora africana. The study was conducted in the arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. The two molecular markers detected similar levels of Nei's gene diversity (HISSR= 0.211, HcpSSR= 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOV A) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P<O.OOl and P<O.Ol for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively), whereby the seven sites were differentiated into two regions (north and south). There were significant differences in soil 'Qa,,:{sicocaemica. 'Q'to'Qerties aro.o~ the tmee varieties (f<O.05 and P<O.Ol). Soil nutrients under the canopies were higher than in the open canopies mainly due to the effects of litter accumulation. The estimated nitrogen fixed (%Ndfa) values for the three varieties ranged from 18.20 - 32.21% with A. senegal var. senegal showing the highest values. The mean nitrogen content in leaves ranged from 2.46 - 4.0% and were higher than those of the adjacent non-fixing reference species. The results indicate that there is genetic diversity and variation among and within the three indigenous varieties of A. senegal in Kenya, which can provide raw materials for tree improvement programmes. The three A. senegal varieties have beneficial effects on soil fertility improvement and this would most likely enhance herbage productivity both in quality and quantity in the Kenyan drylands. Domestication and improvement will enhance conservation and sustainable utilization of the species, improve productivity and quality of gum and hence directly empower the drylands communities who are key collectors of gum and other forest products.

Author: Kinyanjui, Samuel Njoroge

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MES

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Central highlands, Kenya/Fertilizers/Soils/Carbon ;

Abstract:

The maintenance of proper levels of soil organic matter (SOM) has been advocated as one of the main ways of combating soil fertility decline in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). SOM levels can be increased through increased aggregate formation as soil aggregates physically protect SOM, from its loss through decomposition. The objective of this study was to investigate how the amendment of soils of varying texture and fertility levels with fertilizer-N and organic resources affects aggregate formation and subsequent carbon (C) cycling in aggregates. The experiment was conducted in Embu and Machang' a areas of central Kenya and was based on a decomposition tube experiment that was set up in April 2005. This experiment aimed at complimenting long-term field trials started in 2002 to establish the effect of application of various combinations of organic plus mineral resources on soil nutrient status. The main variable comprised of fertilizer-N and organic resources, with the sub-treatment being soil fertility levels. Maize stover and urea fertilizer were mixed with 3.2 kg of soil and set up in decomposition tubes. The application rate was 4 ton per hectare and 120 kg per hectare for the maize stover and fertilizer respectively. Four treatments were established, namely; control (no organic resources or fertilizer-N added), sole fertilizer-N, sole stover and combined stover and fertilizer-N, with each treatment having three replicates. To determine changes in soil aggregates, soil samples obtained from the decomposition tubes were fractionated through wet sieving. SOM fractionation was also conducted to obtain the various SOM fractions. All aggregates and SOM fractions obtained were then oven dried, ground, and analyzed for C. All the data collected was analyzed with the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS and the means separated at p <0.05. Higher proportions of macroaggregates were observed for the Embu soils compared to the Machang'a ones. For both Embu and Machang'a soils, amendment of soils with sole or combined fertilizer-N and organic resources had a significant effect (p <0.05) on the proportions of all aggregate class sizes. Amendment of soils of varying fertility levels with sole or combined fertilizer-N and organic resources also had a significant effect on the distribution of SOM fractions for both Embu and Machang'a soils. Significant differences in whole soils, aggregates and SOM fractions percentage carbon levels were also observed. Overall, the silt and clay fraction had higher C levels compared to the other aggregate size classes indicating higher stabilization of C within this fraction. From the results obtained from this study, the use of combined organic and mineral resources is recommended for the improvement and maintenance of soil fertility in high fertility soils. In low fertility coarse textured soils, the sole application of organic resources is recommended for the improvement and maintenance of soil fertility.

Author: Kimaru, Wairimu Serah

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MES

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Central Highlands, Kenya/Soils/Fertility/Agricultural extension work ;

Abstract:

Increased recognition of soil fertility depletion as the main biophysical factor limiting crop production in many African small holder farms has renewed interest in the dissemination of soil fertility management (SFM) practices. Despite soil technology development and research outputs, few of the recommendations from soil fertility management research have been put into use by the targeted end users. Accessibility and utilization of the existing knowledge is inadequate due to the communication methods and tools used in dissemination and up scaling of soil fertility management practices. With this background, this study was set out with the following objectives; i) to investigate availability and reliability of sources on SFM for farmers, ii) to identify communication channels used by researchers and extension agents and iii) to determine socio- economic factors that influence preference of communication methods by farmers, in the Central highlands of Kenya. Questionnaires were used to collect information from 22 researchers and 105 extension workers. In order to determine the socio-economic factors influencing farmers' preferences of communication methods, individual household interviews were conducted where 240 randomly selected farmers were interviewed. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and Chi-square). Spearman correlation coefficient and logistic regressions were used to test the magnitude of the relationship between dependent and independent variables using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) programme. Results showed that farmers perceived other farmers as the most available and reliable source of information on SFM while radio were perceived as highly available but relatively unreliable by farmers. Demonstration, farmer 'to farmer extension and workshops/seminar were sequentially ranked as the first three methods preferred by the farmers. Majority of the researchers and extension officers frequently used field days and demonstration as methods of communicating to farmers on soil fertility management. Preference of demonstration by farmers in training on green manure was positively influenced by age (r=0.158, P=0.05) and number of non formal trainings (r=0.114, P=0.05) but negatively influenced by farm size (r=-0.132, P=0.05) and gender (r=-0.184, P=O.OI). Gender, education, number of non formal trainings attended, farm size and number of times a farmer had been visited by an extension agent were significant predictors in preference of field days in training on animal manure. Continued use of demonstration method was recommended as it was highly preferred by the farmers as well as considered effective by the extension agents and researchers. For effective dissemination of SFM, agricultural stakeholders should consider farmers' socio-economic characteristics while designing extension intervention strategies to be used in dissemination of soil fertility management practices. This is envisaged to increase adoption of SFM practices which will consequently lead to increased crop production and contribute to reduction of extreme poverty.