22207 Records out of 22207 Records
Author: Ngugi, Mathew Piero
Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya
Level : MSc
Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrinological disorder characterized by high blood levels of glucose due to insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas or improper utilization of insulin by target cells. Diabetes is associated with serious complications and premature death. In Kenya, it is estimated that 190,400 people in the 20-79 age group suffer from diabetes mellitus. There are two types of diabetes mellitus: type I or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and type II or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Other forms of diabetes mellitus include secondary diabetes and gestational diabetes. There is an increase in both type I and type II diabetes mellitus but there is a more pronounced increase in type II, which increases at a rate of about 6% annually. The major therapy option in diabetes mellitus is lifestyle management. Besides exercise, weight control and nutrition therapy, oral glucoselowering drugs and insulin injection are the conventional therapies for the disease. Since antiquity, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines. The objective of this study was to bioscreen aqueous extracts of 7 medicinal plants identified using ethnobotanical and pharmacological information gathered from traditional healers for antidiabetic activity and evaluate their safety. Antidiabetic activity was assessed by determining the glucose lowering effect on alloxan induced diabetic mice by intraperitoneally injecting aqueous extracts of these seven plants and toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract/kg body weight and histological sections of various organs. The concentration of various trace elements in the seven plant extracts were determined using EDXRF spectrometry and AAS. Of the seven bioscreened plants, only the aqueous leave extracts of Bidens pilosa, and Strychnos henningsii; root bark extracts of Aspilia pluriseta and Catha edulis and stem bark extracts of Erythrina abyssinica showed hypoglycaemic activity. Iron, zinc, lead, magnesium and chromium were present in all the seven plant extracts; copper was present in four plant extracts; nickel and manganese were present in two plant extracts and molybdenum present in only one plant extract. Of the seven plant extracts, one had free antraqunones, two had alkaloids, three had sterols and triterpenes, four had bound anthraquinones, five had saponins, six contained flavones, flavonols and chalcones and all the seven plants contained flavonoids and tannins. Both the trace elements and the phytochemicals accounted for the hypoglycaemic effects and toxicity of the plant extracts. Some of the plants were obviously toxic, others were mildly toxic while others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used traditionally for the management of diabetes mellitus. Their use in combination decreases incidences of toxicity
Author: Oburu, G Jagero
Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya
Level : MMed
Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;
INTRODUCTION Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures encountered all over the world, motor vehicles accident being the most common single cause. Closed reduction and cast immobilization has been regarded as the standard treatment for low energy tibial shaft fracture. This mode of treatment has proved to be generally successful and offers reliable healing without the risks seen in operative procedures. A subset of patients however have less than satisfactory outcome with this modality of treatment but literature remains ambiguous in identifying the fractures best managed operatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted looking at the conservative management of tibial shaft fractures. Patients were recruited from casualty or in the wards and consents' were taken if they satisfied the inclusion criteria. Patients were recruited from April 2005 to December 2005 and followed up to June 2006. Patients were classified as per the dynamism of injury, severity of soft tissue damage, geographical location of the fracture, fracture geometry and Gustilo classification. The extent of alignment, angulations and limb shortening of the fracture were determined. A cast of plaster was applied and the patients were followed up over a period of six months with repeated check x-rays and re evaluation of alignment, angulations, limb length, callus formation and time to union. RESULTS One hundred and seventy patients with 178 fractures, 154 (90.6%) male and 16 (9.4%) female patients were recruited. There were 108 (60.7%) fractures followed up. Most of the injuries were sustained from RTA, 116 (65.2%) cases. There was a mean time to union of 15.85 weeks and a union range of 4 to 38 weeks. There was a rate of union by 20 weeks of81.5%. There was a non union rate of 7.4%, a mal-union rate of 17.6% and delayed union rate of 11.1 %. The infection rate was 6.6%. The fracture geometry, alignment and angulations were the main causes of complications.
Author: Onneweer, Maarteen
Awarding University: Leiden University, Netherlands
Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;
ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE
Author: Obando, Joy Apiyo
Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya
Holding Libraries: Kenya Soil Survey Library ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;
Eroded sediments were collected from runoff plots on two slopes at Waruhiu Farmer's Training Centre, Githunguri, Kiambu district. Twelve experimental plots, six on 4% slope and six on the 24% slope were planted with four annual crops: maize, beans, maize and beans intercrop and Irish potatoes. In addition, two control plots, one bare and one with 100% grass cover were used on each slope. Hydrometer analyses of particle size distribution of eroded sediment as well as that of the surface soi~ at the beginning and end of the study period were carried out in both undispersed and dispersed forms. The main objectives of this study were: (i) To examine the influence of rainfall and vegetation cover on particle size distribution of the eroded sediments. (ii) To determine and compare some physical characteristics of the eroded sediments with those of the surface soil at the beginning and at the end of the study period. (iii) To determine whether the aggregate size distribution of eroded sediments changes throughout a rainfall season. Correlation analyses were performed to ex~ine the re1ation- ships between the percent fine particle sized material in the eroded sediment and each of the following variables: rainfall amount, maximum thirty minute intensity (MI30),product of rainfall and thirty minute intensity (AI30), and vegetation cover. The proportion of aggregates, organic matter content, dispersion ratios, clay ratios and flocculation indices of the eroded sediment and surface soil were determined and compared for the two slopes. The findings from this study were as follows:- 1. Sediment sizes were affected only slightly by rainfall amount and intensity factors (M1SO and AI30). The relative percent of fine par t Lc.Le sized material eroded decreased as the rainfall intensity and rainfall amount increased. 2. Sediment sizes were affected by vegetation cover. Vegetation cover was shown to be postively correlated with the fine particle sized material in the eroded sediment. An increase in cover resulted in an increase in the relative amount of percent fines eroded. The soil loss and runoff were also shown to be reduced with increasing cover on- the gentle slope (4%). 3. Much of the sediment eroded from all P~9ts (except grass) was in the form of aggregates, and som~ of these aggregates were larger in size (>50 pm) than the primary particles of which the soil was composed. In general, the eroded sediment consisted of a higher percentage of finer ?50 fm) particle sized material than the original surface soil though the differences were very small for both slopes and plots. 4.A general reduction occurred in the percentage of aggregates from the soil that resist breakdown, demonstrating a weakening of the soil structure. The dispersion ratio, clay ratio and flocculation indices of the soil indicated a reduction in the stability of the soil resulting from cultivation and losses of fine soil particles and nutrients. The relationships obtained illustrate that sediment size distribution were affected by rainfall and cover, and suggest that size distribution studies should be undertaken in the form in which sediment is eroded as well as after dispersal. Additional research would yield more meaningful results on these characteristics of sediment for different soils, slopes, rainfall factors, vegetation cover and type of tillage.
Author: Ondabu, Naftal
Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya
Level : PhD
Holding Libraries: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ;
(Lablab (Lablab purpureus(L)) commonly known as lablab bean is a multipurpose legume species native to Asia. It was introduced to Africa from South East in the eight century. In Kenya, it is production in Kenya is limited by lack of adaptable varities in wide agro-ecological zones. Mainly grown by small scale farmers in Central, Eastern, Coast and Rift Valley. However, lablab in Kenya is limited by lack of adaptable varieties in wide agro-ecological zones. The Current varieties used by farmers are low in yield, varying maturity period, low resistance to and diseases and low tolerance to drought. Adaptable varieties are one of the most important precursors in variety development. The objectives of this study were to develop and select dolichos lab lab bean varieties adaptable to four areas in Kenya namely; Chepkoilel -Eldoret, KEMU-Meru, KARI-Lanet and KARI- Thika. The specific objectives included i. To develop breeding F 1 and F2 populations among 10 chosen parents with varying adaptable characters ii. To assess adaptability of F3 families in the four diverse Agro-ecological zones: . iii. To determine supenor characters among the screened F3 populations in the four respective sites. iv. To assess cooking time and nutritive profile of the selected F3 populations. In the first study of population development 10 parents were chosen and planted in the green house for crossing using diallel method subsequently the F 1 and F2 populations were developed. Each cross was identified by using different colors of threads. The F2 seed data was analysed using Genstat Version 10.0 for seed yield differences (at p:S 0.05) . The fourteen (14) families were assessed for seed emergence, days to maturity, plant height, seed . weight of 100 seeds and seed yield per plant. Each character was assessed separately and analysis variance (ANOVA) of these characters using Genstat Version 10.0. Results indicated that F3 crosses G3, W7, 06, P4, MI, LG 1, Gland G2 appear to have and data entered in a data sheet potential for high performance in the four sites. However W7, G2 and LG 1 had excellent performance in all the sites. The genetic variance for seed yield, emergence days, days to flowering, days to maturity and pod number per plant was large while genotype was smaIl. This is a broad sense is indicative of high heritability is lablab bean. In conclusion crosses W7 and LG 1 are recommended as potential new varieties.
Author: Mobegi, Victor Atunga
Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya
Level : MSc
Holding Libraries: International Livestock Research Institute Library ;
Knowledge of the genetic diversity is a prerequisite for better utilization of any genetic resource. However, such information is lacking for the indigenous African chicken. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement (Dj-Ioop sequences were used to study the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships between domestic chicken populations and/or breeds of Africa. A total of 398 individuals belonging to 28 populations were sampled from 12 African countries. The hypervariable 1 (HV1) segment of the D-Ioop was peR amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. Fifty-two haplotypes were identified from 50 polymorphic sites with polymorphism between nucleotides 167 and 397 contributing to 96% of the sequence variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the haplotypes indicates that African domestic chicken mtDNA can be grouped into six distinct maternal lineages with one to four lineages observed in each population. One of the haplotypes (represented by Bur60) is shared by all populations except Malawi, suggesting that these populations may share the same maternal ancestor. The phylogenetic relationships between populations show a close relationship between Kenya, Malawi, and three Botswana populations (Malolwane, Semitwe and Motokwe). Genetic variations within populations and between populations accounts for 64.8 and 35.2% of the total genetic variation, respectively. Network analysis shows a star-like population structure which suggests a rapid population expansion from a small number of founding ancestors. These results show a high mitochondrial D-Ioop diversity in African chicken and indicate multiple maternal origins for African domestic chicken.