51 Records out of 22207 Records

Nation, race and politics amongst the South Asian diaspora : from colonial Kenya to multicultural Britain

Author: Aiyar, Sana

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: History ; Race relations ; Colonialism ; Politics ; Multiculturalism and pluralism ;

Abstract:

This dissertation traces the political history of Indians in colonial Kenya. It explores the diasporic subjectivity of these migrants who mediated between constructions of racial and national identity in the public political realm that they shared with Europeans and Africans in Kenya from c.1920 to 1968. The political orientation of the Indian diaspora created a triangular realm between Kenya, India and Britain which are brought into one analytical paradigm. I study various constructions of the ambivalent and changing political imaginary of the Indian diaspora that straddled and negotiated between these three milieus. This dissertation looks at the diasporic nationalism of Indians to interrogate the nature of the sub-imperialist impulse of the first generation of Indian political agitators in Kenya who protested against the privileges bestowed upon the European settlers. It explores the contours of the economic colonial structure that rendered a 'middle-man' status to the Indians, and uncovers the implications of this stereotype in the political realm--especially as colonial structural limitations circumscribed the possibilities of political collaboration between Indians and Africans. It analyses the relationship between Indian nationalism emanating from the Indian subcontinent and the diaspora in Kenya to show how the universalizing aspirations of anti-colonial nationalism crossed the Indian Ocean and opened up the space for the integration of diasporic Indian nationalism into the political sphere in Kenya. It unravels the articulations of Kenyan nationalism by the Indian diaspora whose relationship with the Africans was defined by cooperation against the European settlers, ambivalence with regard to anti-colonial territorial nationalism and racialized competition within the economic realm. Finally it traces the rise of African majoritarianism and the institutionalization of British multiculturalism resulting from the Indian exodus out of Kenya and into Britain in 1967-68. Throughout this dissertation I argue that between 1920-1968 the Indian diaspora in Kenya transcended the boundaries of race and nation without effacing them, challenging along its way the political limitations of territorially-bounded and racially-defined nationalism. In doing so, I underscore the importance of examining the implications of diasporic subjectivity, historicizing the interplay between diaspora and nationalism and exploring the relationship between diaspora and its homeland.

Changing Kamba, making Kenya, c.1880-1964

Author: Osborne, Myles Gregory

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: History ; African history ; Kamba (African people) ; Ethnology ;

Abstract:

This dissertation analyzes the evolution of Kamba ethnicity between c. 1880 and 1964, and the contribution of the understudied Kamba to the making of colonial Kenya. By the time of the Second World War, British officials believed the Kamba to be one of the premier 'martial races' of Africa; but as demonstrated here, this was the result of a long process of ethnic formation, involving influence from factors as diverse as the environment, the colonial state, internal Kamba politics, and national and international events. This dissertation demonstrates that current scholarship which views the Kamba as 'traders' during the nineteenth century ignores the strong warrior traditions which Kamba possessed during the pre-colonial period, which they then expressed through service in the police and later the army under colonial rule. In 1938, Kamba leaders launched a unique protest against the government in opposition to its 'destocking' policy, which had resulted in the confiscation of thousands of Kamba cattle. As a result of this-and the importance of Kamba soldiers in the Second World War-the Kamba enjoyed a privileged relationship with the government. Thus following the war, Kamba chiefs were able to press for disproportionate benefits from new welfare and development projects, shown here as simple tools of imperial control, rather than as programs which featured any genuine effort to improve the overall welfare of Africans. This trend became strikingly clear during Mau Mau, the uprising in which the Kamba were in position to play a pivotal role; this fact was recognized by a cadre of powerful Kamba chiefs, almost all of whom were veterans of the Second World War, and who were well aware of the threat that their 'martial traditions' posed.

Orphans and vulnerable children : direct effects, spillover effects, and assistance [Kenya].

Author: Evans, David Kirkham

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Orphans ; Child welfare ; Children and youth ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines the schooling impacts of parent death for orphans in Africa as well as for children in households that take in those orphans. The thesis also evaluates the impact of an intervention to facilitate education for vulnerable children in Africa. The thesis is divided into three chapters. In chapter one, I estimate the impact of parent death on primary school participation using an unusual five-year panel data set of over 20,000 Kenyan children. There is a substantial decrease in school participation following a parent death, and a smaller drop before the death (presumably due to pre-death morbidity). Estimated impacts are smaller in specifications without individual fixed effects, suggesting that estimates based on cross-sectional data are biased toward zero. Effects are largest for children whose mothers died, and those with low baseline academic performance. In chapter two, I first characterize households that provide care for orphans using a collection of 41 Demographic and Health Surveys from 26 African countries. I then estimate the impact of taking in orphans on outcomes for other household residents, including children's health and education. One finding is that orphan care is concentrated in households with fewer other childcare responsibilities, especially elderly households. Using bias-corrected matching estimation, sibling differences within households, instrumental variables estimation, and a range of specifications, I find no evidence for significant effects of having an orphan join the household on other household members, contrary to popular views that orphans generate negative spillovers. In chapter three, I evaluate the impact of an educational intervention, in which a Kenyan non-governmental organization distributes school uniforms to children in poor communities. The NGO used a lottery to determine who would receive uniforms. Although compliance with the lottery was not perfect, I use winning the lottery as an instrumental variable to identify the impact of receiving a uniform. I find that giving a school uniform significantly increases school attendance (by 4.5% off a base of 83%), with a particularly marked effect for girls.

Human male reproductive strategies : cross-cultural and endocrine aspects [Kenya].

Author: Gray, Peter Bard

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Males ; Reproductive health ;

Abstract:

From evolutionary, comparative and life history perspectives, key features of human male life reproductive strategies emerge. These include male-male alliance formation, involving egalitarian social relationships; males commonly competing through the provision of goods that benefit many group members; and males tending to engage in long-term pair bonds with a mate as well as providing paternal care. These features of human male reproductive strategies are subject to cross-cultural variation that can, in part, be predicted by socioecological variables like subsistence mode and the strength of fraternal interest groups. A central feature of human male reproductive strategies is the potential tradeoff between mating effort (male-male competition and mate seeking behavior), on one hand, and investment in affiliative pair bonding and direct paternal care, on the other. Complementing a functional perspective, variation in male salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol levels may serve as endocrine mediators of human male reproductive strategies. To test the view that male T modulates behavioral allocation to mating and parenting effort, results from two new empirical studies are presented. Data from 65 U.S. men showed that T variation accounted for between-individual but not within-individual differences in social interactions. However, these results replicate earlier North American findings that married ('paired') men have lower T levels than unmarried men, and these effects are stronger at times later in the day (e.g., afternoons and evenings). Providing cross-cultural comparison, T data from Kenyan Swahili men indicated that polygynously married men had higher T levels than other men in the sample, that no differences in T levels occurred between monogamously married and unmarried men, and that age of youngest genetic child was a marginal, positive predictor of a father's T levels. Lastly, using baseline cortisol levels as a physiological marker of psychosocial stress, predictions were tested concerning the relationship between Swahili male cortisol levels and socioeconomic status, financial stressors, marital and parenting status and other variables. These predictions received little support, leading to a discussion of the theoretical and practical issues concerning the use of cortisol with respect to psychosocial aspects of human male reproductive strategies.

Savings, sanctions, and support : essays on collective action and community organizations in Kenya.

Author: Gugerty, Mary Kay

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Rural development ; Savings and loan associations ; Primary schools ; Multiculturalism and pluralism ; Women ; Western Kenya ;

Abstract:

This thesis consists of three essays on collective action in local organizations, drawing on primary data and research conducted by the author in western Kenya. The thesis is organized in four chapters. Chapter 1 presents an overview and synopsis of the thesis; chapters 2 through 4 are the main essays. Chapter 2 poses the question: why do individuals choose to join Rotating Savings and Credit Organizations (ROSCAS) that are characterized by inflexibility, high costs, and low rates of return? The chapter shows how current theories cannot explain the structure of many roscas and presents an alternative hypothesis: saving requires self-discipline, and roscas provide a collective mechanism for individual self-control in the presence of time-inconsistent preferences and in the absence of alternative commitment technologies. The chapter tests this hypothesis using detailed primary data on 70 ROSCAS in western Kenya and finds that the structure of these roscas is consistent with the commitment hypothesis. Chapter 3, jointly authored with Ted Miguel, investigates how ethnic diversity affects community participation in rural primary schools. A theoretical model proposes that social sanctions imposed within ethnic communities are the key mechanism used to overcome free-rider problems in village economies. School committee meeting records from western Kenya indicate that ethnically diverse schools do impose significantly fewer sanctions on parents. The empirical results also show that school committees in ethnically diverse areas are plagued by low parent participation in school activities and low teacher attendance and motivation. Chapter 4 uses the results of a prospective, randomized evaluation to examine the impact of a development program explicitly targeted at promoting agricultural output and strengthening organizational capacity among rural women's groups. The results indicate that funding does not lead to sharply higher agricultural output among women's groups receiving funding, but does lead to more turnover among group members, as well as increased entry into groups and group leadership by younger, more educated women, by women employed in the formal sector, and by men. These results raise the possibility that assistance to indigenous organizations of women may change the very characteristics of these organizations that made them attractive to funders in the first place.

Detention and rehabilitation during the Mau Mau.

Author: Elkins, Caroline Macy

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: African history ; Mau Mau ;

Abstract:

This dissertation is an analysis of the system of detention and rehabilitation during the Mau Mau emergency. It asserts that the Kenya government justified the detention without trial of at least 80,000 Africans through the adoption of the policy of rehabilitation. This program for liberal reform was intended to transform the men and women behind the wire into governable citizens. It is shown, however, that the liberal agenda was never implemented in its original form. Instead, the colonial government used it to mask publicly the coercive nature of the camps. This dissertation argues that Mau Mau was not just a military battle, but a civilian one. Beginning in 1954, the insurgency shifted from the forests to the detention camp 'pipeline'. In addition, the struggle also moved to the rural areas where villagization was an alternative form of detention. Much of the conflict that occurred in the camps also dominated life in the reserves. The analysis of detention and rehabilitation-both in the pipeline and in the emergency villages-is placed in the larger context of the late colonial state. With little basis for legitimacy, the Kenya government relied upon the support of African loyalists and the use of arbitrary powers. The policies and actions that drove the administration of the pipeline and the villages are offered as examples of the increasing totalitarianism of the colonial regime. Ultimately, the government found itself in a spiral of violence that was difficult to escape. It took the draconian measures of 'operation progress' to break Mau Mau control and to restore the initiative to the government. This operation, however, would eventually lead to the Hola massacre, tarnish the colonial image of benevolent trustee, and contribute to Britain's hastened retreat from Kenya.

Political economy of education and health in Kenya.

Author: Miguel, Edward Andrew

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Economic development ; Labour economics ; Education ; Public policy ; Public health ;

Abstract:

This research is motivated by the current economic development challenges confronting Africa. sub-Saharan Africa has experienced a dramatic economic collapse during the past two decades, with average per capita income falling sharply in most African countries. This thesis contributes to the literature on African growth by providing original evidence on important and previously examined links between public policy formation, health, and education in Kenya. The region of Kenya that forms the backdrop for this study is typical for Africa in terms of income levels, social divisions, and disease burden, suggesting that the results may have broader implications for other African countries. Chapters 1 and 2 examine the impact of ethnic diversity on local public good provision in rural Kenyan primary schools. The identification of a causal relationship of ethnic diversity on school funding relies on the fact that local ethnic diversity is largely exogenous: ethnic settlement patterns were determined by wars in the l9th century and have since remained stable. Chapter 1 presents the first micro-level evidence that higher levels of ethnic diversity are negatively related to local public goods funding in sub-Saharan Africa. The change from complete ethnic homogeneity to average local ethnic diversity is associated with 30 percent lower average school funding in western Kenya. The theoretical model suggests that pupil sorting among schools introduces an upward bias in ordinary least squares estimates of the relationship between ethnic diversity and school funding, which is found in the data. Chapter 2 (co-authored with Mary Kay Gugerty) discusses the politics of Kenyan local school committees and identifies mechanisms through which ethnic diversity affects schools. We find that parent participation in school activities and teacher attendance are sharply lower in ethnically diverse areas. In the theoretical model, the inability to sanction and contract across ethnic groups implies that public good provision is lower in diverse communities. The important role of social sanctions in sustaining public good provision is supported by evidence from school committee meeting records. Chapter 3 (co-authored with michael kremer) evaluates the impact of an inexpensive public health intervention-a school-based deworming project-on educational outcomes in rural Kenyan primary schools. Medical treatment was randomly assigned across schools. After one year, deworming is associated with large average school participation gains of 5 percent (pupils are considered participants if present on the day of an unannounced visit). The result points to the important role that tropical disease may play in reducing school attainment and labor productivity in Africa.

HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections among women from Kenya.

Author: Tyndall, Mark William

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : DSc

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: HIV infection/AIDS (Disease)/Sexually transmitted diseases/Women/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The rise and decline of communal violence : an analysis of the 1992-1994 witch-hunts in Gusii, Southwestern Kenya.

Author: Ogembo, Justus Mozart H'achachi

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ethnology ; Witchcraft ; Violence ; Social change ; Gusii (African people) ; Kisii, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Addressing issues of concern to psychological anthropology and to historical anthropology, this dissertation is an ethnographic and interpretive study of communal violence in Gusii, southwestern Kenya, in the period between November 1992 and July 1994. Groups of people burned to death 57 suspected witches in a witch-hunt during which over 100 people died. Communal witch-hunting is a symbolic expression of personal and collective anxiety in the face of inexorable social change. The dissertation locates the violent responses within the anxiety-arousing situations of strange illnesses and deaths, abductions, and books. The event took place against a backdrop of economic and political changes in the Kenyan national and in the international scenes and a heightened religious activity in the community. Combining the psychological and sociological approaches to witchcraft and violence in a historical perspective, this study integrates the testimony of participants of, and witnesses to the incidents with other ethnographic information to understand the factors that led to this violence. After outlining Gusii socio-cultural arrangement in part i, the work reconstructs the events as they actually occurred in part ii. Part iii contextualizes the violence within Kenya's politico-economic status during the build- up to political pluralism and soon after. By relating the social changes to the patterns the violence took, the dissertation attempts to answer the question how culture mediates social change to emotional experience. The dissertation finds that the negative effect the economic changes had on healthcare reactivated Gusii traditional cosmological beliefs about evil and misfortune. The breakdown of government administrative control following forced introduction of political pluralism in the country in 1991-92 let long-held but controlled suspicions and hatreds against supposed witches give way to open violence.

Modernity and its discontents : an exploratory study of Kenyan elite's perceptions of the effects of modernization on individual and family life.

Author: Gitau, Wangui Nyakioi

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : EDD

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Intellectuals ; Families and family life ; Social change ; Modernization ;

Abstract:

For this qualitative study, the author conducted ninety- minute open-ended interviews which were audio-taped. I interviewed members of the Kenyan elite as a way of getting first-person accounts of their experiences with modernization and social change. I interviewed thirty individuals who fit my definition of 'the elite'. I asked these thirty participants to compare their rural and urban family life experiences and to share their perspectives on both the changes that occur, and the effects these changes have had on family life. The dimensions of family life I concentrated on were the physical organization of the home, individual roles and responsibilities and interpersonal relationships. The thirty participants included men and women who were drawn from several Kenyan ethnic groups and professional backgrounds. In contrast to the extensive anthropological, sociological and demographic studies of the family that have been conducted in Kenya, systematic psychological studies of the family are rare; even rarer are studies of any kind that focus on elite families. Several indigenous and foreign scholars in these disciplines have noted the transformative effects formal education, modernization and urbanization have had and continue to have on the family in Africa. However, the number of resarchers who make specific reference to the elite population is negligible. In doing this research, I sought to introduce a new paradigm for thinking about and understanding elite families. I used qualitative methods to collect and analyze my data: memos, coding, matrix displays, narrative and contextual analysis and case study analysis. The combination of these multiple analytic strategies provided me with a wide spectrum of insights and view points upon which to base the comparisons I made of the findings and interpretations I arrived at, at the completion of my study. My research explored perspectives of first generation elite on families transformations that follow modernization. Elite Kenyans, defined as university- educated and pursuing professional careers, offered their views about how their lives and those of their families have been altered and affected by the modernization and urbanization that result from acqusition of high levels of formal education. The findings of this study indicate that although modernization has several beneficial effects on the family, some of the changes modernization entails have problematic effects. The positive aspects of change include economic independence and the modern life conveniences that the elite enjoy. The problematic aspects of change include estrangement from rural kin, lack of neighboring and adequate support systems in urban areas for members of the elite family and a degeneration of traditional values and morals. There were no differences in the perspectives of male and female subjects. There were also no differences between the perspectives of subjects from different ethnic groups or professional backgrounds. This research indicates the need for more studies of the elite population that focus on specific spheres of family life. Examples of specific area of research that this study indicates need immediate attention include marital relationships, child care, elder care and ethnic diversity and its influences on community development. Findings derived from studies such as the ones I exemplify will be useful in both helping Kenyans understand the issues that families need help with and also illuminate viable responses to the problematic aspects of change.