22 Records out of 22207 Records

The recent rise of childhood mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa : the case of Kenya.

Author: Opiyo, Collins Omondi .

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Sociology ; Infant mortality ; Children and youth ;

Abstract:

This study is conceived against the backdrop of deteriorating child survival circumstances in Kenya. It adopts a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the recent childhood mortality patterns using various demographic and statistical data and methods. We use the own-children method proposed by Preston and Palloni (1977) and data from the four censuses to provide new estimates of childhood mortality rates. We also apply survival analysis techniques to data from the four DHSs and administrative records to examine the age structure and determinants of the rising childhood mortality rate. The new estimates show significant impact of using a different mortality model (INDEPTH Model Life Tables for Sub-Saharan Africa). The INDEPTH tables are believed to accurately reflect contemporary mortality dynamics, including the impact of HIV/AIDS. The own-children method performs satisfactorily in the era of fertility transitions and HIV/AIDS, in addition to minimizing the idiosyncratic errors concomitant with the traditional Brass estimates. There is much to be gained in the understanding of mortality dynamics by examining sub-groups and sub-periods of childhood. Evidence shows presence of a steep age gradient and considerable sub-group differentials in childhood mortality risks. The huge intra-country differentials observed mirror co-existence of pockets of 'First' and 'Third' worlds in the same country. Overall, the early 1990s marked the onset of an unprecedented deterioration in child survival in post-Independence Kenya. HIV/AIDS prevalence is not only associated with the largest increase in childhood mortality rate during this period, but changed the dynamics as well. Apparently, context matters most --macro-level factors drive both national trends and the intra-country differentials in childhood mortality rates. The Government and its development partners should implement an integrated program well-targeted to the needs and locations of children at different stages of the life course. Future research will focus on improving data collection, modifying the INDEPTH life tables to handle cause-specific analyses, and exploring the differentials in cost-effectiveness and sustainability of health interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Secondary voices, familiar territory : an exploratory study of ESL academic writing practices. a case study of Kenyan students in a North American university

Author: Ochieng, Milcah Atieno

Awarding University: Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Language ; Writing ; Students ;

Abstract:

This qualitative interpretive case study research explores academic writing practices of ESL writers with specific reference to Kenyan students in a North American University. The study examines three related aspects of academic writing including writing perceptions, writing processes, and writing challenges in a U.S. context. The study serves several purposes: it advances the need for a comprehensive understanding of Kenyan writers, their writing perceptions, writing processes, and writing challenges in the U.S. Insights from the study can inform and advice writing curriculum development, pedagogy, policy and reform. Qualitative data collection methods comprised of questionnaires, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and researcher field notes and analytic memos. Eleven Kenyan students participated in the study. Four purposively selected case profiles illuminated the Kenyan writing practice phenomenon. The methods of data analysis included manual thematic coding of transcribed data from interviews and questionnaires, which identified themes and sub-themes for theorizing on academic writing practices of Kenyan student writers. The findings are consistent with other findings in ESL research. Kenyan student writers' perception of writing and academic writing are intricately linked to both process and product-oriented writing foci. All graduate and undergraduate students demonstrated awareness of process-oriented writing approach. However, skilled writers, mostly graduate students, utilized effective composing processes than novice (mostly undergraduate students) writers. Skilled writers used effective techniques and strategies in setting goals, planning, drafting, revision, collaboration and reflection. Novice writers did not fully engage in planning, revision and collaborative activities, and reported truncated writing processes. Despite acknowledging the benefits of process-based collaborative practices, most students were reluctant to engage in them. Thus, most Kenyan student writers utilized adaptive reproductive writing rather than reformulative writing. The study has important implications for cross-national writing pedagogy. It calls on writing practitioners' awareness of L2 writers' prior and current perceptions of writing, writing processes, and writing challenges to facilitate the understanding of ESL writers, and to develop writing programs that are global and responsive to the writing needs. Practical recommendations include an integrated approach to writing instruction and a concept oriented critical writing pedagogy. The study calls for further research on academic writing practices of student writers.

Differentials in infant and child mortality in East Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania).

Author: Rutaremwa, Gideon

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Infant mortality/Socioeconomic factors/East Africa/Rift Valley/Luo (African people)/ ;

Abstract:

Using data from the 1990 round of censuses of East Africa, the current study adopts a comparative approach to examine differentials in under-five mortality in this african sub-region. Whereas much of the recent research in under-five mortality in East Africa has dwelt on country specific studies, the current investigation attempts to contribute to knowledge and expand understanding by examining three main issues: first, to examine urban differentials in under-five mortality. Second, to examine the extent to which national context is related to under-five mortality among the Luo population group. Lastly, to investigate the spatial differentials in under-five mortality within context of the East African Rift Valley region. In chapter 1, I examine the methodological aspects particularly the count-data analysis techniques. In chapter 2, the study shows that under-five mortality risks are less in Nairobi than in Kampala or Dar-es-Salaam. Estimates of trends in under-five mortality, however, reveal an increase in mortality rates for Nairobi since the mid-1980s. Comparison of results indicates that the pattern of individual covariates of under-five mortality is similar for the three major cities of East Africa. In chapter 3, I investigate Luo under-five mortality differentials in East Africa. The findings suggest that irrespective of political and geographic setting, the factors that influence under-five mortality among the Luo are similar. Furthermore, the study shows that country specific differentials in under-five mortality exist, with the highest incidence rates estimated for Uganda followed by Kenya and the least for Tanzania. Finally, the thrust of chapter 4 is to examine geographic differences in under-five mortality in the Rift Valley regions of the three countries. The findings suggest that differentials are substantial and could not be overcome by controlling for socioeconomic variables. Except for Luo mortality, which was higher in Kenya than in Tanzania, current results suggest less under-five mortality risks for Kenya than Uganda and Tanzania for the population groups examined. Though several correlates of under-five mortality are examined in this study, mother's educational level attainment and household type of toilet facility are the most important.

Talking sheng : the role of a hybrid language in the construction of identity and youth culture in Nairobi, Kenya.

Author: Samper, David Arthur

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Slang/Sheng language/Teenagers/Nairobi, Kenya/Cultural change/ ;

Abstract:

Young people in Nairobi use sheng, an urban, youth sociolect that mixes English, Kiswahili, and ethnic languages and shares many features with slang, to forge a new, hybrid identity. Sheng signifies the negotiations and struggles of youth's identity project. The institutions of family, church, school, and popular media present kenyan youth with different possible identities. The voice of the family comes to them in ethnic languages that embody tradition and heritage. The voice of education asks them to place Kiswahili at the center of a multicultural ideology, but does so in English. The church calls to them in Kiswahili and English. The voice of the media comes to them in videos, movies, music, radio, and television and is heard mostly in English. Each of these languages represents a particular ideology of living in the world and young people respond through language. sheng gives young people the wherewithal to question and challenge the ideologies and identities that attempt to define them. Sheng also signifies the construction of a linguistic third space between the global, represented by a transnational African diasporic culture, and the local, represented by tradition. This dissertation also focuses on two groups of culture brokers that are helping to shape sheng and, as a consequence, shape identity-rap musicians and manambas. Manambas are young men who work on Kenya's privately owned public service vehicles popularly known as matatus. Many of Kenya's rappers feel a sense of responsibility toward the youth; and as the voices of their generation they feel an obligation to promote the importance of African heritage in young people's definition of self. Manambas are the master innovators of sheng, however, they do not share rappers' sense of responsibility nor do they have a coherent social agenda for young people. While rappers negotiate between tradition and modernity, manambas stand in between the global and the local. Through their consumption of commodities, including fashion and music, transnational culture is given currency and symbolic power in the expression of identity. The discourse on hybridity and globalization constitute the theoretical ground on which the empirical data is explored and analyzed.

Essays in development and labor economics

Author: Ilias, Nauman

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics/Educators/Children and youth/Juvenile offenders/ ;

Abstract:

My dissertation consists of three unrelated chapters. The first chapter studies the presence and effect of a serious labor-market distortion in the Surgical Instrument (S.I.) industrial network of Sialkot. The problem arises due to the non-perfect substitutability between family and hired managers. In particular, the firm owners are hesitant to hire managers who can potentially steal their business. As a result, the owners prefer to engage mostly close family relatives into management positions i.e. those who are considered trustworthy. This restriction prevents the firms from optimally choosing the management size. The distortion is manifested by a significant positive correlation between family size of the founder and firm output; firm founders who have more brothers end up with higher output. The second chapter evaluates a teacher incentives program conducted in Kenyan primary schools in 1998 and 1999. Out of 100 randomly selected schools, 50 were chosen to participate in the program, while the remaining 50 were treated as the control group. The impact of the program on various teacher and student outcomes is studied. We find a positive and significant effect of the program on extra (out of class) coaching by the teachers, but no effect on teacher attendance, homework assignment, and pedagogical practices. We also find a positive impact of the program on student test scores. The third chapter uses a human capital approach to model juvenile participation in criminal activities and/or legitimate labor market activities. In a two-period setting, the individual decides how to allocate time to crime and labor market in each period. We endogenize skill formation by assuming that the time spent in criminal and labor market activities in the first period determines the investments in the corresponding stocks of human capital. The investments lead to a larger stock of human capital for these activities in the subsequent period, and therefore affect the second-period returns from these activities. The model is tested using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY 97). We implement the model using a multinomial logit framework and find that the data match the predictions fairly well.

Social, ecological, and endocrine influences on female relationships in Blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni).

Author: Pazol, Karen Ann

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Monkeys and apes/Ecology/Animal behavior/Blue monkeys USE Cercopithecus mitis/Cercopithecus mitis/Kakamega Forest, Kenya/Kakamega, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

In this dissertation I provide some of the most detailed data available for any species of African forest guenon, the Blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni). Focal observations were conducted on 32 adult females from two social groups in the Kakamega Forest, western Kenya. Fecal samples were also obtained to provide a non-invasive measure of reproductive physiology through an evaluation of their ovarian hormone content. Intragroup contest competition was found to play a remarkably small role in structuring female relationships. Agonism rates were extremely low, and although it was possible to detect near-linear dominance hierarchies, rank had little influence on resource acquisition. Data from this study tentatively suggest that Blue monkeys avoid contest competition by using alternative mechanisms to partition limiting resources. Female were also found to spend an extremely small proportion of their time with the resident male of their group. This pattern sharply contrasts that which has been documented for baboons and macaques in which females form strong heterosexual relationships. In the absence of clear interspecific differences in the ecological costs and benefits of associating with males, it is suggested that the one-male structure of Blue monkey groups precludes the possibility for males to provide females with protection from harassment and infanticide committed by non-affiliated males. Fecal samples reliably indicated when females were cycling and could be used to narrow the window of potential conception dates. The hormone profiles obtained tentatively suggest that females most often conceive on their first ovulation following periods of amenorrhea, although a rise in estrogen prior to this time appears to promote an early onset of sexual behavior. Consistent with the paternity confusion hypothesis, females often mated when conception was unlikely or impossible. However, this tendency was not necessarily strengthened by the presence of unfamiliar males. Potentially, females have evolved hormonal mechanisms to promote non-conceptive sexual behavior which cannot be facultatively expressed. Alternative hypotheses are also discussed to explain the consistency of female mating patterns in the presence and absence of unfamiliar males.

Fertility decision-making by couples amongst the Luo of Kenya.

Author: Reynar, Angela Ruth

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Fertility/Family planning/Ethnology/Luo (African people)/South Nyanza District/ ;

Abstract:

This dissertation addresses the question of relative reproductive control between couples in a rural East African setting. It asks one fundamental question: which member of the couple, the husband or the wife, is able to make decisions about the couple's reproductive behavior? While the ethnographic literature suggests that men have normative control of reproduction in East Africa, little is known about the actual relative power that marital partners wield in decision making about fertility and about the influence that they exert on each other's reproductive intentions. The data used come from a survey conducted amongst Luos living in South Nyanza District, Kenya. The study benefits particularly from the nature of its data, which are longitudinal and couple based. Logistic regression and structural equation modeling methodologies are used to investigate the research question. This study divides the fertility decision making process into two steps: the formation of fertility intentions, particularly the influence of one partner's fertility desires upon the fertility intentions of the other, and the translation of these fertility intentions into fertility-related behavior. This allows the relative power of each member of the couple to change depending upon which step is examined. In the first step I find that a husband does not have more influence over his wife's fertility intention than she does over his. In the second step I examine three fertility-related behaviors: spousal communication about family planning, current contraceptive use and actual fertility. I find that the relative influence of the marital partners changes depending both on which fertility-related behavior and on whether the husband's or the wife's report of the behavior is examined. The husband's fertility intention has more influence than the wife's fertility intention over whether there is spousal communication about family planning. Current contraceptive use is influenced equally by both the husband's and the wife's fertility intentions. Both partners' fertility intentions equally influence the wife's report of actual fertility but the husband's fertility intention has more influence than the wife's fertility intention over the husband's report of actual fertility.

Integrating respondents, community, and the state in the analysis of contraceptive use in Kenya.

Author: Weinreb, Alexander Ariel

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Birth control/Social research/ ;

Abstract:

The principal theoretical argument in this dissertation is that micro-social research, including demographic research, is flawed to the extent that it avoids mapping the relational space around individuals. The dissertation highlights the importance of this idea in three discrete sections, each of which focuses empirically on contraceptive use in Kenya. Throughout, multivariate regression methods are used. Part 1 inverts the normal focus of analysis. It examines survey responses, treating the responses themselves, rather than the behaviors they are intended to represent, as the dependent variable. Analysis shows that survey data are a product of a social interaction and that they bear the imprint of that interaction. Analysts should not, therefore, treat data as unbiased indicators of underlying behavior. Parts 2 and 3 of the dissertation revisit longstanding demographic associations. Two empirical questions are addressed in part 2. Each explores the effects of horizontally structured social relations by looking at how an individual's characteristics affect the behavior of other community residents. They implicitly assume the existence, and infer the content, of evaluative interactional exchanges between community members. The two questions are: to what extent and under what conditions (1) does educating one woman have spillover effects on the contraceptive behavior of her neighbors? And (2) is a woman's contraceptive behavior a function of the mortality of neighbors' children rather than the mortality of her own children? I find spillover effects in both cases. Finally, part 3 shifts the relational focus to a vertical type of structured social relation. It integrates traditional macro-oriented social theory with micro-demographic analysis by examining the relationship between an individual's behavior and the patron-client political hierarchy with which the individual's residential district is associated. The principal analytic question this section addresses is: to what extent are ethnic differences in demographic behavior the outcomes of differential access to political power rather than explicit 'cultural' differences? I find that the ethnic differences are partly explained by the political factors.

Rariu and Luo women : illness as resistance in rural Kenya.

Author: Luke, Nancy Kay

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ethnology ; Women's studies ; Gender ; Luo (African people) ; Social life and customs ; Traditions ; Medicinal plants ;

Abstract:

The dissertation examines illness as women's resistance to the power of men and Western medicine in rural Kenya by exploring the meaning of an indigenous reproductive illness, rariu, suffered by rural women among the Luo ethnic group. The study utilizes a conflict approach to both theories of gender stratification and illness. The study finds that illness labels are not simply imposed on passive women as designations of their deviance; illness may act as a response to the social control mechanisms of the powerful. The constraints of patriarchy in the Luo context have traditionally ensured that women cannot pose a direct, organized challenge to the gender hierarchy. Thus, rariu represents quiet, indirect resistance facilitated by women's illness networks and traditional healing. rariu offers women a respite from social responsibilities, including work and sexual intercourse, and deflects the stigma of role deviations, such as infertility. The qualitative analysis illuminates gender and wider social relations in the rural Luo context and shows how women's social interactions with husbands, illness networks, and healers (both traditional and Western medical) influence illness decisionmaking, specifically labeling and treatment decisions. The analysis of household survey data investigates social and economic determinants of these decisions, focusing on context- specific measurements of women's position and networks. The results confirm that those who are least empowered relative to husbands and illness networks are more likely to label their symptoms as rariu. Health-seeking behavior for rariu also demonstrates women's resistance to the processes of medicalization and labeling in Western medicine. Clinicians delegitimate women's suffering of rariu and do not treat it seriously. Rural Luo women do not need the certification of illness from Western medicine, as the women's community legitimates suffering and treats rariu with traditional medicine. Nonetheless, Western medicine offers women an alternative route to relief. After visits to the clinic, however, women conclude that Western medicine cannot cure rariu, and women return to the care of traditional healers. Rural Luo women reject Western medicine the same way it rejects their experience with rariu. This power of 'mutual delegitimation' is another example of Luo women's quiet resistance to both men and medicine.

Non-traditional approaches to traditional demographic<<not given>>.

Author: Warriner, Ina Katherine

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Demographics/Infant mortality/Fertility/Menstruation/Nyanza Province/ ;

Abstract:

This dissertation is composed of three essays examining different facets of demography, ranging from an issue affecting infant mortality and two issues affecting fertility. The first paper is an assessment of the role of cousin marriage in infant mortality. Previous studies indicate that children of related parents experience higher levels of infant mortality than would be the case if the mother were unrelated to the father. This study assesses the effects of consanguineous family structures on infant mortality in Egypt, Pakistan, Turkey, and Yemen. Disentangling the genetic component from other causes of death is a necessary step toward identifying the impact of inbreeding on mortality. In this paper, community effects, such as access to health care and the proportion of inbreeding in a population are considered using a fixed effects model. Results indicate that controlling for community level variables and sociodemographic, variables greatly reduces the effect of cousin marriage on infant mortality. The second paper examines theoretical and methodological issues associated with data on social networks, focusing on the homophily of network partners chosen for conversations about family planning in four rural areas of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Identifying principles behind the selection of network partners is necessary to establish an association between the influence of social networks and behavior outcomes. Findings indicate that homophily based on sociodemographic attributes and personal preferences guides the composition of family planning networks and selection of network partners based on use or non-use of contraception, although expected to some extent, is secondary and less relevant. The third chapter reviews the literature and data on secondary amenorrhea and its impact on fertility. Fertility models in demography account for postpartum and lactational amenorrhea but do not consider the impact of amenorrhea from other causes. Factors that have been associated with amenorrhea include age, nutrition, psychological factors, strenuous physical exertion, disease, and environmental factors. A closer look at the prevalence of acyclicity in populations before the discovery of oral contraceptives in 1960 and in developing countries today suggests that amenorrhea may be more widespread than is generally assumed and should not be ignored when assessing variations in fertility.