64 Records out of 22207 Records

Raising immigrant Kenyan children in America : how families negotiate academic and cultural issues.

Author: Njeru, Margaret Wambui

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Immigration ; Cross-Cultural studies ; Families and family life ;

Abstract:

The study investigated the experiences of immigrant families of Kenyan background in the U.S. In my statement of problem, I stated that while the number of contemporary African immigrants has continued to grow in the U.S., little in terms of research has been done to show what their experiences in their new society is. This has meant that there is little knowledge about their lives, and little to draw from in terms of research. At the same time, researchers and scholars in education have increasingly demonstrated the strong connection between academic performances of children, and their home backgrounds, and hence the need for educators to possess such knowledge. A general question for my research was 'What are the families' goals academically and culturally in the U.S.?' Two subsequent research questions were (1) What are the families doing to help the children reach their academic goals in a racialized U.S. society? and (2) What are the families doing to help their children reach their cultural goals in a racialized U.S. society? In terms of theory, I used the sociocultural theoretical framework as an umbrella framework, under which I included the 'voluntary immigrant' framework as discussed by Ogbu (1986), the 'language as power' framework as per Bourdieu (1991), as well as theories surrounding the concepts 'culture' Rosaldo (1989), and identity and identity construction (Hall, 1992b). All these specific frameworks were informative as I did my final data analysis. The study was qualitative in nature, and mainly used two methods, that is, interviews and observations. A total of 16 respondents participated in the study. These included six parents and six children, all who were attending school between 5 th and 11 th grades. I also interviewed four teachers who were either teaching the children at the time, or had taught them earlier. My data analysis was inductive in nature, i.e. the analysis was grounded in the data. I organized the data into emerging themes which I presented in chapters 4 and 5. These two chapters were organized in a mariner that corresponded roughly to the two research questions. My findings indicated that at the academic level, all these families had high expectations of their children, and they demonstrated a great amount of participation in their children's school work as well as in extracurricular activities. Teachers interviewed indicated that they were greatly impressed with the children's academic performance and their strong work ethics. They also found the parents to be very cooperative and supportive of their children's school work. Culturally, most parents said that they tried to maintain a balanced culture- both Kenyan/African and American, in their homes. They did note, however, that living and raising children within the larger American culture presented its own challenges. A significant finding in this work was that race, i.e. being black, did not interfere with the academic progress of the children, in spite of growing up in a society where academic performance of Black children had traditionally suffered. The different socioeconomic and historical experiences of these two groups of people were cited as a possible explanation for this phenomenon, and Ogbu's 'voluntary' versus 'involuntary' immigrant framework offered some insights here. My final chapter attempted to relate my findings to the existing literature review, and also explained how the findings interacted with the sociocultural framework. In general, the goals and experiences of my participating families appeared to resemble those of many other immigrants from other parts of the world living in the U.S. Theoretically, the findings seemed to fit in quite well with the various sociocultural theories discussed.

An arts-based educational framework for fostering intercultural unity in Kenya.

Author: Nyaberi, David Ogega

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Art education ; Ethnology ;

Abstract:

On December 27, 2007, presidential and parliamentary elections were held in Kenya to elect leaders for a five-year term. In January 2008, violence broke out in many parts of Kenya because the main opposition political party accused the government of rigging the elections. This rigging allegation triggered violence in which some of the ethnic groups turned hostile against each other. More than 1000 people died in the skirmishes and several thousands were displaced from their homes. Hostility escalated to a level the government could not control. The international community stepped in to assist with food, shelter, and other essential needs. Former United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, stepped in to arbitrate talks between the opposing sides. Although the disputed elections were blamed for the crisis, the main cause was the longstanding land disputes between various ethnic groups. Ethnic conflicts in Kenya have always been a problem since independence from Britain in 1963 and cultural diversity in Kenya has always posed great challenges to uniting Kenyans. In an attempt to address the challenges of cultural diversity in Kenya, this dissertation explores ways in which arts education could be instrumental in teaching intercultural values and appreciation of ethnic diversity in Kenya. The dissertation attends to and addresses questions about Kenyan educational scholarship, policy formation, and implementation strategies. The dissertation conceptualizes and makes recommendation for a national K-4 educational framework for Kenya, and introduces an educational policy framework that will guide K-4 curriculum development, instructional approaches, and teacher training. This approach is based on the belief that it is of the young age that children begin to build their personal identities, and to learn the values of their society.

The expansion of higher education for Kenyans, with special emphasis on women, from 1959--1969

Author: Williams-Black, Joy

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: History/African history/Higher education/Women ;

Abstract:

In 1959, Thomas Mboya, a union activist and Kenyan politician, garnered 81 scholarships for Africans to attend over 40 colleges and universities in the U.S. (the largest to ever study at one time). In 1960, he received over 320 more to an additional 60 higher U.S. educational institutions. The 1959 and 1960 Airlifts, as they are called, included large numbers of women. This study explores Kenya's early nation-building period and argues that the Airlifts served as the catalyst in an explosion for Kenyans to study abroad, culminating in thousands of additional scholarships to study on four continents. This project examines strategies used by individuals, organizations and governments in the provision of overseas education. It utilizes the categories of regionality, ethnicity, and gender to better understand access and equity. Early historical studies tended to silence and disempower African women because of a focus on what others did for them instead of how women, themselves impacted their societies. Nowhere has this been truer than in gender scholarship from westerners who researched African women. African and other women of color have out rightly rejected this 'western gaze.' Even so, scholars struggle to place women within the larger narrative of the history of African nationalism. Previous studies relied on colonial archives and many have used these archives uncritically. Although this research project includes colonial archives, it does so in a manner that recovers African participation in Kenya's decolonization and uses case studies to recover the voices of women who have become lost in imperial histories on Africa that tend to exclude, ignore, or marginalize them. In attempting to give voice to African women, this research project theorizes the debate regarding African women and gender and highlights the role of women in overseas educational attainment. It provides a renewed understanding, examination, and explanation of the role of higher education abroad during the period of decolonization that swept the continent in the 1960s and the goal to Africanize former European-ruled governments. It is within this context that this study seeks to add to the body of scholarship on African history, African women's social history, and higher education in Kenya

Romancing strangers : the intimate politics of beach tourism in Kenya.

Author: Tami, Nicole

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology/Tourism/Sexual behavior/Beaches/ ;

Abstract:

This dissertation focuses on twenty-first century encounters between European female tourists and male Kenyan tourism workers, and the burgeoning phenomenon known as 'romance tourism.' I argue that romance tourism constitutes a rich modern-day juncture between gender, sexuality, and power, at which individuals from disparate social worlds collide and temporarily transgress racial, class and generational boundaries. Drawing on ethnographic data I gathered in two popular Kenyan coastal tourist spots--on Lamu Island and Malindi town--as well as from post-holiday interviews conducted in Switzerland, my research shows that existing typographies and theories about sex tourism are inadequate for capturing the complex relationships, affective ties, and economic exchanges that characterize Western women's engagements with non-Western men. The tension between institutionalized power--largely rooted in racial hierarchies, and individual power--which is directly contingent upon gender, nationality and socioeconomic status, reveals the contradictions and complex pressures behind interpersonal relationships between Western women and Kenyan men who work in coastal tourism destinations, such as Lamu and Malindi. As such, questions of power and social positionality are both fluid and conditional. I argue that the intimate collisions of these two social groups, not only reflect historical hierarchies between Africa and Europe, but are themselves directly influenced by contemporary geo-political policies and macroeconomic processes. Drawing upon the stories and ethnographic profiles of social actors who are continuously negotiating cultural diversity and a range of personal disparities, including those based on economics, age, race and gender, I explore what happens when Western female tourist enter into cross-cultural relationships with Kenyan beach workers.

Ecology and management of riceland mosquitoes in Africa with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus [Kenya].

Author: Muturi, Ephantus Juma

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Biological sciences ; Ecology ; Mosquitoes ; Culex quinquefasciatus ; Disease control ;

Abstract:

The diverse mosquito species occurring in African rice agro-ecosystems have been scarcely studied despite the strong link between irrigated rice cultivation and mosquito-borne disease. Studies were conducted to determine the ecology of rice-land mosquitoes in Mwea rice agro-ecosystem, Kenya. In the first study, adult mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors to determine mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use. Twenty-five mosquito species, dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles pharoensis, were collected. Species diversity and evenness indices were significantly higher in non-irrigated than irrigated agro-ecosystems. Conversely, mosquito densities were highest in planned rice agro-ecosystem and lowest in non-irrigated agro-ecosystem, demonstrating the impact of land use on mosquito species diversity and abundance. The second study involved larval sampling in irrigated rice and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems to determine the diverse aquatic habitats in which Culex mosquitoes thrive. Ten culicine species were collected, the main species being Culex duttoni and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Species richness and larval habitat diversity were significantly higher in non-irrigated than irrigated rice agro-ecosystem. The most productive habitats were not necessarily the most important for vector proliferation over space and time. Culex poicilipes was strongly associated with floating vegetation, Culex annulioris with clean water containing floating and emergent vegetation, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was associated with turbid water. The third study evaluated the effect of rice cropping cycle on mosquito species succession and abundance at the experimental rice plots. Nine mosquito species dominated by An. arabiensis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. pharoensis and Ficalbia splendens, thrived in the rice fields. The rice cropping cycle had a significant impact on seasonal fluctuations in mosquito species composition and abundance. Dissolved oxygen, number of tillers and rice height were significant negative predictors of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. In addition, Cx. quinquefasciatus was also negatively associated with water depth and positively with turbidity. The fourth study was also conducted at the experimental plots to determine the relationship between insect predators and mosquito larvae. Out of the 15 insect families observed, Libellulidae and Coenagrionidae were negatively associated with An. arabiensis larvae and Dytiscidae and Coenagrionidae were negatively associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Lastly, four sampling techniques were evaluated for their efficiency in outdoor collection of Cx. quinquefasciatus and other rice-land mosquitoes. CO 2 -baited CDC light traps were superior to non-baited CDC light traps in collection of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex annulioris. More Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected in grass infusion-baited gravid traps than egg rafts of this species in oviposition traps containing the same infusion. The majority of mosquitoes in CDC light trap collections were unfed but in contrast, most of those collected in gravid traps were gravid, indicating the need to supplement light traps with gravid traps especially in arboviral surveys. Collectively, these findings provide useful information that can guide the formulation and implementation of an integrated vector control program

Eco-epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium : spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infection and snail dispersal in Msambweni, Kenya

Author: Clennon, Julie A

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; Epidemiology ; Schistosoma haematobium ; Msambweni, Kenya ; Snails USE Mollusks ;

Abstract:

Chronic infection with the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium results in urinary schistosomiasis, a significant health burden in many parts of Africa. The disease is characterized by hematuria, anemia and urinary system pathology. The parasite has a complex life cycle, and is transmitted between an intermediate bulinid snail host and a definitive human host. People become infected with the parasite when they come into contact with Schistosoma cercariae that are shed by snails in freshwater, while snails are infected by miracidia that hatch from eggs that reach the water when people urinate. In Msambweni, Kenya, human infection with S. haematobium is highly endemic, with exposure occurring at pond and stream snail-habitats infested with infected snails of the species Bulinus nasutus. The research presented in this dissertation includes three studies. First, infection patterns of humans by S. haematobium in one village around a single pond were examined; then the scale of analysis was extended to 10 villages and several aquatic habitats; lastly, a hydrological model was used to define the spatial connectivity of the aquatic habitats, and the likely dispersal routes of intermediate host snails. Although no village-wide trends of Schistosoma infection at the household-level (measured by prevalence, intensity and density) were detected in Milalani Village, elevated levels of infection intensity were significantly clustered around a known transmission water contact site at a neighboring pond. Significant clustering of infection in children varied by age, with higher infection levels in younger children clustered closer to the transmission site than in older children. This pattern can be explained based on age-dependent variations in immunity and behavior. When ten villages and multiple transmission foci were considered during 1984 and 2001, clustering of high infection levels among school-aged children was detected near two water bodies (Maridzani Dam in 1984 and Nimbodze Pond in 2001) known to be infested with the highest numbers of cercariae shedding snails during the respective study periods. The spatial structure of infection varied by survey year, age, distance and direction, with higher infection levels concentrated more inland, and clustering in younger children occurring closer to transmission foci in than in older children. Snail and shell survey results revealed that many ponds in Msambweni are connected during and following heavy rains, suggesting that even if Bulinus snails are eradicated from a known habitat, repeated reintroductions may occur. Connectivity and suitability of corridors between source and sink habitats differed within the area, suggesting that control of snail populations may be less difficult at one pond (to Maridzani Dam) compared to another (to Nimbodze Pond). The occurrence of many diseases such as schistosomiasis could be dramatically reduced if people had adequate access to clean water and sanitation. To improve control of S. haematobium transmission, I propose that control measures targeting snails (mollusciciding and environmental modification) and humans (chemotherapy, behavior modification, latrines) be applied based on infection patterns and hydrological connectivity.

Beyond relief and rehabilitation : the role of NGOs in Kenya's development, 1924-2000

Author: Amutabi, Maurice Nyamanga

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Nongovernmental organizations ; Rockefeller Foundation ; CARE International ; OXFAM ; Development economics ; Globalization ;

Abstract:

This dissertation interrogates the role of three international Non-governmental organizations (INGOs) - the Rockefeller Foundation, CARE International and Oxfam in Kenya's development process between 1924 and 2000. Based on secondary and primary research conducted in the United States and Kenya between 2002 and 2004, the dissertation historicizes INGOs in their tripartite paradoxical roles as agents of colonialism, globalization and development. It traces the role of these NGOs in Kenya's development in their various ways of 'performing development', assessing the various obstacles and successes they have encountered in the process. It explores development relationships in oppositional binaries, between NGO development workers and the project beneficiaries, between NGOs and civil servants, and the ensuing tensions in local structures and institutions. It investigates how these NGOs strive to 'indigenize' their work developmentally in order to foster 'sustainable development' and how local dynamics and environments influence them, and vise versa. The dissertation deconstructs the long-held myths about NGO inviolability, and opens ground for genuine dialogue and discourse on their strengths and weaknesses in Kenya. It interrogates sites of contestation, areas and spaces of negotiation, anxieties and possibilities that NGOs have created in the history of development in Kenya. It looks at structures of hegemony, power, class and gender that NGOs have created through their projects. It illustrates the extent to which these NGOs are instrumental in the spreading of capitalism, especially economic, cultural and social violence through globalization in Kenya. Thus, the dissertation seeks to explain five patterns: (1) NGOs are part and parcel of Kenya's colonial development legacy, which includes the perpetuation of dependency development; (2) NGOs have provided an alternative reservoir of development resources in Kenya without which some areas would probably never have developed; (3) because of their association with grassroots and civil society movements, NGOs have created spaces of articulation and engagement for the marginalized such as the disabled, the youth, women and children; (4) by fraternizing with the popular masses and sponsoring political elites, NGOs have earned themselves the legitimacy to facilitate and arbitrate local development; (5) because of their patronizing manner and hegemony, they are agents of globalization.

The relationship between business strategy types and training emphasis in selected companies in Kenya.

Author: Anzaya, Mbithe

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Strategic planning ; Training ; Business enterprises ;

Abstract:

Traditionally, technology and information have been the sources of competitive advantage. Business success in the changing market conditions is now being realized through human resources. More businesses are now initiating human resource development (HRD) policies that are aligned to their business strategy, as primary sources of competitive advantage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether significant relationships exist between business strategy types (utilized by companies) and the emphasis on each training type in a developing country, namely, Kenya. The study utilized survey research methods. An existing questionnaire was modified to suit this study. Data was collected from 37 successful Kenyan companies that had participated in the 'Company of the Year Awards', since its inception in the year 2000. Through self-reported identification, these companies were classified into three business strategy types as in Miles and Snow (1978) business strategy typology; (a) Defenders, (b) Analyzers and, (c) Prospectors. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Post hoc tests were also carried out. Results indicated that the three business strategy types, emphasized different training types, had different HR training budgets, and allocated training to different job categories. Interactions between strategy types and training types were significant. Analyzers and Prospectors allocated the highest percentage of their training time to job-specific technical training, while Defenders allocated the highest percentage of training time to management-supervisory training. A larger proportion of the actual training expenditure was allocated to job-specific training when compared to the other training types. Job-specific technical training had the highest annual percentage of training expenditure while awareness had the lowest percentage. Interactions were evident between the different strategy types and job categories. Defenders had the highest percentage of training for sales people, Analyzers had the highest percentage of training for professionals, and Prospectors had the highest percentage of training for line workers. Future research should examine the role of training within the different strategies and explain why job-specific training seems critical in the Kenyan context. This would provide direction for planning and implementation of relevant programs for both educational institutions and employers.

Self-perceptions of leadership styles of ex-military entrepreneurs and civilian entrepreneurs in Kenya.

Author: Kathurima, Henry Muthee

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Business administration/Social classes/Entrepreneurs/Leadership/Social conditions and trends/ ;

Abstract:

A number of scholars mainly from the developed nations have dedicated their time studying the relationship between leadership styles of the managers and owners of enterprises in their respective countries. These studies generally agree that leadership is very critical in entrepreneurial development and success. In spite of the centrality of leadership and leadership styles in entrepreneurship development, very few studies have delved into a systematic study of leadership styles in entrepreneurship in Kenya. In an attempt to fill this gap the current study utilize the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), which is a verified instrument for measuring transformational and transactional leadership in various settings, mostly in the USA and several other developed countries to establish the trends among the ex-military and civilian entrepreneurs in Kenya. The study employed stratified random sampling procedure to select an equal number of respondents (50 from each strata, ex-military and civilian) from selected service industries based in Nairobi, Kenya. The questionnaire was administered to owner-managers of the selected SMEs, and data was entered into computer spreadsheets for analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The main statistical tools applied included means, ANOVA, t-test, Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient and Regression Analysis. The results indicated that the predominant leadership style of both categories of entrepreneurs was transformational leadership followed by the transactional leadership style and lastly laissez faire. It was concluded that ex-military and civilian entrepreneurs are not homogenous in the application of leadership styles. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the leadership styles employed by the ex-military and civilian entrepreneurs for both transformational and transactional leaderships styles at 0.05 level of significance. It is only in laissez faire leadership style that there was no significant difference between the ex-military and civilian entrepreneurs at 0.05 level of significance. It was concluded that SME could be a potential career for ex-military officers and that the military training could have very important elements that can be incorporated in the entrepreneurship training.

Factors that influence transfer of management training in small and medium enterprises in Kenya.

Author: Kobia, Margaret K

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education/Small business/Management training/Business enterprises/ ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which trainees perceived management training had transferred to their jobs and identify and identify factors that influenced transfer of training using Bald and Ford's model (1988) of transfer in the Kenyan context. A questionnaire was developed from course objectives and administered to 60 trainee participants to examine the perceived importance of management skills to the business, as well as perceived degree of training transfer. After the questionnaire data was analyzed, 12 participants were selected for in-depth interviews. An interview guide was used to collect data on factors that facilitated or inhibited training transfer. A quantitative approach was used to analyze data the questionnaire data while a qualitative approach was used to analyze data from the interviews. The results of the study indicated that trainees perceived that transfer of training had occurred at varying degrees. The most influential factors that were found to have influenced transfer of training were relevance and importance of the skill to the job, opportunity to use training on the job and external work environment. External work environment factors cited by participants were poor infrastructure, financial expectations after the training, unpredictable business trends, tendency to employ relatives, corruption, expectations of follow-up, distribution of risk by owning several business and bureaucracy. In addition, follow-up activities were found to influence transfer of training. Concerning the extent to which Baldwin and Ford's model of transfer was applicable to Kenyan context, the study found out that only two elements (relevance of the skill to the business and opportunity to use) of the model were found to be applicable.