28 Records out of 22207 Records

A genealogical analysis of the criminal justice system in Kenya : rebirth of restorative justice for juveniles

Author: Kinyanjui, S.M

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Law/Criminal law/Juvenile justice/Juvenile delinquency ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Leading from the middle : an analysis of the role and impact of academic middle leaders in the Kenyan secondary school.

Author: Mose, J N

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Leadership ; Secondary schools ; Impact analysis ;

Abstract:

This study explores the role of academic middle leaders in six secondary schools in Kenya, their impact and the challenges they face within their contexts. The research issues in this study are a result of the realisation that middle leadership is an under-utilised but vital ingredient in school improvement (Jones and O?Sullivan, 1997). There is a widely held view that schools rely on the dynamism and leadership qualities of middle leaders for their success (Wise and Bennett, 2003; Busher and Harris, 1999; Sammons et al, 1996; Harris et al, 1996a and b; Harris 1998). These observations show an increasing recognition of the pivotal role middle leaders? play in the effective management of the modern school. However, accompanying middle level management and leadership is the view that the concept of leadership is complex, evolving and likely to be viewed differently in different cultures. This study has adopted the western cultural understanding of leadership. This is cautiously done as Dimmock (2002) warns that issues of ?cultural transferability? should be handled with care. It has taken a broad (geographical) and in-depth systematic review and has relied on documented data, questionnaires, and interviews to inform its conceptualisation. This study is significant because it shows firstly, that academic department heads provide leadership and are ready to transform departments in their schools. They do this by facilitating the work of teams of teachers. Secondly, it shows that HoDs are important elements who complement their senior leadership teams as they strive to improve teaching and

The impact of small arms and light weapons on human security in North Eastern Uganda and North Western Kenya

Author: Kipkurui Arap Sang, Francis

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : MSc

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Small arms USE Weapons/Weapons/Security/Uganda/North Western Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

The dissertation endeavours to establish the factors that favour the proliferation of small arms and light weapons and their impact on human security in the areas of this study. The study also determines the collective approach and efforts undertaken by the governments and the contribution of other stake holders to alleviate the problem. The research was intended to test the hypothesis that armed violence experienced in the area of research is unlikely to be reduced in the absence of decisive action by the governments in providing security and the broad-based action on arms control and management. The research further aimed at testing the sub-cultural theory on 'gun culture' where the gun ownership is considered as a symbol of power within the pastoral communities. The study had also to evaluate the social dominance theory, which is seen to reinforce and promote links on the demand for small arms in the area of the study. The qualitative data analysis and the literature review show that if development initiatives and security were enhanced by the governments within the pastoralist communities, the demand of small arms and reduction thereof would be achieved. The study mainly recommends that, the governments should guarantee the security of the pastoralist communities as well as initiating development projects that would improve people's livelihoods and dissuade them from engaging in conflicts that precipitate the demand for illegal arms. The research also made other Significant recommendations and the way forward on strategies to combat the problem of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in North Eastern Uganda and the corresponding region in Kenya.

Foreign aid, fiscal policy and economic growth in Kenya.

Author: M'Amanja, D M

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Foreign aid ; Fiscal policy ; Economic development ;

Abstract:

The debate on the determinants of long run economic growth and its variations among countries is long and contentious. Many complex and often inter-linked factors influence growth differently in different countries and time contexts. Fiscal policy, foreign aid and investment-though certainly not only the factors-play a significant role in determining economic performance of a country. This study evaluated these and other variables for Kenya using annual time series data over the period 1964-2002 and find them to be significant. Using a single equation approach to determine growth effects of fiscal variables, we find that non-distortionary taxes and unproductive consumption expenditures are neutral to growth as posited by economic theory. Government capital expenditure, non-tax revenue, and human capital development are positively associated with long term growth, but aid negatively so. Budget deficits and distortionary taxes have no significant influence on growth in Kenya. In a Vector Autoregresive (VAR) system, which allows for dynamic inter-relationships among variables, total expenditure, total tax revenue and aid in form of grants were positively correlated with growth in Kenya. However, aid in form of loans was negatively associated with growth. Loans are also associated with reduced tax effort and increased government expenditure. In a related approach, we find public and private investment and imports have a favourable association with growth, but aid in form of loans had an adverse effect. Public investment and imports tend to crowd out private investment while aid (loans) had a crowning in effect on private investment. These results suggest that if donors? objective is to encourage growth in Kenya. enhancing aid in form of grants rather than loans should be considered. In addition, policy makers should formulate policies that increase the productivity of public investment to enhance its complementary role to private investment. Moreover, creating a stable macroeconomic and regulatory environment could encourage and promote private investment and enable it serve as the engine of growth of the economy.

Aspects of gender and mathematics : a case study of some secondary schools in Kenya.

Author: Nock, S

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Gender ; Mathematics education ; Secondary education ;

Abstract:

'Mathematics is difficult and especially so for girls'. The researcher had heard this but believed that it was success in examinations that proved more difficult for students rather than mathematics itself and that often girls underestimated their ability to achieve in this curriculum area. This is the case study focussing on four secondary schools, with varying percentages for girls, in rural Kenya. Kenya, in sub-Saharan Africa, is a country where there is no universal primary education (UPE) and education is not compulsory. Whilst looking at attitudes of all students, the emphasis has tended to be on the girls. The researcher believes that the evidence from these schools in sufficient to suggest that Kenyan schools should not necessarily accept the female prejudices against mathematics that research has found in first world countries. These findings both confirmed and contradicted areas of previous research on gender and mathematics. Whilst the majority of mathematics' teachers were male, the results endorse the literature which shows that this does not disadvantage the female students. However, expecting to find the girls marginalised in a country where a pedagogy of difference exists, in a subject considered a male domain, the researcher found that this was not the case: these findings tended to corroborate those of Driver (1980), Parry (1997) and Mittelberg and Lev-Ari (1999) in that female students, when motivated, are able to cope with mathematics. Many of the girls were enthusiastic about mathematics when they entered the secondary school and they were aware of the importance of mathematics for their future careers. The researcher was not able to ascertain that girls would perform better in a single-sex environment. The researcher believes that it is the expectation of a high level of mathematics for all students, together with the intensive syllabus that causes most Kenyan students to perform very badly in the mathematics' examination at the end of secondary schooling.

Phosphorus supply to a shallow tropical lake and its consequences, Lake Naivasha, Kenya..

Author: Kitaka, N

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Biological sciences/Phosphorus/Lake Naivasha, Kenya/Lakes/Environmental impact/Water pollution/ ;

Abstract:

The ecological stability of Lake Naivasha is unpredictable, as it lies in an endorrheic basin situated in an intensive agricultural region with diversified climatic conditions. The situation is getting worse as increase in agricultural activities and hence human population continues, consequently resulting in an increase in water demand and abstraction. An investigation in phosphorus dynamics, interactions and possible sources was carried out both in the inflowing waters and the lake. During the 'El Ni?o' rains approximately 9 times more TP was transported into the lake from the catchment mainly in particulate form (PP). The river Malewa transported almost 30 times more total phosphorus (TP) than the other two rivers. Most of the TP input arose from the middle course of the river, mainly in PP form bound in suspended solids. Watering of the livestock in the river was found to elevate the concentration of TP, PP and total suspended solids (TSS), although its influence downstream depended on discharge, intensity and frequency of disturbance. The phosphorus lake loading to the lake varied significantly between the two hydrological phases encountered with 1.41 and 0.21 g m-2 yr-1 for the 'extremely' wet and 'normal' wet years respectively classifying the lake as eutrophic. However the overall quotient between the mean in-lake phosphorus (P) and the inflow phosphorus (Pi) concentration from the river Malewa portrayed an equilibrium state with an overall P/Pi ratio of 0.62. The Naivasha sediments are poorly sorted with inorganic phosphorus dominance. The lake sediment has low phosphorus buffering capacity as portrayed by a low phosphorus sorption index (PSI), indicating a phosphorus source rather than sink

The breeding ecology and behaviour of the augur buzzard Buteo augur in relation to different land-uses in the southern Lake Naivasha area, Kenya.

Author: Virani, M Z

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Biological sciences/Lake Naivasha, Kenya/Birds/Land use/Animal reproduction/Animal behavior/Ecology/ ;

Abstract:

A comparative study of the breeding ecology and behaviour of the augur buzzard Buteo augur was made between 1995 and 1998 in the southern Lake Naivasha area, Kenya. Populations in Hell's Gate National Park (Hell's Gate) a protected area, and two other locations (both modified by humans) within the Lake Naivasha environs - Mundui and Sulmac-Oserian were compared. The main aspects studied were nesting density, nest-site selection, breeding behaviour, diet, hunting success, prey availability, breeding seasonality and breeding performance. The methods used were nest searches, augur buzzard ringing, nest and foraging observations, pellet and prey remains collection and analyses, transect counts to determine prey availability, nest site habitat data collection and recording the outcome of active nests. Mundui had the highest density of augur buzzards at 0.83 pairs per km2 compared to Hell's Gate (0.28 pairs per km2) and Sulmac-Oserian (0.23 pairs per km2). Augur buzzard pairs were more widely spaced in areas where human impacts had increased. Augur buzzards nested mainly in cliffs (in Hell's Gate) or trees (partly in Hell's Gate, exclusively elsewhere). In Numdui and Sulmac, augur buzzards selected mature, large canopied Acacia xanthophloea as nest trees while in Hell's Gate and Oserian, mature Euphorbia magnicapsular trees that grew on the steepest slopes were selected. Augur buzzard pairs in the lake environs spent more time caring for chicks than their counterparts in Hell's Gate. This was shown by increased maternal care and paternal foraging which resulted in larger broods and more prey deliveries to nests respectively. The factors responsible for these were an abundant food supply coupled with reduced predation pressure and inter/intra-specific interactions. Augur buzzards in Hell's Gate exploited a broader range of prey, while those in the lake environs specialised on rodents, particularly mole-rats.

Combined transient electromagnetic and magnetotelluric study of the Southern Kenya Rift Valley.

Author: Sakkas, V A

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Earth sciences/Electromagnetism/Magnetism/Rift Valley/ ;

Abstract:

The transient electromagnetic (TEM) method and the magnetotelluric (MT) technique have been applied to determine the electrical resistivity structure across the southern Kenya Rift Valley. The main profile extends from the shores of Lake Victoria, west of the Rift Valley, to the north of the Chyulu Hills volcanic chain, 150 km SE of the rift. A second profile runs parallel to the Chyulu Hills volcanic trend. Data from 19 stations along the two profiles have been processed using classical techniques and in the case of MT, analysed with modern tensor decomposition methods. The TEM data have facilitated the removal of static shift effects from the MT data and recovery of the near-surface (<300 m) geoelectric structure. One-dimensional joint inversion of TEM and MT data yielded an approximate geoelectric structure for the region. Subsequent two-dimensional modelling has revealed a more realistic resistivity distribution for the complex environment of the Kenya Rift. A resistive (>2000 .m) Archaean crust 30 km thick, with a 10-12 km mid-crustal conductive (100 .m) zone, resting on a moderately resistive (100 .m) mantle appears at the west end of the main profile. A conductive fault-like zone extending to mantle depths in the area of the Oloololo Escarpment coincides with the exposed boundary between the Archaean Nyanza Craton and the Proterozoic Mozambique Belt. A poorly constrained highly resistive (>10000 .m) (Proterozoic ?) crust is found at the western flank of the rift. Low resistivities (<50 .m) are found down to the base of the crust in the rift zone and are possibly due to the presence of sedimentary fill deposits at shallow depths, and the presence of magmatism and partial melt at deeper levels. East of the rift a less sharply defined geoelectric margin, offset from the accepted topographic and geologic boundary of the rift, marks the transition to a more resistive (1000 .m.) Proterozoic crust. Significantly enhanced conductivities (<100 .m) are implied in the complex 3-D region of the Chyulu Hills.

Breeding biology and ecology of the Great cormorant (Chalacrocorax carbo lucidus) at Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

Author: Childress, R Brooks

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Ecology ; Great cormorant ; Chalacrocorax carbo ; Birds ; Lake Naivasha, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines breeding season timing and seasonal declines in reproductive success in piscivores nesting inland near the equator. Also explored are the effects of sexual character intensity and nest-site characteristics on breeding timing, fecundity and mate choice, as well as the effects of resource partitioning between two similar piscivores.P.carbo lucidus is a relatively common, but little-studied, piscivores of sub-Saharan Africa. Lake Naivasha (0?46?S) is reputed to be seasonally constant in fish production. The colony studied was nearly -established in 1995, the first year of the two-year study. At Lake Naivasha, P.carbo lucidus bred primarily during April-June. There was no evidence of a consistent increase in prey in the lake during this period, and the timing did not appear to result from any other consistent environmental-response adaptation. However, the onset of the main rains appeared to be an important stimulant. Based on studies by others, this subspecies breeds during April-June. Throughout sub Saharan Africa, irrespective of the local rainfall regime or differences in photoperiod trend. While nesting at Lake Naivasha, a large portion of the colony appeared to forage at other locations. It is suggested that breeding timing at Lake Naivasha may be controlled by the combination of an increase in prey abundance generally throughout sub Saharan Africa during April-June, the subspecies?nearly 12-month endogenous reproductive cycle, and the onset of the main rains. A significant seasonal decline in reproductive success was observed. Combining the two years, the mean number of chicks fledged by the first third of pairs to start laying(2.9)was significantly greater than that of the last third(1.2).The primary reason appeared to be the greater age (and experience)of the early-breeding pairs. Egg or chick predation did not seem to be an important factor, even for late breeding pairs. Breeding interferences by hungry chicks from earlier broods appeared to be an important factor limiting the reproductive success of late breeding pairs. In the first year of the new colony, the earliest-breeding pairs (first third) preferentially selected canopy-top nest sites (76%) vs. sites below the canopy (24%). They also built significantly larger nests than later-breeding pairs. Canopy-top locations and larger nests had significant positive effects on brood size and fecundity in the colony?s first year but not in its second year. P.carbo lucidus is monomorphic in its basic plumage and seasonal sexual characters. Individual birds with more intensely developed sexual characters formed pairs significantly earlier than those with less intensely developed characters: 15 days earlier for males and 10 days earlier for females. Pairs which bred earliest had significantly higher fecundity. Males with the darkest cheek, foreneck, and upper breast plumage fledged significantly more chicks (2.9) than males with choice were not clear. The great cormorant population increased 56% at Lake Naivasha between 1993 and 1995, most likely as the result of immigration from nearby Lake Nakuru.During the same period; the long tailed cormorant population declined 64%.these trends continued during the study. The findings indicated that neither niche overlap nor environmental change was the likely cause, and it is suggested that foraging interference by fishermen may be the most likely explanation.

Obligately anaerobic alkaliphiles from Kenya soda lake sediments.

Author: Owenson, G G

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; Geology ; Alkalies ; Lakes ; Sediments ; East African Rift Valley ;

Abstract:

During the month of December 1992, an expedition was undertaken to collect anaerobic sediment samples from alkaline lakes of the East African Rift Valley to Kenya. During this expedition, eleven samples were collected from the four non-saline, northern lakes (Lake Bogoria, Lake Nakuru, Lake Elmenteita and Lake Sonachi). A further five samples were obtained from the hypersaline Lake Magadi. Utilising an array of media, the isolation of alkaliphilic, obligate anaerobes, representing one of the major undescribed constituents of the trophic network, was attempted. Extensive investigations into the sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) community of the sediment samples failed to provide pure culture isolates. However, successful enrichments utilising a range of substrates were obtained. Ethanol as a substrate resulted in the greatest number of positive enrichments, with representatives from each of the northern lakes visited. These are the first indications that ethanol may be used to enrich for alkaliphilic SRB. Lactate also performed well as a growth substrate, whilst acetate, butyrate, formate and fumarate also resulted in one or more positive enrichments. Contrary to previous findings, these data reveal the presence of alkaliphilic SRB capable of utilising a range of substrates. Although positive enrichments under hypersaline conditions were initially obtained using lactate, these cultures could not be maintained. Using the substrates betaine, trehalose, starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, xylan and guar gum (galactomannan), a number of other organisms were isolated. Despite being enriched under anaerobic conditions, all the isolates were found to be facultatively anaerobic although exo-enzyme production appeared to take place only under anaerobic conditions. Six alkaliphilic, obligate anaerobes were isolated from samples taken from two of the northern lakes (Lake Elmenteita and Lake Bogoria) using a complex medium with glucose. Phenotypic and taxonomic data indicated the presence of five species belonging to the Clostridium spectrum, although they were found to be phylogenetically distinct from previously described isolates. Each organism showed optimal growth at alkaline pH, and tolerated only low concentrations of NaCl (ca. 8% w/v). Enrichment of three Lake Magadi samples resulted in the isolation of three haloalkaliphilic obligate anaerobes. These organisms had an obligate requirement for high NaCl concentrations (> 16% w/v), and showed a limited pH range for growth in the alkaline region (> pH 9.5). Phylogenetic analysis of 6S rDNA revealed these isolates also clustered within the Clostridium region of the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, although they were also unrelated to any of the previously described species. Taxonomic proposals for a new genus and several new species are presented.