14 Records out of 22207 Records

Understanding resistance in inter-specific rice cultivars to the parasitic witchweed Striga

Author: Cissoko, Mamadou

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: DA. H1c 62-11517 ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Striga ; Rice ; Oryza sativa ; Oryza glaberrima ; Striga hermonthica ; Striga asiatica ; Genetics ; Weeds ;

Abstract:

Both cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa (L.) and Oryza glaberrima (Steud.), are grown in Africa. To take advantage of superior traits from each species, AfricaRice Center and partners developed inter-specific rice cultivars called NERICA (NEw RICe for Africa) for rain-fed upland ecosystems. NERICA rice cultivars showed different susceptibilities to both S. hermonthica and S. asiatica species under controlled environment conditions. Some cultivars showed good broad-spectrum resistance against several Striga ecotypes and species whilst others showed intermediate resistance or were very susceptible. In addition, some cultivars showed resistance to a particular ecotype of Striga but were susceptible to others. The phenotype of a resistant interaction was often characterized by necrosis at the host parasite interface and an inability of the parasite to penetrate the host root endodermis. In general, the most resistant NERICA cultivars grew better than the very susceptible cultivars although even a small number of parasites caused a reduction in above ground host biomass. There was however, genetic variation for tolerance to Striga (the ability to grow and yield well in the presence of Striga) amongst the NERICA cultivars. The NERICA cultivars were also grown in field trials at Kyela in Tanzania (under S. asiatica infestation) and at Mbita Point in Kenya (under S. hermonthica infestation) in 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of environment on the expression of resistance. The resistance of the NERICA cultivars against S. hermonthica and S. asiatica, in the field, was broadly similar to that observed in the laboratory although there were some exceptions. These results allow us to recommend particular cultivars for Striga-infested regions but they also illustrate the necessity of understanding the genetic basis of resistance to different ecotypes of Striga for breeding of durable resistance (and pyramiding of appropriate resistance genes) in host cultivars adapted to different rice agro-ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa. Sixty four lines of an inter-specific CSSL population and the parent cultivars O. glaberrima MG12 and O. sativa Caiapo were phenotyped for resistance to S. hermonthica. MG12 showed good resistance to S. hermonthica whilst Caiapo was very susceptible. The CSSLs showed a range of susceptibility to the parasite, however, only two CSSLs showed the same strong resistance phenotype as MG12. Graphical genotyping and a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis revealed a large QTL on chromosome 12 (designated STR12.1) which explained at least 80 % of the variation for resistance in the population and suggests that resistance to S. hermonthica (in MG12) is due to one (or a few genes) of major effect. This finding opens the way for the identification of candidate Striga resistance genes (through fine mapping approaches) and their transfer to farmer-preferred cultivars via marker assisted breeding.

An international comparative study of attitudes towards socio-economic inequality

Author: Barford, A

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Inequality ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

How teachers think about inequality in terms of what they aspire to and how they defend their views is surprisingly similar in the three study countries; Kenya, Mexico and the UK, despite their different positions in the world economic order. I attribute this to the near global hegemony of neoliberal logics concerning what is seen as being desirable and how things work. What differ are the terms in which inequality is defined and the form that critiques of inequality take. In particular, questions of respect and inferiority/superiority are verbalised in the middle and poorer countries and not in the richer country. The most important message to come from this work is that in thinking about inequality at the world level, it is important to talk about inequality with people from different points in the world, rather than concerning ourselves mainly with what the rich think of the poor, or what the poor think of the poor. Through better understanding the experiences and constructions of world inequality according to people differentially positioned within this inequality, we can more fruitfully learn about the nature of what these findings, and those of may others, illustrate to be a very damaging situation. These findings suggest that the energy for change is least likely to come from richer countries as the more powerful critiques often stem from people living where they see and experience more challenging aspects of world inequality.

Growth determinants of micro and small manufacturing enterprises in Kenya

Author: Ndemo, Elijah Bitange

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Small business ; Manufacturing ; Business conditions ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Cultural influences in housing : a study of cultural influences in recent housing of low-income Kikuyu residents in Nairobi

Author: Kibue, S N

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Housing/Social life and customs/Kikuyu (African people)/Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The relationship between cultural value orientations, human resource management preferences, person-organisation fit and job involvement in Kenya

Author: Nyambegera, S M

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Human resource management ; Job satisfaction ;

Abstract:

The main purpose of the research was to establish existing cultural value orientations and the extent of their influence on HRM preferences in the Kenyan context. The study undertook analyses of value orientations at the individual level to enable a better understanding of the role of cultural values in predicting HRM preferences. Essentially, the study determined how much variance in individual preference for HR system design can be attributed to the influence of value orientations and examined which values influence which work-related preferences in Kenya. Further, the study explored the extent to which fit between HRM preferences and actual policy practice impact levels of job involvement in a developing country context. The study also focused on the fit of individual values with organisational culture, as represented by the value orientations of others in the organisation. I found evidence that on average, the sample held the following cultural value orientations: activity thinking and doing values characterising Kenyans as rational and goal oriented; relationship values emphasised both collateral and individual values and also to some extent hierarchical values. For HRM preferences Kenyans prefer high involvement/participation, high predictable rewards, performance HRM practices, and high empowerment. Three of these preferences were linked to cultural values. By identifying which HRM preferences are value-free or value-linked, researchers can gain insights into both the efficiency of a local HRM process and the transferability of the process. Ethnicity was also seen to play a role in cultural values as the sample reported significant differences between values such as subjugation and human nature good-evil. The pervasive value-linked nature of the HRM process was also evident. This study shows one way in which employee preferences for HRM policies and practices could be predicted from cultural value orientations.

A comparative study of the information seeking and communication behaviour of the Kenya Railways and British Rail engineers in their work situation

Author: Odini, Cephas

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Engineers ; Railroads ; Information literacy ; Communication ; Kenya Railways Corporation ; British Rail ;

Abstract:

This study seeks insight into engineers information seeking and communication behaviour at two railway transport companies, in a developing and a developed country. The study employs a user - centred approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which have been system - centred. It focuses broadly and considers the user, his functional role, his formal and informal information seeking and communication processes and the influence of the environment in which information seeking and communications take place. The information seeking patterns derived from the data collected in interviews with the two groups of engineers are compared in several different ways in accordance with the recommendations contained in the grounded theory style of qualitative analysis. Both similarities and differences are identified in the information seeking and communication patterns. For example, similarities are noted in the ways in which information needs are generated and perceived by engineers, in the ways in which the engineers select sources for information searching and also in the ways in which information is used. The major differences identified were related to the type of strategies devised by engineers. Whereas the Kenya Railways engineers devised predominantly simple instantaneous strategies, their British Rail counterparts devised more elaborate information seeking strategies in which problem definition activities constituted a very important part of the information seeking process. The difference in information seeking patterns of the two groups of engineers could be accounted for largely on the basis of differences in levels of task complexity. Nevertheless, the study recognises the similarities in the information seeking and communication patterns of the two groups of engineers as having greater significance than the differences. This is especially so since a knowledge of the similarities may assist in the design of improved information systems for engineers, and thus bridge the gap between the engineers' natural process of seeking information and the ways in which information is dispensed to them, irrespective of whether they are in a developing or a developed country. The study concludes that the information seeking behaviour of engineers should not be viewed solely from the perspective of formal documentation but should be viewed mainly from the perspective of the engineer and his work tasks which are responsible for generating information needs which can best be satisfied through personal contacts and informal documentation.

CD-ROM technology : its application to academic libraries with particular reference to the University of Nairobi Library, Kenya.

Author: Ong'any, Matthews Jack

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : MSc

Year: 1991

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Academic libraries ; University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ; CD-ROM ; Information technology ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Cooperation for academic libraries in Kenya : a theoretical model.

Author: Ndegwa, Rosemary Ngima

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : MA

Year: 1989

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Academic libraries ; Libraries ;

Abstract:

As a consequence of rapid expansion in higher education in Kenya in the last decade, academic libraries have experienced considerable pressure through increased demands on services and resources. Moreover, further pressure is felt as a result of problems that confront these libraries. Co-operation is proposed as a means of tackling those while facilitation the satisfaction of those demands. However, co-operation is not assumed to be a panacea for all these problems. The study traces the development of higher education from the days of the University of East Africa to the establishment of national universities, of which Kenya has currently got four, including other academic institutions. It is established that a number of co-operative activities existed on a regional basis and some continued even after the three countries established individual universities. But, due to either financial or administrative problems, a number of those activities were discontinued. However, a few continued among academic libraries in Kenya, basically in the form of exchange, and on an informal basis. To determine the type and nature of co-operative projects suitable for academic libraries, an analysis of the extant activities is made. This reveals that, as they are operated , they serve limited purpose and may not be effective. At the same time, an examination of the problems confronting academic libraries is made, to point out an important, but complex factor that can both hinder and spur Co-operation. Similarly factors existing within the academic environment and other environments, together with other external factors, are examined, so that conclusions on the effects of these relationships on co-operation can be made. From these relationship a theoretical model for academic libraries' co-operation is proposed and two basic types of co-operative schemes are recommended-exchange and a combination of collaboration an coalition. Within these two types, a number of activities are proposed. However, the success of the proposed co-operative enterprises would depend first on setting a criterion on objectives and second on the conduction of a pilot study to establish some basic facts.

Guidelines for teachers of information retrieval in Kenya

Author: Odini, Cephas

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : MA

Year: 1989

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Information retrieval ; Educators ; Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya. Faculty of Information Sciences ; Teacher education ;

Abstract:

In Kenya an Information Sciences Course is offeredat Moi University near Eldoret town. The course started in October 1988 with a group of fifty students. At the moment the Faculty of Information Sciences staff are faced with the difficult task of developing appropriate teaching programmes for the various subjects in view of the limited teaching facilities and resources. As a member 0: staff at the Faculty of Information teaching programmes at the new Faculty together with my teaching colleagues. In this dissertation I have drawn up guidelines for teachers of Information retrieval in Kenya with special reference to the Information Sciences Faculty at Moi University. In formulating the guidelines I have tried as much as possible to consider the prevailing local conditions in the Information field, but since these will keep changing from. time to time it is recommended that teachers of Information retrieval make a careful analysis of the particular circumstances and conditions before deciding to what extent and how the subject should be taught to any particular group at anyone time. It is observed that no guidelines in a dynamic area like the Information Sciences can be considered final. The changing environment and social needs and demands will no doubt dictate modifications in these guidelines and at a later stage the formulation of new ones. In the Introduction part of the guidelines, some background information about the Faculty of Information Sciences at Moi University is given followed by a brief narrative of the challenges of teaching the Information Sciences in a young developing country like Kenya. The major aim of the guidelines is highlighted and so is the Information retrieval subject scope. The general and specific objectives of the subject are outlined in the second section, followed by statements on teaching rationale and teaching methods. The twenty one Information retrieval topics covered by the guidelines are stated in the third section, and the specific teaching programmes for the topics are outlined in the next section. Each programmeincludes a statement on objectives for teaching every topic, an outline, and narrative of important points in the topic and suggestions on how the topic can be taught. The fifth section deals with teaching facilities and practical considerations. Some of the suggested facilities are not in existence at the moment but it is felt that it would be a good idea for the Faculty to try and acquire them. The last section of the dissertation consists of Appendices which incluce some suggestions for students practical exercises, test questions and reading lists.

Environmetal information transfer in Kenya.

Author: Kaberia, Evelina W

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : MSc

Year: 1987

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Libraries/Environment/Information dissemination/ ;

Abstract:

Environmental information is of varied nature because it relates to all aspects of human life. The environmental literature draws from many disciplines, which range from Geology, Chemistry, Biology and pollution to social sciences such as economics, management, political policy and social implications. A person dealing with environmental information has to think across a whole range of disciplines before he can come up with comprehensive information about each aspect. This implies that generating and organizing such information is not an easy job and may involve different types of people; transferring it to the correct user-groups is even more difficult. With all these inherent problems in and, this study has been designed to answer the following questions: - Is environmental information available in Kenya? - If so, who generates and organises this information? - Which methods are used in transferring this information, particularly to the rural people? - What problems are associated with the existing methods? - What measures has the Kenya government taken to solve the existing problems? - What other ways can be used to improve environmental information handling activities in Kenya? All these questions are answered in the study.