83 Records out of 22207 Records

Slum upgrading in India and Kenya : investigating the sustainability

Author: Cronin, V

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Slums ; Informal settlements ; Housing ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This research follows a qualitative methodology to investigate the sustainability of differing slum upgrading interventions. Four case studies have been examined; two in Kenya and two in India, demonstrating a range of physical upgrading approaches. Alternative slum upgrading delivery models have been selected covering housing rehabilitation and in-situ water and sanitation upgrading and demonstrating top-down and bottom-up approaches. The case studies are of varying ages and were implemented via partnership with differing agents including government, NGO, CBO, private developer and donors. The influence and design of the delivery model upon the upgrading sustainability has been assessed via stakeholder perception during extensive fieldwork. The data gathered has been analysed according to four key themes: status of life for slum-dwellers today, perception of upgrading success, institutional reform from external factors and development aspirations. Data was gathered via semi-structured interviews with slum-dwellers and project stakeholders using a ground-level methodology that enabled the capture of personal and honest accounts. Analysis of the data has found that there are many misconceptions around slums which can affect the sustainability of measures to upgrade informal settlements. The way that international development organisations and westerners view slums is often very particular and not always resonant with the way that slum-dwellers view their living situations. Priorities for development are not always consistent across stakeholders. For sustainability, any slum upgrading activity must be sensitive to the situation of an individual community and culture, and not assume that the residents are unhappy living in desperate poverty, as it has been shown, many choose to reside in a slum. Slums may be dirty, poorly serviced, and overcrowded but are also places of great human energy, community spirit, kindness, hardworking creative and happy places that many consider home.

Delivery models for decentralised rural electrification : case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

Author: Yadoo, A L

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Electricity/Poverty/Rural electricification/Rural development/ ;

Abstract:

Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy services is fundamental to poverty reduction and sustainable development. Over 1.4 billion people currently lack access to electricity and use lower quality (and often higher cost) traditional fuels to meet their basis lighting and power needs. This doctoral research focuses on the delivery of decentralised community level mini-grids in Nepal, Peru and Kenya, considering how their implementation can generate greater and more sustainable welfare benefits for the rural poor. The author undertook three main case studies and a number of satellite studies of community-level mini-grids in Nepal, Peru and Kenya, as well as 67 practitioner interviews. A series of Sustainability Indicators were created against which the main case studies were evaluated. These findings were combined with analysis from the interviews to produce a decision support tree and a series of recommendations for rural electrification practitioners. While all of a delivery model?s pre-identified variables (ownership, governance and management models, productive uses, the implementing agency?s approach, training, local job creation, financing, dissemination strategies and the enabling environment) were found to affect the ability to achieve sustainable welfare benefits, the three most salient themes were those of Responsibility, Impetus and Scope. During a project?s planning and implementation states overriding focus should be placed on generating a sense of local responsibility for the electricity system and its upkeep across all key stakeholders, growing local desire for the electricity services provided and stimulating providers to expand their business, and extending the scope of the project across different development arenas to create maximum welfare impact. Moreover, practitioners should attempt to influence and build the institutional framework and environment in which a project takes place. Engaging with the private sector through more innovative partnerships and hybrid business models should help accelerate the ability to scale-up and replicate successful projects.

Institutions for the production and marketing of African coffee growing in central Kenya, 1930s to 1960s

Author: Jung, Chan Do

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Coffee/Marketing/Industrial production/Central Kenya ;

Abstract:

Keywords: Coffee industry

Bounding identity : territoriality, ethnicity and the state in Western Kenya, 1930-1963

Author: MacArthur, Julie Elin

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Luyia (African people) ; Ethnicity ; Western Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Educating daughters, educating sons : understanding mothering in rural Kenya

Author: Lukalo, Fibian Kavulani

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Mothers ; Children and youth ; Rural areas ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Sikh communities in Southeast Asia and East Africa, c.1870-1970

Author: McCann, G

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Sikhs ; East Africa ; Southeast Asia ; History ; Economic life ;

Abstract:

This thesis analyses the social, economic and political history of Sikh communities in Southeast Asia and East Africa in the British colonial and early post-colonial periods. The principal countries of focus are the territories which have become Malaysia, Singapore, Kenya and Tanzania. The thesis opens by analysing Sikh history in Punjab from the period of the Gurus through to British Imperial presence, when ?martial race theory? led to patronage of Sikhs in India and abroad. Overseas Sikh movement, however, soon expanded beyond these colonial ?martial? foundations. This had profound consequences both for destinations of migration and political economy of ?home?. The effects of migration on colonial economic roles, internal mechanics of Sikh society, modes of competition and discourses of virtue (which deviated from Punjabi norms) are important to the study. The development of a multitude of Sikh ?communities? according to various historical circumstances of migration to Africa and Asia is described. The fluid, shifting and situational nature of identity formation is posited. The thesis is thus heavily pre-occupied with disaggregating the assumed homogeneity of Sikh overseas communities, which has been asserted by reverential historiography and modern oral testimonies. Links to India and ?commitment? to new ?homes? are studied in a comparative fashion, like Sikh relations with ?indigenous? ethnic groups and the colonial state within these very different pluralist societies. The erosion of religious orthodoxy in ?diaspora?, the primary threat to Sikhism in the eyes of older Sikhs, forms a portion of the study. The effects of Indian agitation on local politics and Sikh attachment to such pan-Indian protest are analysed. The work will consider the imperial history of East Africa, Southeast Asia and India from point of view of ?colonised? and mobile peoples. It will narrate diasporic Sikh social history in regions that have been neglected in scholarship and give attention to some unheard voices in the British Empire.

Hepatosplenic morbidity in Kenyan schoolchildren : clinical and immunological interactions between schistosomiasis and chronic exposure to malaria

Author: Wilson, S

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences/Morbidity/Schistosomiasis/Immunology/Malaria/Children and youth/Makueni District/ ;

Abstract:

Studies in Makueni District, Kenya have shown that increased rates of Schistosomiasis mansoni associated childhood hepatosplenomegaly (HS) may be attributable to co-exposure to malaria, rather than schistosomiasis-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis and that parasite-induced inflammatory mechanisms may be involved. This thesis reports studies focused on schoolchildren attending two schools, within a study area of 10 by 6 kilometres, in Makueni District, and details interactions between schistosomiasis and malaria that may influence anti-parasite immunological responses and hepatosplenic morbidity. Community parasitological surveys showed that transmission of S. mansoni was geographically restricted within the study area, while malaria was transmitted throughout. Community-wide serology, combined with GIS analysis, established that malaria-specific antibody responses, in children but not adults, were more stable markers of exposure to malaria than blood smear detectable parasitaemia, and that exposure was a function of distance of residence to the nearest water body. The restricted S. mansoni transmission allowed school-aged children to be grouped by infection status. Rates of HS were comparable between S. mansoni infected and non-infected children, with higher exposure to malaria being associated with underlying HS. HS may be caused by malaria driven pro-inflammatory responses exacerbated by S. mansoni infection. In addition in vitro whole blood responses to S. mansoni egg antigens were found to be predominantly pro-inflammatory, with both increased S. mansoni infection intensity and blood smear detectable parasitaemia suppressing schistosome egg-specific anti-inflammatory responses. HS was not solely a marker for these infections, but was associated with increased portal pressure and poor growth: sequelae with possible long-term health consequences for affected children.

Fighting for survival : wildlife, land and politics in Tsavo National Park, Kenya 1930-1963

Author: Cowan, C E

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: History ; Wildlife conservation ; Tsavo National Park, Kenya ; African history ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Gender values, schooling, and transition to adulthood : a study of female and male pupils from two urban schools in Kenya

Author: Chege, Fatuma Nyaguthii

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Primary school students ; Education ; Families and family life ; Gender ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Studies on gender and education in Kenya have portrayed girls and women as passive victims of the patriarchal structures of family and school that reflect gender relations within a macro-system that defines femininity and masculinity as exclusive of each other. Analyses of the Kenyan educational scene reveal gender gaps characterised by relatively low rates of female enrolment, participation, transition, and achievement. Though gender equality has become a major focus in Kenyan education policy, the practice and outcomes of schooling have yet to reflect such intentions. Kenyan studies have tended to describe and explain the persistent educational inequalities. However, little attention is given to the way young people actively respond to social positioning in the family, school, and community while constructing their own definitions of femininity and masculinity. This thesis addresses this knowledge gap by focusing on primary school pupils aged between 13 and 14 years and the ways in which they navigate the `journey' to adult status. These Kenyan pupils often have to cope, not just with the physical, psychological and emotion-related stress and tensions related to the biological transition from childhood, but also with the academic pressure and uncertainty associated with the transition from primary school to secondary level, or leaving the educational system altogether. This research was conducted in two state primary schools in the city of Nairobi that are distinguished by geographical locations, pupil catchments, parental socio-economic status, as well as different histories and ethnic composition. The aim is to investigate the role of gender in the family and school and the consequences for the schooling of young people as they negotiate gender values and identities in the context of both their rural extended and urban families, and their communities. The research questions focus on young girls' and boys' perceptions, interpretations, and constructions of girlhood and womanhood as well as boyhood and manhood vis-a-vis the dominant socio-cultural definitions and expectations of education and adulthood. Post-structuralism guides this study theoretically and methodologically, helping to underscore the active relationship between agency, subjectivity, and social structures, and challenging the presupposed structural determinisms in society, while at the same time acknowledging the perspective of fluid and shifting positioning of young people in the various social processes that either empower or dis-empower them. The case study approach, which facilitates the combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies in the solicitation, triangulation, and analyses of data from multiple sources, allows the participants to share in various decision-making processes during the exploration of their own experiences of contemporary phenomena within real-life contexts.

The causes and revolutionary consequences of sex ratio distortion in African butterflies

Author: Juggins, F M

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Butterflies and moths/Gender/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE