5 Records out of 22207 Records

Protection of indigenous land rights in Central Eastern and Southern Africa : cases of Tanzanian and Kenyan land laws

Author: Barume, A K

Awarding University: University of Essex, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Land tenure ; Legislation ; African Commission on Human and People's Rights ; Indigenous people ;

Abstract:

This thesis discusses the relevance of indigenous rights in Africa, a continent where almost all domestic laws recognise states as sole owners of all lands. Is this principle of states land ownership compatible with indigenous communities? rights that existed before the Berlin Conference? It is this thesis? argument that the formalisation of current African states in 1885 did not extinguish rights of communities, whose claims are based on immemorial occupation and use of their ancestral lands. It is another of this thesis? conclusions that most of Central, Eastern and Southern African communities claiming indigenous status are either hunter-gatherers or pastoralists. They are all facing pressure from agriculturist and conservation-oriented mainstream societal culture. This is a reality in several African states, despite these countries? ratifications of several relevant international instruments, notably the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Tanzania and Kenya are good illustrations of the persisting lack of positive discriminations on behalf of indigenous communities in Africa. The analysis of land and conservation-related laws enacted in these two countries, since their occupation by colonial powers, underlines the building of nations-states, a lack of attention from the international community, the triumph of capitalism, strong conservation interests and free-market-driven land management of lands as causes of several African states? underperforming so far as indigenous rights are concerned. However, the African indigenous movement appears to be taking shape. Efforts are underway at both domestic and regional levels. The developing African indigenous civil society, the ongoing efforts by countries like South Africa and the recent setting up of a working Group on indigenous issues by the African Commission on Human and People?s Rights are all indicators of a changing environment, which could culminate in a revision of the principle that recognises states as sole owners of lands.

Language use in a medical setting : reconciling explanatory models of illness in the diagnostic interview among the Giriama of Kenya.

Author: Furaha Chai, Jonathan

Awarding University: University of Essex, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Giriama (African people) ; Linguistics ; Ethnology ; Witchcraft ; Physicians ;

Abstract:

This thesis is based on an analysis of Giriama divination as a speech event comparable to the biomedical diagnostic interview. Its main objective is the reconciliation of the discourse strategies used in divination with those used in the biomedical clinic during the diagnostic interview. Interactional sociolinguistics, which incorporates anthropological approaches with sociolinguistics, guided this research and data analysis. In terms of data collection, ethnographic approaches involving participant observation and unstructured interviews were used. A total of 30 diviners and three medical doctors were observed attending their clients/patients in a period of six months between October 2000 and March 2001. Unstructured interviews were used to gather more ethnographic information from the diviners/doctors and their clients. Personal Communication (PC) with some of the Giriama diviners helped to fill in information on the belief system about witchcraft and divination among the Giriama-information that is presented in chapter two. The data collected consisted of digital recordings of the interactions. A total of 25 x 74 min. Minidisks were used to record the data. Data analysis involved first transcribing the recorded interactions. From the transcripts, a representative sample of fifteen diviners and two doctors was chosen and then questions and cases of repetition were identified, coded and quantified. It follows the principles of ethnographic discourse analysis, which makes use of participants' organisational strategies while using surrounding discourse as data in understanding some fragment of talk-in this case, questions and repetition. The research found that structurally divination and the biomedical diagnostic interview share some characteristic features. However in terms of the functions of questions and repetition as discourse strategies are used, there were some differences. These differences are the ones that need to be reconciled if doctor/patient interaction among the Giriama is to be improved. The results are significant, in that they contribute to an understanding of both divination and the doctor/patient relationship. These could also have a bearing on medical training and healthcare provision among the Giriama in particular, and other communities that make use of similar 'alternative therapies' that involve the 'revelatory'divination.

Growth and photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays l.) in sub-optimal environments with particular reference to Britain and Kenya.

Author: Macharia, Joseph N M

Awarding University: University of Essex, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1988

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; University of Nairobi Chiromo Library ;

Subject Terms: Plant growth ; Maize ; Photosynthesis ; Machakos, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Available from UMI in association with the British Library. Requires signed TDF. Growth and photosynthesis studies were carried out using various high latitude European and high and low altitude Kenyan maize cultivars under temperature and drought stress. The aim of the study was to establish and understand the nature of limitations imposed by these stresses and the extent to which such limitations, identified in control environments, relate to the field situation. High light increased the low and high temperature induced damage to light saturated and limited photosynthetic co$/sb2$uptake of maize plants, independently of any increase of stomatal limitations. Significant genotypic differences in response to temperature were observed in low and high temperature stress. Although all cultivars were vulnerable to severe stress, the low and medium altitude races may be better adapted than the high altitude cultivars with respect to their response to moderate drought stress. While mild stress reduced the rate of co$/sb2$ uptake partly, through increased stomatal limitations, the carboxylation efficiency and rate of regeneration of co$/sb2$ acceptor decreased under severe stress. As predicted from laboratory experiments low temperature at Essex, England, and leaf water potential at Machakos, Kenya, resulted in reduced leaf and canopy photosynthesis and growth rate of field crops. The low temperature and leaf water potential reduced crop growth rate through reductions in the rate of both leaf area development and efficiency of solar energy conversion. Contrary to the previous studies, this work shows that the efficiency of solar energy conversion to plant dry weight is not a constant in a field maize crop, but is depressed in the early stages of growth. Variability in the susceptibility of leaf photosynthesis of maize cultivars to temperature and drought stress suggest that there is scope for development of more tolerant lines, able to maintain light conversion efficiencies in these marginal climates for maize production.

Rachid Boudjedra and Ngugi wa Thiong'o : a comparative study of two post-independence African writers.

Author: Lebdai, Benaouda

Awarding University: University of Essex, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1987

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: African literature ; Boudjedra, Rachid ; Ngugi wa Thiong'o ;

Abstract:

Available from UMI in association with the British Library. Requires signed TDF. The thesis is concerned principally with the comparative study of two post-independence african writers: Rachid Boudjedra from Algeria and Ngugi wa Thiong'o from Kenya. The intention is to look closely, through a detailed analysis of their major texts, at the war of ideologies which takes place in post-independence Africa, in the context of two different systems of development, namely, Algeria's socialist mode of production and Kenya's capitalist mode of production. The study of specific novels will reveal how the two ideological and economic systems affect the content and the literary form of the two writers. The goal is to show, that regardless of the official ideological system, both novelists denounce similar shortcomings and flaws in varying degrees, as related to the post-independence national bourgeoisie as well as to neo-colonialism. Although Boudjedra and Ngugi belong to the second generation of African writers, we shall examine the repercussions of colonialism over the post-independent generations as a whole, and consequently their view of history. The politics of languages in Africa is a crucial one. Boudjedra and Ngugi's decisions to stop writing in the colonial languages in 1981, will lead to examination of the political implications of their attitude. For the purpose of this study, Gramsci's terminology and key concepts like 'hegemony', 'traditional' intellectuals or 'organic' intellectuals, will be adequate to use as the work investigates the workings of class struggle. Gramsci's view of the relevance of the function of the intellectual in the awakening of the masses' consciousness, seems appropriate to comprehend the function of this body of literature. Moreover, the aim of this thesis is to contribute to bridge the gap between the literature of North Africa and the literature south of the Sahara by enhancing the similarity of problems and interests despite the obviously different background traditions. The aim is to demonstrate how similar Boudjedra and Ngugi are, first in their view of the function of literature in Third World countries and second in their ideological standpoint. The reading of their texts owes much to the marxist theory of literature, most importantly that of Lukacs, Eagleton and Macherey. This thesis wishes to be a contribution to the field of comparative literature.

Socio-economic transformation in East Africa : the growth of trading centres in rural Kenya.

Author: Kabwegyere, Tarsis B

Awarding University: University of Essex, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1976

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ; University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: African history/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE