21 Records out of 22207 Records

Spatial modelling, phytogeography and conservation in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya

Author: Platts, Philip

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Forests/Eastern Arc Mountains/Ecosystems/Climate change/Trees/ ;

Abstract:

Forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains are amongst the oldest and most biodiverse on Earth. They are a global priority for conservation and provide ecosystem services to millions of people. This thesis explores how spatial modelling can provide direction for conservation and botanical survey, and contribute to understanding of phytogeographical relationships. The ecoregion is rigorously defined by terrain complexity, vegetation distribution and established geoclimatic divisions, providing a coherent platform upon which to collate and monitor biological and socioeconomic information. Accordingly, 570 vascular plant taxa (species, subspecies and varieties) are found to be strictly endemic. The human population exceeds two million, with median density more than double the Tanzania average. Population pressure (accrued across the landscape) is shown to be greatest adjacent to the most floristically unique forests. Current knowledge on species distributions is subject to sampling bias, but could be systematically improved by iterative application of the bioclimatic models presented here, combined with targeted fieldwork. Tree data account for 80% of botanical records, but only 18% of endemic plant species; since conservation priorities differ by plant growth form, future fieldwork should aim to redress the balance. Concentrations of rare species correlate most strongly with moisture availability, whilst overall richness is better predicted by temperature gradients. Climate change impacts are projected to be highly variable, both across space and between species. Concordant with the theory that past climatic stability facilitated the accumulation of rare species, contemporary climates at sites of known endemic richness are least likely to be lost from dispersal-limiting mountain blocs during the 21st century. Faced with rapid population growth and the uncertainty of climate change, priorities for governance are to facilitate sustainable forest use and to maintain/restore habitat connectivity wherever possible. Overall, the thesis demonstrates that decision makers concerned with biodiversity conservation, particularly in mountain and coastal regions, should be wary of inferring local patterns of change from broad-scale models. The current study is a step toward spatially refined understanding of conservation priorities in the Eastern Arc Mountains, whilst novel methodologies have wider application in the fields of species distribution modelling and mountain analysis.

Women in national liberation wars in the settler colonies of Kenya and Zimbabwe : pathways to political empowerment

Author: Kombo, Eudora Ebitimi

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : MA (Res)

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Women/Colonialism/Liberation/Womens studies/Womens rights movement/ ;

Abstract:

Throughout the 20th century African women have challenged their subordinate status both under European colonial rule and under their post-independence governments. Women have used protest action, membership in nationalist political parties, participation in national liberation wars, and the use of autonomous women?s organizations to advance their political status. During anti-colonial liberation wars in Algeria, Kenya, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa, women were combatants, civilian activists and supporters providing non-combat services with the expectation of advancing their interests and acquiring new political rights after independence (Becker, 1995). Yet after playing such vital roles in the liberation of their countries women are still politically underrepresented in most post- liberation countries. Using case studies of Kenya and Zimbabwe this research will evaluate whether or not women?s military and non-combat roles during national liberation wars empowered them politically in their post-independence nations. I will use the empowerment framework to argue that during the wars of liberation in Kenya and Zimbabwe the nationalist parties did not articulate a clear ideology of women?s liberation or empowerment, but that instead they incorporated ideologies which regenerated traditional culture and which negatively impacted women?s political empowerment. I will show that due to colonial oppression women?s political consciousness progressively deepened and motivated them to participate in the liberation wars. I will investigate what roles women?s organizations have played both during the wars and in the post-liberation era in women?s continued struggles for political advancement in their independent states. This research is a text-based analysis of the ideas advanced above, using available scholarly materials from books, journal articles, and data from the Inter Parliamentary Union and from United Nations Women documents. I also use online material from specific women?s organizations from Kenya and Zimbabwe

Foreign aid, donors and policy formulation in Kenya : a challenge to contemporary theories of policy making

Author: Mburu, Joseph M

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Foreign aid ; Public policy ;

Abstract:

This thesis makes three contributions. First, it shows that, beyond ideas of policy transfer, most contemporary models of public policy-making fail to take into account the exogenous and non-domestic sources of, and demands for, policy innovation or reform. This is particularly the case in respect of post-colonial states, like Kenya, where there is a high level of aid-dependency. Second, I illustrate this with two detailed case studies of policy formation in Kenya the privatization process and the anti-corruption programme. Both show the profound influence of foreign donor agencies (as non-domestic constituents of the policy and hence political process) not only on the shape, direction and form of policy, but often on the precise wording and content of the policies and their legislative embodiment. Third, I suggest that in the light of this evidence, there is need to rethink and revise models of public policy-making in the post-colonial African state. Moreover, having shown the extent of donor involvement in two key areas of public policy-making in Kenya, I point out that this story raises profoundly troubling if not contradictory implications for external donors? concerns about democracy (and especially democratic governance), state autonomy and sovereignty. Chapter 2 is a literature review of policy-making models and points to their deficiencies when analysing post-colonial states and external factors. Chapter 3 analyses the history of Kenya?s models of policy-making. Chapter 4 outlines the magnitude of aid flows to Kenya over time, while Chapter 5 illustrates the importance of that aid to Kenya. Chapter 6 discuss the evolution and forms of aid conditionality in Kenya since independence. Chapter 7 and 8 each focus in detail on the two case studies on privatization and anti-corruption.

Ecological-economic modelling and implications of land use change and wetlands extent on freshwater fisheries : the case of Lake Victoria (East Africa) [Kenya].

Author: Simonit, S

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture/Land use/Resource management/Agricultural economics/Fishing industry/Lake Victoria, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Watershed degradation and the conversion of wetlands to alternative uses affect water quality, having profound implications for the freshwater ecosystem and fisheries of Lake Victoria. Through dynamic simulations using the Ecopath approach we show that eutrophication may explain the sudden upsurge of the introduced Nile perch during the 1980s. The Nile perch population explosion during the 1980s caused a profound transformation of the fishing industry leading to a dramatic increase in fishing effort. To quantify the combined effect of eutrophication and fishing effort on the aggregate fish stock and fishery we specify and estimate a biomass dynamics model, which embeds a measure of phytoplankton biomass as an environmental variable. We found that in a eutrophic state, which for the Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria was above an estimated chlorophyll-a concentration threshold of 17.11 mg m-3, a further increase in phytoplankton biomass would cause a decrease in aggregate fish stock biomass and landings respectively. We then model the relation between land use change and water quality, considering the nutrient retention function of wetlands. First, we identify catchment-based indicators, in particular price indicators and wetland extent, which may anticipate changes in environmental variables driving stock assessment models. We then study both nutrient loading and wetland reclamation externalities to the fishery sector, focusing on the Yala swamp, one of the largest wetlands in the Kenyan basin of Lake Victoria. Finally we propose a spatially distributed land use tax as policy instrument for reaching the desired objective of changing farmers? behaviour and maximising the total economic benefit to society.

The effects of artisanal fishing gear on Kenya's coral reefs : gear management in Kenya's coastal fisheries

Author: Mangi, Stephen C

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Coral reefs ; Fishing industry ; Environmental impact ;

Abstract:

The fishing gears used, their impacts on species diversity and structure of marine communities, and their relative profitability were studied in the multi-gear fishery of southern Kenya to develop policy recommendations for the management of this artisanal fishery. Catch data for each gear were collected from nine fish landing sites over a five-year period and analysed in order to describe temporal patterns in gear use and to assess the state and management of the fishery. Benthic substratum damage, proportion of juvenile fish and discards were quantified and these data were used to evaluate the impacts of each gear on coral reef biodiversity. The impacts of each gear were later compared to the profitability for each gear to establish the motivation behind using more damaging gears. Relationships between catch, fishing effort, habitat variables and communities from specific grounds were explored in order to determine significant variables influencing fish catch levels. Results indicate that the fishery is overexploited and many species are growth overfished. Among the gears, beach seines cause the highest damage to fish and habitats and have the potential to overfish the reefs. Low cost gears were associated with highest environmental damage indicating that the need for cheap gears drives fishers to using more damaging gears. The number of fishers was the strongest factor influencing fish catch levels, and there was evidence that the present fishing effort is very high. Evaluation of the problem of overfishing and use of destructive gear using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) conceptual framework showed that increasing human population and deepening poverty are some of the socio-economic drivers creating pressures on the reefs.

Gear management in Kenyas coastal fisheries.

Author: Mangi, S C

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture ; Aquaculture ; Coast Province ; Fishing industry ;

Abstract:

The fishing gears used, their impacts on species diversity and structure of marine communities, and their relative profitability were studied in the multi-gear fishery of southern Kenya to develop policy recommendations for the management of this artisanal fishery. Catch data for each gear were collected from nine fish landing sites over a five-year period and analysed in order to describe temporal patterns in gear use and to assess the state and management of the fishery. Benthic substratum damage, proportion of juvenile fish and discards were quantified and these data were used to evaluate the impacts of each gear on coral reef biodiversity. The impacts of each gear were later compared to the profitability for each gear to establish the motivation behind using more damaging gears. Relationships between catch, fishing effort, habitat variables and communities from specific grounds were explored in order to determine significant variables influencing fish catch levels. Results indicate that the fishery is overexploited and many species are growth overfished. Among the gears, beach seines cause the highest damage to fish and habitats and have the potential to overfish the reefs. Low cost gears were associated with highest environmental damage indicating that the need for cheap gears drives fishers to using more damaging gears. The number of fishers was the strongest factor influencing fish catch levels, and there was evidence that the present fishing effort is very high. Evaluation of the problem of overfishing and use of destructive gear using the Driver-Pressure-State-?Impact-Response (DPSIR) conceptual framework showed that increasing human population and deepening poverty are some of the socio-economic drivers creating pressures on the reefs.

Marine reserves and the enhancement of tropical fisheries [Kenya].

Author: Rodwell, L D

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture/Fishing industry/ ;

Abstract:

In this thesis I assess the contribution of tropical marine reserves to fishery enhancement. The theoretical component is the development of a model of marine reserve-fishery linkages which incorporate the processes of both adult (and juvenile) migration and larval dispersal between the reserve and fishing grounds. A modified model is calibrated using data from Mombasa Marine National Park and its adjacent fishery. Sensitivity tests reveal that the optimal reserve size depends on the exploitation rate in the fishery. If the fishery is exploited at a level of 30% of exploitable biomass or below then a reserve will not provide any catch benefits. However, in moderately or heavily exploited fisheries catches can be greater with a reserve than without so long as there is some adult or larval movement from the reserve to the fishing grounds. In the case of Mombasa MNP which covers approximately 30% of the management area, the exploitation rate in the fishing grounds should be 40% of exploitable biomass to achieve the greatest catch levels. Total fish biomass always increases with a marine reserve. In the model extension I highlight the role of marine reserves in protecting the ecosystem. The model calibration suggests that habitat quality improvements inside Mombasa MNP may have increased the growth rate of the fish stock. This has led to a build up of fish biomass within the reserve whilst still feeding the fishery next door with spillover of adults and larvae. The habitat quality effect of reserve creation represents an additional economic benefit of reserve creation that has not been considered an previous modelling studies. Results suggests that the North Mombasa fishery has benefited from the creation of Mombasa MNP in terms of sustaining catches and may have prevented the collapse of the fishery

Role of protected areas in the management of Kenyan reef fish stocks.

Author: Watson, M

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Fishing industry/Management/Fishing industry/ ;

Abstract:

Multi-species multi-gear fisheries typical of many artisanal coral reefs are notoriously difficult to manage. In recent years increasing recognition of the importance of these small scale but widespread fisheries has coincided with a growing interest in the role of marine protected areas as fisheries management tools. Conventional approaches such as minimum landing sizes or gear regulations can be disproportionately expensive and difficult to enforce whereas marine protected areas provide a simple guard overfishing. Protected fish populations may replenish neighbouring fisheries by dispersal of larval fish or spillover of adults, helping to insure against potential stock collapse. This thesis focuses on the Mpunguti Marine National Reserve (traditional fishing only) and the Kisite Marine National Park (unfished) in southern Kenya. Fish populations within the unexploited park show substantial recovery as a result of efficient protection, although comparisons with other Kenyan reefs suggest prospects of recovery depend heavily on effective enforcement of fishing bans. The composition of commercial and experimental catches from the fished reserve and unfished park respectively suggest the fishery is sustainable and remains dominated by predatory Lethrinidae. However, abundances and sizes of commercial fish are depressed in the fished compared with the unfished populations. Diversities of Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae, Chaetodontidae, Labridae or Pomacentridae did not differ significantly with exploitation. Growth parameters were determined for four lethrinids common in the artisanal catch. Direct estimates of natural and fishing mortality for the dominant Lethrinus bordonicus were employed in yield per recruit and biomass per recruit models which suggest protected areas may be important in preventing stock collapse at present exploitation levels.

Conceptual and procedural encoding in relevance theory : a study with reference to English and Kiswahili

Author: Nicolle, S M

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Linguistics ; English language ; Swahili language ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The economics of schistosomiasis interventions : a case study of the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya.

Author: Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1994

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Health care/Disease control/Epidemiology/Mwea-Tebere Irrigation Scheme/Schistosomiasis/ ;

Abstract:

When decisions to intervene in different schistosomiasis severity states are taken in isolation, inefficiencies are unavoidable due to failure to take account of crucial synergy between community and facility level options. To date no studies have been conducted of the sequential nature of schistosomiasis intervention decision-making processes. The main aim of this thesis is to develop methodologies that could be used to compute the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for ameliorating the burden of illness from schistosomiasis, with a view to discovering the strategy that would produce the greatest excess of benefits over cost. In other words, the goal is to develop conceptual frameworks that could be used to map out the most efficient path of intervention options across a spectrum of schistosomiasis states-- asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, very severe and comatose. Cost effectiveness (CEDA) and cost benefit (CBDA) decision analyses models are developed and their operational feasibility is demonstrated. To test the operational feasibility of the two models, the following data were used: expected costs of both primary and facility level options; health state (outcome) utility values; health states (outcomes) willingness to pay values; expected life in years at each of the health states (outcomes); health states and subjective transition probabilities; population forecasts for Mwea Scheme; discount factors for each year; and a constant opportunity cost per qaly. To facilitate the collection of these data, Quality Of Life (QOL), Willingness To Pay (WTP), Delphi Technique (DT) and costing instruments were developed and used to collect primary data. In the cbda and ceda models, (a) all the schistosomiasis intervention strategies passed the Net-Effectiveness (NE) and Net Present Value (NPV) tests; (b) all strategies involving treatment at the community level were superior to non-treatment community strategies; (c) in both CEDA and CBDA (with WTP to avoid advancing to the next state) the Mass Population Praziquantel Chemotherapy (MPCPs) was found to be the optimal strategy, and the choice of optimal policy combinations was also fairly similar; (d) in the CBDA model (with WTP for return to normal) the Selective Population Praziquantel Chemotherapy (SPCPs) was the optimal strategy; (e) the use of different sets of probabilistic effectiveness judgements led to a switch of optimal strategy from SPCPs (when local expert subjective probabilities were used) to MPCPs (when international expert judgements were used); (f) the sensitivity analysis results were mixed. The non- conclusive nature of the above results indicate that firm policy conclusions cannot be drawn on the basis of current epidemiological information, and more research is urgently required to establish both the validity and reliability of the QOL, WTP and DT procedures developed and operationalized in the thesis.