202 Records out of 22207 Records

Hip-hop in Nairobi : interrogating popular culture and its socio-political intersections in urban Africa.

Author: Mose, C B

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Hip-hop culture ; Hip-hop music ; Dance ; Nairobi, Kenya ; Politics ; Culture ; Sociocultural factors ; Gender ;

Abstract:

My thesis is a research on popular urban culture in Nairobi, specifically, hip-hop culture. My interest in this topic was motivated by the observation, in Kenya at least, that since the late 1990s to the present, popular cultural forms practiced by mostly youth have become prominent in the public, social as well as political spheres, meaning that they have featured prominently in political and social discourses and events. Prominent Kenyan scholars Joyce Nyairo and James Ogude have, for instance, written on the impact of the Gidi Gidi Maji Maji song ?Unbwogable? (Unshakeable) in shaping Kenya?s political landscape, where the song became a successful rallying cry for a coalition of politicians that used it to urge voters to end the 24 year hold on power of former president Daniel Moi. A similar trend has been noted in Cote D?Ivoire, Mali, and Ghana, where hip-hop culture and music, together with other forms of popular music, have impacted various political and social events. My research therefore investigates these various points of convergence between hip-hop culture and music on the one hand, and public life in Kenya on the other, including an analysis of the city as the major site within which hip-hop develops, and which shapes the very nature of the culture. In this analysis I discuss the main issues of ?field? and symbolic capital (Bourdieu) and the idea that hip-hop culture can offer a counter-discourse that challenges (or reinforces) political and social stereotypes in Kenyan urban society. I also problematize some existing canons of hip-hop culture, explore the language of gender in hip-hop, and analyse the emerging aspect(s) of hip-hop and intellectual property discourse.

A socio-economic history of the Shifta conflict in Kenya, c. 1963-8

Author: Whittaker, Hannah Alice

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Minority and ethnic groups/Autonomy USE Sovereignty/Sovereignty/Independence movements/Shifta conflict ;

Abstract:

Conventionally regarded as a movement of militant Somali nationalism, this study makes an investigation of the underlying socio-economic dynamics of the 1963-8 shifta conflict in Kenya. Addressing root causes of violence at the local level, the work re-evaluates the significant of the Somali nation-building project to the course of the conflict in two important respects. First, we see how social and economic pressures at the local level, including location, occupation, and clan affiliation, determined support and opposition to secessionism. Individual recourse to violence is therefore placed within the context of a historical struggle for territory and space between various communities living on the periphery of the Kenyan state. As such, the shifta conflict is best conceptualised as a helix, where strands of a nationalist insurgency are intertwined with local level conflict over access to scarce water and pasture resources. Second, a detailed analysis of the Kenyan government?s counter-insurgency strategy reveals the significance of an internal Kenyan dispute between a newly independent state in the process of nation-building, and a group of frontier communities that were seen to defy the new order. The involvement of insurgents in organised livestock stealing as a social and economic necessity resulted in an official conflation between secessionism and pastoralism. Through this a crisis of legitimacy was created in northern Kenya, which was used by the state to criminalise pastoral practices based upon social and economic values that were deemed ?un-Kenyan?. This has contributed to a broader process of pastoral decline across the Horn of Africa.

Analyzing the sources and impact of segmentation in the banking sector : a case study of Kenya

Author: Upadhyaya, Radha

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Banks/Banking industry ;

Abstract:

This thesis seeks to make a contribution to the debate concerning the adoption of the language of empowerment and participation into Post-Washington Consensus development policy. Whilst it is acknowledged that the de-politicisation approach makes some valid contributions, it is argued that it suffers from a tendency to focus on the construction of development discourse. This has rather one-sidedly led to the conclusion that the concept of empowerment has been used as an instrument of subjection. It is argued that the transformation approach offers a more nuanced analysis of participatory development practices that seeks to identify the opportunities that exist for their re-politicisation. Accordingly, the concept of empowerment should instead be examined as part of an ongoing political struggle to construct meaning and to harness action towards progressive political goals. This thesis makes a theoretical contribution to this debate by extending and consolidating the transformation approach through neo-Gramscian theory. Through its analysis of Fair Trade in the Kenyan coffee industry, it provides further empirical substantiation for the transformation approach. Whilst acknowledging the limitations of the World Bank?s approach to empowerment, this research identifies the opportunities and possibilities that exist for reasserting an alternative approach to producer empowerment based on the more radical notions of critical consciousness and collective social action. Given the highly unequal power relations that characterise the global coffee industry, this supports the argument put forward by the transformation approach that participatory development needs to explicitly engage with the wider power structures and institutions that perpetuate exclusion and inequality.

Seasonal prediction of African rainfall with a focus on Kenya

Author: Rourke, J M A

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Rain/Weather/Meteorology/Models/ ;

Abstract:

Africa's climate is prone to extended rainfall deficits. In extreme cases these may lead to droughts and humanitarian disasters. Skilful prediction of seasonal rainfall would bring sound humanitarian and economic benefit to the many African countries that depend on rain-fed agriculture. Seasonal rainfall hindcast skill from the DEMETER multi-model ensemble system is examined across Africa. Skill at 0-month lead is found to be weak over much of Africa, except for the August-October (ASO) season in the Sahel and the November-January (NDJ) season in equatorial East Africa, Nigeria and South Africa. For the ASO season, correlation values of 0.3-0.8 (p-values < 0.1) are found across the sub-Sahara belt. For the NDJ season, correlation values of 0.5-0.6 (p-values < 0.1) occur in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Innovative statistical seasonal rainfall hindcast models are developed for six homogeneous rainfall regions in Kenya, using linear regression techniques. Kenya has experienced seven severe droughts over the period 1991-2008 affecting over 35 million people. Lagged sea surface temperature and atmospheric wind predictors are selected based on having a significant and temporally stable correlation with regional rainfall indices, and a clear physical-linking mechanism. Moderate-to-high rainfall hindcast skill is found for most regions at 0- and 1-month leads for the October-December rainy season. In contrast, no robust predictors are found for the March-May rainy season. In 2009 an improved version of DEMETER, called EUROSIP, was released. This study is the first to assess the skill of the EUROSIP rainfall hindcasts for the Kenyan October-December rainy season and to compare this with the statistical model skill. For the most heavily populated and cultivated West and Southwest regions of Kenya, which are home to 68% of the Kenyan population, the statistical models outperform the EUROSIP model with correlation values = 0.42 (p-values = 0.06) over the common verification period 1987-2005.

Barriers, motivators and benefits influencing the uptake of Couple Voluntary Counselling and Testing in Kilifi, Kenya

Author: Davies, Alun Iwan

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Library, Kilifi ;

Subject Terms: HIV infection ; AIDS (Disease) ; Disease control ; Counseling ; Kilifi District ; Couples ;

Abstract:

Couples Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (CVCT) has increasingly been accepted as an effective public health tool for preventing new HIV infections particularly within HIV discordant couples. Over the past three years, the KEMRI-HIV project has upscaled HIV counselling and testing and introduced CVCT to the Kilifi community on the coast of Kenya. Despite using various innovative health promotion techniques involving community outreaches, mass media and community peer educators, the uptake of the service is thought to be low. Between July and December 2006, we conducted a mixed methodology study to assess the effectiveness of CVCT promotion, estimate the uptake of the service in Kilifi Township and identify barriers, benefits and motivators which may influence couples to take up the service. This study involved a quantitative survey of 211 women aged between 18 and 29, four focus group discussions with community volunteers and 10 in-depth interviews with discordant couples who regularly attend HIV counselling and testing. The Information-Motivation-Behavioural skills model (IMB) was used as a framework to analyse the data. The study concludes that many women have been made aware of CVCT through health promotion strategies with 12% of women in regular relationships reporting that they had undergone CVCT. Many barriers benefits and motivators were reported, influencing couples? decision-making process with regard to utilising CVCT. Fear of the consequences of testing and trust, both within a relationship, and between the community and the service provider emerged as important factors influencing CVCT behaviour adoption. Future promotions must be geared towards improving the community?s perception of the service provider, giving clear and culturally appropriate information about HIV and CVCT and providing an excellent quality of service to couples.

Faith-based NGOs, peacebuilding and development : the Mennonite Central Committee's work in East Africa

Author: Welty, Emily

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Nongovernmental organizations/Mennonite Central Committee/Peace-building ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Invisibility, silence and absence : a study of the account taken by two Kenyan universities about the effects of HIV and AIDS on senior women staff.

Author: Kamau, A N

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Education/Women employees/Colleges and universities/HIV infection/Social impact/AIDS (Disease)/Impact analysis/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Fortune and loss in an environment of violence : living with chronic instability in South Turkana, Kenya.

Author: Lind, Jeremy

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Geography ; Violence ; South Turkana ; Economic impact ; Security ;

Abstract:

This thesis analyses livelihood dynamics and trends in areas of chronic instability and armed violence. Within this broad area of concern, the overall focus is on the nature of household livelihood vulnerability. Analysis proceeds from two central research questions. First, what is the impact of conflict and violence on livelihoods? This ties into the second question, which is how do households manage assets and adapt their livelihoods in a situation of chronic instability and violence? The sustainable livelihoods framework and various efforts to reformulate livelihoods models and approaches to incorporate issues of power, conflict and violence, are critiqued from a geographic perspective. It is argued that existing studies of livelihoods in conflict situations give insufficient attention to social exclusion, economic inequalities and spatial disparities and how these connect to people?s vulnerability. It is proposed that a geographic orientation emphasising the particularity of place can be used to develop insights into livelihood vulnerability in environments of violence. The thesis takes Turkana pastoralists in northern Kenya as a particular geographic focus. Chronic instability centred on livestock raiding and banditry is linked to a protracted relief situation in the region and cited as a threat to food security and nutrition for many people. The vulnerability of people living in this particular environment of violence ties into the historical production of Turkanaland resulting in unequal power relations and the exclusion and marginalisation of Turkana people.

The elusive guest for industrialisation in Africa : a comparative study of Ghana and Kenya c. 1950 2000

Author: Fahnbulleh, M N

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: History ; African history ; Industrial development ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Participate effectively : who, how and why? a study of peoples participation for health development [Kenya].

Author: Havemann, K

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Sociology/Health education/Health care ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE