50 Records out of 22207 Records

The politics and administration of agricultural development in Kenya : the Kenya Tea Development Authority

Author: Steeves, Jeffrey Sayre

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 19975

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Politics/Agricultural economics/Kenya Tea Development Authority/ ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Tea Development Authority is one of the most successful agricultural development programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike re-settlement schemes such as the Gezira in the Sudan or the ujaama villages in Tanzania, the Authority has introduced a new cash crop among widely scattered small farmers within the former African Reserves of Kenya. Its achievement seems even more remarkable in that it has introduced a technically demanding estate crop as a viable smallholder enterprise. Utilizing an integrated approach to agricultural development, that is, the provision of a wide range of services for the farmer within one institutional framework, the Authority has staked a leading position within the world tea industry. The central reason for this success has been the institution's early ability to generate local enthusiasm for tea-growing and a system of tight central control. The first can be traced to a credit system which offered credit in kind and on terms sufficient to allow all strata within the farming community to participate in the programme. The second is due to a system of close field supervision with strong links to the central offices. Over time, however, for financial reasons the K.T.D.A. found it necessary to restrict and then eliminate credit; this led to a fundamental challenge to the Authority's structured system of control. It was found that the ability of the institution to plan, direct and implement its policies depended directly on the participation of all strata of the farming community. This study identifies the strata which were relevant to the tea programme and their significance for central goals. The research was undertaken in Kenya during 1970 and 19]1 a particularly interesting period for it was during this time that the full effects of the elimination of credit were being felt. The author spent six months studying the central offices of the Authority and in addition lived in each of Nyeri, Meru, Murang'a, Kericho, Kisii and Kakamega Districts for a minimum period of one month conducting interviews and analyzing documentary materials. Documents pertaining to the other t ea-gr-owfng districts were also analyzed in combination with follow .?.. up interviews in the core districts. The research findings reveal the complexi~y of the agricultural community, The credit revisions of the 1960's and the field reaction illustrate the importance of the strata divisions within the farming community. The full effects of the exclusion of lower strata farmers from formal and legal participation led to aq alliance between lower strata farmers and lower field staff. This alliance directly threatened central control. The study has, therefore, direct relevance to public policy formation and development efforts related to rural Kenya. The major conclusions can be stated as follows: A.Implementation of integrated agricultural development programmes requires control. B. Control depends on an organization establishing its legitimacy within the total farming community. C. The legitimacy of the organization is directly tied to the participation of all strata levels on a continuing basis in the programme of development. Thus, implementation can only be realized by the inclusion of all strata at terms and on conditions which they can meet,

Land, food, freedom : struggles for the gendered commons in Kenya, 1870 to 2007

Author: Brownhill, Leigh

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: History ; Colonialism ; Land ; Food ; African history ; Freedom USE Freedoms ; Freedoms ;

Abstract:

This study contributes to demonstrating how capital has organized, united and disciplined the exploited, both waged and unwaged, to resist their exploitation; and how, in the instances presented, peasant women have been at the forefront of these persistent, and increasingly global movements against capitalist enclosure. Kenyan commoners' world historic struggles provide critical examples for activists, scholars, commoners and others, of the reconstruction and defense of a life-centred subsistence political economy. The dynamics of popular struggles for the gendered commons in Kenya between 1870 and 2007 are traced through an analysis of fifteen instances of struggle, including short lived uprisings and long-term social movements. Special attention is paid to the gendered and ethnicized class character of Kenyan social movements and to the subsistence content of the relationships being wrought in the process of 'globalization from below.' This approach reveals: (1) the ways in which Kenyan peasant women have contributed to the mobilization of social movements for subsistence over the long twentieth century; (2) the ways 'gendered class alliances' and the creative amalgams of indigenous and exogenous 'social forms,' developed and used in the course of struggle, have been able to break the 'male deals' that channeled the fruits of Kenyans' fertility into the commodified marketplace, and (3) the potential of the subsistence-oriented demands of 21 st century Kenyan social movements for strengthening Kenyan and global movements for the gendered commons.

Alternative education provisions for 'street children' in Kenya.

Author: Gathenya, Teresiah Wambui

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Vagrancy ;

Abstract:

This qualitative study examines alternative education policies and provisions through the lives and experiences of street/slum-based children in Kenya, backed by commentaries from service providers and policy makers. Based on twenty years' experience at the Ministry of Education in Kenya, I premised that these children formed a significant part of out-of-school population. I draw primarily from 6-18 year-olds, most of them based on the streets/in slums or in non-formal education programs, in Nairobi and nearby districts. Participants provide important insights into lives of 'street/slum' children, the impacts and service provision implications of social labeling for such children. These child-centered views form the basis for further analyses of relevant policies, drawing from education policymakers and service providers' commentaries about public perceptions of street/slum-based children in general. The study is also concerned with the outcomes of family, community/NGOs and government services and partnerships. It explores their possible contribution to the 'out-of-school' and/or 'street children' phenomena. Within an African education post-colonial (1985 onwards) developmental context, I reflect on the impacts of World Bank-driven structural adjustment programs, and other local and global socio-economic and environmental adversities that have exacerbated such children's marginalization. I premise that every child has a right to education that is a tool for individual and societal development and freedom. I employ critical theory and educational policy analyses to unpack the current status of 'street/slum' and other out-of-school children. This study highlights needs-based alternative approaches that move away from contemporary public policies and practices which tend to categorize affected children as delinquents or criminals and consequently adopt punitive and correctional, as opposed to care and protection, interventions. I conclude that the educational levels of child participants influence their level of awareness about basic rights, and self-agency in improving their circumstances. I support the argument that, privatized education is not an additional choice for such children. More significantly, the study provides useful illustrations of, often unreported, children's and communities' resilience in establishing alternative and integrated survival/intervention structures, including education, income earning and harambee survival mechanisms. Their views of good schools highlight the need for love, care, clean environments, mutual respect and fairness

Teaching and learning high school physics through analogies : a case study of Kenyan classrooms.

Author: Nashon, Samson Madera

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Teaching ; Learning ; High schools USE Secondary schools ; Physics ; Science education ; Secondary schools ; Secondary education ;

Abstract:

Analogy is a widely used instructional tool in science. Because of the in physics education. Analogies differ in character depending on who constructs them, the context in which they are used and the grade level being taught. This study describes the analogies that physics teachers use in teaching form two (grade 10) physics in Kenya. The study extended over 14 weeks of classroom observation in three form two physics classes, supplemented by teacher and student interviews. A total of 20 analogies were identified and analysed in terms of Nashon's (2000) Working With Analogies (WWA) model. Findings showed that the analogies were largely environmental (cultural), anthropomorphic and spontaneously generated. There was no evidence to indicate teachers' use of a theoretical model, such as Zeitoun's (1984) General Model for Analogical Teaching (GMAT), Glynn's (1991) Teaching With Analogies (TWA) or Nashon's (2000) Working With Analogies (WWA) model. It was found that alternative frameworks for some concepts still existed among the students despite the analogical teaching. Some of the frameworks appeared to persist even in the presence of correct information, while others were a consequence of literal interpretation of scientific terms or phrases. The few analogies that students generated for themselves reflected their understanding of analogically taught concepts (Pittman, 1999) and could therefore, to some extent be judged successful. However, some misconceptions were still noticeable. Findings of this study may have an impact on the way teachers teach science, and, more so, physics--in particular, on the analogies they use, the concepts they teach and the methods they chose to use in teaching the concepts (in general), all of which depend on the context.

An inquiry into the integration of indigenous knowledges and skills in the Kenyan secondary science curriculum.

Author: Kithinji, Wanja

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Curricula/Secondary education/Science education/Cognition and reasoning/Women/Kirumi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

A major argument in the promotion of 'science' in the schools is the need to link 'scientific' thinking to everyday problem- solving. It is assumed that such a linkage will help improve existing life conditions. However, in rural Kenya and in many other parts of rural Africa, secondary science education has not had a significant effect on existing life conditions. This study attempts to explain this failure in terms of two underlying deficiencies: first, secondary science omits and de-emphasizes everyday knowledge and skills; second, it promotes sets of ideas and myths about science that are incompatible with its 'experienced' practices. Some academic theorizing and empirical research work to address these issues has focused on the context- boundedness of knowledge, a field of study that is known as situated cognition theory. A closely linked focus for academic theorizing is the notion of alternative sources of knowledge production and validation outside the existing 'schooled'1 frameworks, which are mainly eurocentric. An alternative framework view holds that all cultures have their ways of understanding and explaining natural phenomena. It follows that promoting just one way of understanding and explaining natural phenomena is limiting the diversity of human experiences and is potentially alienating and disempowering to students and teachers who may choose to explain and understand natural phenomena differently, or at least to consider alternatives. The study aims to contribute to the body of literature on situated cognition by identifying modes of everyday knowing and suggesting how to establish a dialectic between these modes of knowing and 'schooled' science. To identify modes of knowing, i investigated health and healing in a rural part of Kenya, Kirumi, between April and September 1997. Most participants were women because women are, in their role as caretakers, heavily involved in matters of health and healing and, therefore, are more likely than men to generate a wide variety of data. Their role as caretakers also bestows on them the great responsibility of communicating everyday knowledge to current and future generations. 1The term 'schooled' refers to knowledge and skills that are designated for instruction in schools.

Vector competition analysis : a model for evaluating interspecific plant growth and nutrient interactions in cropping systems (Picea mariana, Leuceana leucocephala).

Author: Imo, Moses

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology/Picea mariana/Black spruce USE Picea mariana/Leucaena leucocephala/Maize/Western Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Vector competition analysis, a model for elucidating interspecific plant growth and nutrient interactions, was developed and validated using two case studies representative of contrasting agro-ecosystems. The first case study involved evaluating interactions between nutrient loaded and conventionally fertilized black spruce (Picea mariana [mill.] Bsp) seedlings with neighboring natural vegetation on various forest sites in Northern Ontario. The second case study involved interactions between Leuceana leucocephala tree hedgerows inter-cropped with maize in an alley cropping system in western Kenya. In the first study, vector competition analysis revealed seedling growth was limited primarily by competition for non competitive sites, while competition for light and or moisture was greater after fertilizing the same sites. However, nutrient loading countered weed competition on most sites. Similar analysis in the second study revealed competition for n limited maize production at low tree density (8 m wide alleys) while moisture and or light competition was greater at higher tree density (2 m wide alleys). Maximum maize performance was obtained at intermediate tree density (4 m wide alleys), and was associated with increased n uptake presumably due to n mineralized from added mulch. These results demonstrated the usefulness of vector competition analysis to quantify interspecific plant growth and nutrient interactions in a simplified and systematic framework. Since response parameters were compared relative to standardized reference treatments, a wide range of ecological conditions and management regimes could also be quantified and ranked.

Democratisation in Tanzania : women's associations and the potential for empowerment.

Author: Brown, Andrea M

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Political power ; Women's studies ; Social classes ; Gender ;

Abstract:

This work is an exploratory study mapping the emerging relationship between women's empowerment and democratisation in Tanzania, from a class perspective. It explores the impacts of the political reform process, which began in the mid-1980s, on the organisational capacities of women in Dar es salaam and the new opportunities emerging for these women to meet empowerment goals. Middle-class women are self- consciously addressing and transforming political, legal and cultural gender power relations as well as initiating practical strategies for women. Poor women are engaging mainly in strategies to meet their practical economic needs, empowering themselves in a more indirect fashion. The distinction between strategic and practical gender interests, developed by Caroline Moser (1989, 1993) and the structural framework formulated by Dawn (Sen and Grown 1985) are operationalised and critiqued to help evaluate strategies most likely to result in the realisation of empowerment. The determination of what strategies and outcomes can be evaluated as empowering is in this study weighted towards the opinions and experiences of the women involved. The practical/strategic distinction as used by Moser is unable to account for empowering outcomes that emerge from practical strategies at both class levels, but most significantly for women working in the informal sector. The Dawn model is ill equipped to address political environment, the middle-class women's movement as a whole, or lower-income women's organisational activities. Transformations within the culture and the economy, and new policies responding to areas identified as of gender concern are resulting in an overall increase in the number of women's empowerment objectives being met at the levels of the family, civil society and the state. Nevertheless, concerns remain with the limited nature of reforms, which have implications for a continued and sustained deepening of both democracy and the potential for women to formulate and realise empowerment goals. However, in comparison with women's movements in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Zambia, the Tanzanian movement is seen as most promising due to its high level of unity and a more supportive political environment.

Negotiating cultures : modes of memory in novels by African women (Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa).

Author: Cornelissen, Catriona

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: African literature ; Women's studies ;

Abstract:

The dissertation examines the transmission of cultural values in a selection of African women's texts, written in English and published between 1966 and 1986. Focusing on a range of works by Kenyan, Nigerian and South African women, the study explores modes of memory and examines the way writers represent, reaffirm and re-position cultural authority during post-colonialism. The dissertation examines autobiographies, histories and fictional narratives, modes by which memories of the past are formally and consciously structured and recorded, but the study also examines the way in which language, customs and traditions convey cultural values and attitudes, often beyond the conscious control of the writer. The welter of African and Western cultural influences of both past and present provokes an on-going interaction through which the writers in this study interrogate the contesting of cultural authorities. Since women's roles are largely dictated by cultural expectations, the dissertation includes examination of the writers' attitudes to those customs relating to marriage, polygeny and child-rearing, and analyzes their solutions regarding these issues. The works of Charity Waciuma, Grace Ogot, Flora Nwapa and Rebeka Njau, discussed in chapter one, depict the difficult process of renegotiating the authority of cultural memories, an on-going process in any society, but one intensified by the imposition of western colonial influences. Their works reflect and question, to varying extents, the cultural expectations imposed on women, while simultaneously advocating the benefits of readjusting and/or reaffirming established customs. By contrast, the selected works by buchi emecheta, examined in chapter two, depict an abrupt confrontation of cultural influences, and reject established or traditional customs as being stultifying to women, hindering self-development. Chapter three examines the challenge the works of Miriam Tlali and Bessie Head pose to the cultural authority of the apartheid system. While Tlali finds solutions in the public arena, and calls for collective, political action, Head suggests that solutions may be found on the personal level, through relationships, self-analysis and self-acceptance. The study also examines how the works of Miriam were, Tlali and Head advocate the need for men to change their cultural attitudes towards women.

Language, education and social selection in Kenya : an ethnographic study of two schools

Author: Bunyi, Grace Wangari

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Language ; Education ; Social classes ;

Abstract:

This thesis is an investigation of the progress of social reproduction through language and education in postcolonial Kenya. The thesis focuses on the use of English as the language of instruction and the unequal distribution of knowledge of the language among the different social groups in Kenya. Ethnographic research methods are used to examine the linguistic and other symbolic resources that children from two socio-economically differentiated communities have access to, and the educational processes that they experience in their schools. the finding of the study is that social reproduction is carried out through differential educational treatments. Children from Gicagi, the socio-economically and politically dominated community do not have access to English and other symbolic resources valued in the school. At the same time, for Gicagi children, there are risks and benefits associated with schooling. Consequently, Gicagi children's participation in school is ambivalent. In school, Gicagi children receive an inferior curriculum. It is argued that they are thus less likely to attain academic success and social mobility based on education. On the other hand, children from Park View, the socio-economically and politically dominant community have access to English to English and other symbolic resources valued by the school. At the same time, there are no risks involved in Park View children's participation in school. In addition, Park View children receive a superior curriculum in the school. It is argued that they are thus more likely to attain academic success and subsequent social mobility. The study underscores the importance of examining the sociological consequences of using English, a language that only the children of the elite have access to, as the medium of instruction in Kenya. Pedagogical implications of the study have to do with the need for more socio-linguistic studies that can help teachers identify spaces in the interactional processes for making teaching - learning a more academically enabling experience for the students.

Preconditioning responses of salt-tolerant and salt- sensitive provenances of Acacia tortilis (forsk.) hayne to high salinity.

Author: Park, Andrew David

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : MSCF

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Trees/Genetics/Acacia tortilis/Sigor, Kenya/Kitui, Kenya/Sodium/ ;

Abstract:

Growth and nutrient responses to nacl preconditioning treatments were studied in two seed provenances of Acacia tortilis (forsk.) hayne from saline (Sigor) and non-saline (Kitui) areas of Kenya. Seedlings were exposed to nacl preconditioning treatments at 15, 21, and 28 days after germination. Subsequently, all seedlings were exposed to 200 millimolal nacl for a further 39 days to test the efficacy of the different preconditioning schedules in hardening seedlings of different ages to high salinity. Nutrient analysis showed that sigor initially partitioned a greater proportion of total na+ uptake to roots than shoots. Both provenances had similar contents of macronutrients and na+ by the final harvest of the experiment. However, all ions were more concentrated in kitui than sigor, probably as a combined result of kitui's lower growth and less efficient partitioning of na+. Multivariate ordinations confirmed the sensitivity of leaf abscission and shoot growth as variables associated with salt-tolerance, and suggested that the effects of na+ were felt as much through disturbances in nutrient metabolism as they were through direct-ion toxicity. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)