7 Records out of 22207 Records

An analysis of livelihood improvement and smallholder beekeeping in Kenya.

Author: Carroll, T

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Beekeeping ; Farmers ; Honey ;

Abstract:

The majority of Kenya?s poor live on small scale farms and agriculture is the country?s main economic activity. Recent years have seen rapidly increasing population, land fragmentation and as a result increasingly smaller farms in Kenya. There is therefore a need to diversify livelihoods on small scale farms to tackle rural poverty. Beekeeping is a potential livelihood diversification option with ready local and international markets for honey and other bee products and has been widely promoted in the country by government and development agencies. Beekeeping offers many potential benefits including income, health and environmental. Beekeeping has traditionally been considered an activity of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands in Kenya. However, with increasing population there has been increasing environmental degradation and reducing forest cover and an increasing need to adapt beekeeping to small scale farms. As a result there has been a move away from more extensive beekeeping systems to intensive beekeeping. This study examined beekeeping as part of smallholder mixed farming systems in mid-high altitude areas of Kenya. The potential of beekeeping, as an appropriate livelihood strategy for smallholder farm households was examined using the sustainable livelihoods framework. The study was undertaken over a 6-year (2004-9) with over 300 small-scale farmers in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province. Secondary data on Kenyan and African bees and beekeeping was analysed including a number of research studies of significance on Kenya beekeeping. In addition farmer beekeepers were interviewed using a survey questionnaire while case studies were conducted with beekeeping groups and data was collected from research apiaries in combination with an action research process carried out with beekeepers over a two year period. Beekeeping was found to be a valuable and largely unexploited livelihood diversification option for small scale farmers. Important benefits from beekeeping in the study area were income, food, medicine, an improved sense of well-being and enhancement of the natural environment. Honey, the main bee product traded by beekeepers, obtained good local prices and there was a strong local demand for honey. Compared to maize, the staple crop of most Kenyan farmers, it was found that a typical 10-hive enterprise generated earnings equivalent to the average local production from 0.86 ha of maize. While markets exist, honey yields and returns remained low compared with their potential. Beekeepers had many challenges to contend with such as defensive bees, pests, absconding by bees, low hive occupation and low yields. The defensive nature of the bees with potential livelihood risk was found to be a likely deterrent to more small scale farmers keeping bees.

An assessment of the health, trade, economic and sustainability aspects of medicinal tree and shrub products (MTSPs) in Kenya

Author: McMullin, S

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Folk medicine ; Health ; Medicinal plants ; Socioeconomic factors ; Ecology ; Trees ;

Abstract:

As demand continues for MTSPs, there has been increasing policy recognition and an impetus to promote the positive elements of the use and trade while limiting the negative aspects which threaten MTSP use, yet research and documentation of this sector have been scant in Kenya. This study assessed the economic and health importance of MTSPs to those involved in the practice, use and trade of these products. As a result of its findings, this study recommends research and policy action in the form of: 1) implementing a national policy for THM and MTSPs; 2) the role and involvement of the private sector in health care provision through THM and MTSPs; 3) a nation-wide utilisation study to collect data on patterns of use and preference for health; 4) public sensitisation and marketing campaigns to promote and support the safe and rational use of MTSPs; 5) a collaborative research agenda between Medicinal Doctors and Herbalists based on a specific disease treatment approach; 6) sustainable supply initiatives through assessing the potential for cultivation and priority setting for medicinal species cultivation; 7) support and organisation of trade actors and activities to improve trade chain activities and research efforts; and 8) further research in the trade to address the ecological sustainability of MTSP species, assessment of the volume and economic value of the trade and gender analysis of the trade.

New) Migrant political entrepreneurs : overcoming isolation and exclusion through creative resistance in Ireland.

Author: Mutwarasibo, F

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Migrant worker ; Social integration ; Entrepreneurship ; Sociocultural factors ; Ethnicity ; Ireland ;

Abstract:

This thesis explores ways in which migrants are responding to the paradox of exclusion/isolation and inclusion in Ireland by creating transformative spaces within Irish civic/political arenas. In particular, it examines the circumstances/factors leading to the activation/emergence of migrant political entrepreneurs and the nature of specific strategies they develop in fostering their inclusion in Ireland. The eight migrant political entrepreneurs researched are from six countries of origin (Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Egypt, China and the Philippines). Participants are self selected individuals who have put themselves forward and have de facto became interlocutors for migrant communities in Ireland. Unlike other migrants, political entrepreneurs have decided consciously or otherwise to be involved in Irish politics. This thesis explores what migrant political entrepreneurs are prepared to exchange with officials for their insider knowledge, without capitulating to tokenship and accessing short term gains associated with this. The research looks at the continuum of electoral and non-electoral (infra-politics) political activities of migrant political entrepreneurs. Most of the research on migrants? political integration in Europe has been dominated by the concepts of social capital (including ethnic mobilisation) and migrant career. In the Irish context, considering participants? successes such as getting elected in local elections and running successful campaigns such as the spousal work permit scheme within a few years of arriving in Ireland, it makes sense to look beyond the concepts of social capital and migrant career. By researching participants? focus on structural changes from within and the relatively short period of time it took participants to have significant impacts, the researcher explored the concept of creative resistance. The use of biographical research methods, involving eight migrant political entrepreneurs, was innovative and provided gateways to capturing pre-migration factors as well as cultural dynamics that influenced their social practices in Ireland. By focusing on participants? settlement experiences, the research uncovered factors that triggered the activation of those who were not previously civically active and the re-activation of those who were active priori to their emigration. Research findings reveal that participants are profoundly inclusive in their approach. Creative resistance is the underpinning value behind migrant political entrepreneurs? practices and strategies. In terms of the manifestations of creative resistance, research findings reveal that participants? strategies and social practices, (1) involve some elements of their culture, religious practices and worldviews; (2) seek inclusion and don?t just focus on ethnic/migrant/racial issues; and finally, (3) strive towards achieving humanness for all members of society based on social justice, solidarity and a broad spectrum of inclusion. The foundations of creative resistance revolve around becoming a good stranger, working towards becoming a local, and challenging the ethnic label.

Upper mantle structure beneath southern Kenya from wide-angle data and its implications.

Author: Byrne, G F

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Earth sciences ; Southern Kenya ; Geology ; Plate tectonics ;

Abstract:

A number of sub-crustal reflections were identified in the KRISP 1994 refraction data-set. These were not multiple or converted phases. Processing techniques were applied to enhance their clarity. Velocity structure for the upper mantle beneath southern Kenya was established using Pn velocities and the local, regional and global refraction data-base. This velocity structure fit the data and was consistent with teleseismic and gravity data from Kenya. Velocities at in-situ upper mantle pressures and temperatures for bulk compositions of upper mantle xenoliths from Kenya agreed with the average values used in the models. An analysis of Pn and the first upper mantle phase (D1) polarities indicated that the velocity step across the D1 reflector is positive. Once a model had been established, seismic traces showing evidence of the phases were stacked along travel time curves calculated from the model. This further enhanced their clarity. The models show a number of reflectors from 43-95 km depth, over various distance ranges beneath southern Kenya, some extending continuously for as much as 100-200 km. Synthetic seismic modelling produces reasonable matches between the calculated and observed amplitudes in the seismic data. To the west the reflections are probably pre-existing structures inherited from earlier orogenic events (e.g. intra-plate shear zones, decollement surfaces) which have been deformed and affected by rifting but not completely disrupted. Beneath the east flank, partial melt associated with the Quaternary Chyulu Hills volcanic field is probably causing the scattered reflectors identified there. Alternative explanations for the origin of the reflectors such as compositional heterogeneity and, in the region of the rift, plume head induced shearing flow giving rise to anisotropic impedance contrasts, were considered but are thought to be much less likely than the explanations proffered.

Wide-angle seismic study of the SE - flank of the Kenya Rift incorporating a multidisciplinary interpretation.

Author: Novak, O

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Earth sciences ; Seismology ; Rift Valley ;

Abstract:

The investigation of the lithospheric structure of the eastern flank of the Kenya rift yields an important contribution to the understanding of the mechanism and evolution of continental rifting and flank volcanism in Kenya. The KRISP 94 experiment included a 420-km-long NW-SE-trending wide-angle reflection/refraction seismic profile on the southeastern flank of the Kenya rift. The profile crossed the Chyulu Hills area, a Quaternary volcanic field, on Proterozoic Mozambique belt basement. Based on the combined interpretation of the P- and S-wave recordings, a crustal and upper mantle velocity-depth model is established in considerable detail. Results of the refraction seismic experiment reveal a crustal thickness of about 40 km which slightly increases beneath the Chyulu Hills and thins towards the Indian Ocean to 22 km. The high-velocity (?7.0 km/s) lower crust has a thickness of about 20 km and contains a low-velocity feature at its base directly beneath the Chyulu Hills volcanic field. This low-velocity body is characterised by an increased vp/vs-ratio ranging from 1.81 to 1.93 depending on the possible spatial extents of this body. In the same area, the results of a teleseismic tomography study show a P-wave low-velocity anomaly of -3% in the lower crust. The seismic data can be explained by either an anorthositic body directly above the Moho in the region of the Chyulu Hills or more likely by the presence of 2 - 5% partial melt. An integrated seismic and petrological approach is used to decipher also the upper mantle structure beneath the Chyulu Hills volcanic field. A model is suggested with small magma bodies segregating from the asthenosphere-lithosphere boundary and ascending to the Moho where they stagnate. The melts assimilate lower crustal material in the postulated magma chambers. Such a scenario can well explain the upper mantle and lower crustal low-velocity anomaly observed in the refraction seismic and teleseismic tomography model, and is compatible with the gravity and the petrological data.

An investigation of the field performance of light mouldboard ploughs at slow speeds [Kenya].

Author: Owended, P M O

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture ; Agricultural machinery ; Performance evaluation ;

Abstract:

The mouldboard plough is the standard tillage implement used with animal traction in Kenya. The range of ploughs include the Victory?, Rumpstad? winding body and the Rumpstad cylindrical body ploughs. These are used under varying soil types, and modes of operation. However, their typical loading characteristics and the comparative capability to achieve and maintain the desired range of operating depth under the conditions encountered are obscure, hence, their adaptability to the different edaphic conditions is unknown. The objectives of this study were therefore: to investigate the performance of the standardized mouldboard ploughs that are intended for use with animal traction in soils of agronomic importance in Kenya, and; to develop criteria for optimizing the utilization of draught animal mouldboard ploughing systems used in Kenya. The uniqueness of this research is that novel instrumentation was developed and used to investigate the performance of light mouldboard ploughs under practical edaphic conditions. Data that were previously not available in the literature were generated and used to develop criteria for optimal utilization of mouldboard ploughs at speeds and depths commensurate with the use of draught animals. A low cost and transportable micro-computer based data acquisition system was developed to measure and monitor the implement draught, vertical reaction/suction, moment about the vertical shank, ground speed and working depth. A study of four mouldboard ploughs in three soil types was conducted, under dry and wet soil moisture regimes. The three soil types were the clay Nitosol, sandy clay loam Pellic Vertisol and sandy loam Ferralsol. The experiments were carried out at speeds up to 1.12 m/s and tillage depth below 150 mm which are typical of tillage with animal traction

Quality of care assessment in the outpatient services of a district hospital in Kenya.

Author: Malone, Mary Ita

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : MD

Year: 1977

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: Health care ; Quality of service ; Outpatient care facilities ; Patients ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE