31 Records out of 22207 Records

The politicization of difference : nationalism and national unity in pre-independent India, Ghana, Nigeria, and Kenya.

Author: Newton, Jacob Alexander

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Nationalism ; African nationalism ; European history ; African history ; Colonialism ;

Abstract:

In the historiography of the British empire, indigenous independence movements have been characterized as 'nationalistic', that is, that they were motivated by a sense of national identity among the indigenous peoples which was expressed through the rejection of imperial control and the demand for indigenous self-government. However, the necessity to divide the colonial territory at independence between two indigenous groups in India and the insistence of indigenous groups within Ghana, Nigeria, and Kenya that their distinctive identities be safeguarded within constitutional systems that granted substantive powers to the regions within which those groups resided suggest that there was not, in fact, a unitary sense of identity among the indigenous populations of these colonial territories. The assumption, then, that indigenous independence movements represented 'Indian','Ghanaian', 'Nigerian', or 'Kenyan' nationalism needs to be re-evaluated. The characterization of indigenous independence movements as 'nationalistic' is challenged in this study through a comparative analysis of the phenomenon within the contexts of India, the Gold Coast (Ghana), Nigeria, and Kenya. Particular attention is paid to the formulation by leaders of these independence movements of an inclusive conception of nationalism, and the degree to which this definition was accepted or rejected by the indigenous populations of those colonial states. What the analysis, supported by case studies of each colonial territory, demonstrates is that the attempts by these leaders to promote an inclusive sense of national identity had a divisive rather than unifying effect upon the indigenous population. Indeed, not only did the indigenous peoples continue to identify themselves according to regional, religious, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic distinctions, but these distinctions became politicized in the form of exclusive definitions of nationalism. The invocation of 'nationalism', therefore, actually had the effect of creating a greater awareness within the indigenous population of their differences, not their commonality, an awareness that ultimately led to the geographical or constitutional divisions within these states at independence.

Digestibility, feeding value and limiting amino acids in high-fibre and fibre-reduced sunflower cakes fed to tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus).

Author: Maina, Joyce Gichiku

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Aquaculture ; Tilapia ; Sunflowers ; Oreochromis Niloticus ;

Abstract:

Four experiments were conducted at the University of Nairobi, in Kenya, to determine the effect of reducing the amount of fibre in sunflower cake on nutrient digestibility and feed utilization in tilapia (O. Niloticus), and to compare this low-fibre cake with a commercially available high-fibre sunflower cake. Also of interest was to compare digestibility and feeding value of Kenyan omena fishmeal with that of low- temperature (lt) anchovy fishmeal. Tilapia fingerlings were used in all the experiments. Protein from the low-fibre and high-fibre sunflower cakes was well digested by tilapia. The apparent digestibilities of protein in the sunflower cakes and the fishmeals were not significantly different. Apparent Digestibility Coefficient for Energy (ADC-E) and Digestible Energy Concentration (DE) were higher in the low-fibre sunflower cake than in the high fibre cake, but the differences were only significant for DE. There were no differences in the apparent digestibilities of protein, energy and organic matter between omena and anchovy fishmeals. In experiment 2, the feeding value of a high-fibre and a low-fibre sunflower cake, omena and anchovy fishmeals was evaluated at two dietary protein levels (20% and 30%). There was no significant interaction between protein level and protein source. The low-fibre and high-fibre sunflower cakes were tested over a wide range of dietary inclusion in experiment 3, each supplying 30%, 60%, and 80% of the dietary protein. The extent to which body fatty acids in tilapia reflect dietary fatty acids was also investigated. Body fatty acid composition closely reflected dietary fatty acid composition. In experiment 4, a basal diet in which a fibre-reduced sunflower cake provided 80% of the dietary protein was supplemented with amino acids lysine, methionine and threonine. There was a trend to improved growth rate and FCE in fish fed diets supplemented with lysine and threonine, but the improvement did not attain statistical significance. Methionine, added alone or together with threonine did not elicit any response in fish. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Making sense of students career choices : the case of technical training institutions in Kenya.

Author: Kithyo, Isaac Mattemu

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Vocational education/Occupations/ ;

Abstract:

This study investigated the factors that shaped students' choices of training programs in two technical colleges in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to determine the nature of the students reasoning with regards to their decisions about enrolling in particular training programs. It also highlights how the students deal with the pressures from their parents, peers, and the community at large, to conform to their 'gender expected' program choices. The expectations of Kenyan society have been that female students would choose programs within the female dominated fields of secretarial, food and beverage, and clothing technology. The expected programs for male students have been in the male dominated fields of engineering and building trades. The study showed that program choices for girls differed from those of boys irrespective of the type of school the students attended. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative methodology. Ethnographic techniques were used to analyze the participants experiences obtained through conversation like interviews. Chi square tests and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the enrollment records obtained from the participating colleges. The participants included 39 students and 4 heads of departments from the two participating colleges, college A and college B. There were 14 female and 7 male students enrolled in traditionally female programs, and 9 male and 9 female students enrolled in traditionally male programs. For each college, one head of a department with predominantly female programs and one from a department with predominantly male programs participated in the study. All the participants were interviewed within their college. The interviews focused on the participants' individual experiences related to their choices of training programs. The interviews with the heads of departments also looked at the relationship between the government guidelines on student enrollment and the actual criteria used by the colleges to select the students for different programs within each college. All the interviews were audio taped. The students indicated that their choices were moderated by factors within the homes they came from, the schools they attended, the society at large, and the world of work. Factors within the homes included gender related socialization, and parental pressure for the students to choose the programs that the parents wanted them to choose. The major factors within the schools the students attended included lack of career guidance, the school facilities, and lack of role models for the students to emulate. The main factors that were related to the society at large were the general expectations that the students would choose 'gender appropriate' programs. It was interesting to note that the students placed an emphasis on their perception of the expectations of their potential future spouses. The main factors related to the world of work were the availability of employment in particular careers, and the students' perception of the gender biases that the employers might have when recruiting workers for different types of jobs.

Game ranching in Machakos District, Kenya : an application of mathematical programming to the study of wildlife policy.

Author: Kinyua, Patrick Irungu Dishon

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture/Machakos District/Wildlife management/Ranches/Mathematical models/ ;

Abstract:

This study employed a bioeconomic, mathematical programming model to analyse ranch resources allocation among cattle and game animals, and Kenya's wildlife conservation and game harvesting policies. The objective function was comprised of discounted net income flows over 30 periods of 6-months each (15 years) and was optimised subject to the population dynamics (modeled as logistic growth functions), initial animal populations and institutional constraints (Kenya Wildlife Service policies). Game animal harvests were modelled as decay functions, while carrying capacity in the logistic growth models is a function of rainfall. Cattle population is modelled as a linear difference equation

Placing culture at the centre of the Kenyan curriculum : a participatory action research inquiry.

Author: Maina, Faith Waiyego

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Culture ; Education ; Curricula ;

Abstract:

Most societies around the world strive to transmit their culture and world view to succeeding generations through education. This is important because individuals with strong cultural identities become independent and self- reliant people who are functional in their own environment. People who have little sense of their cultural identity or have been alienated from their culture often become dependent and lack the skills of meaningful survival in their own environment. Societies that have suffered colonial domination in the past can find themselves socializing their children with the cultural values and world view of the colonizing power which obviously undermines their own cultural identity. In the Republic of Kenya, this problem has been acknowledged and documented by academics and educators but there seems to be a lack of political will to make effective and lasting changes to the curriculum. This study explored the kind of curriculum that fosters cultural relevance. It examined ways in which curriculum can become a place in which cultural values, knowledge, skills and beliefs that provide foundations for identity can be understood, defined and interpreted. Five teachers and I came together to explore the possibilities of tapping the local resources to enrich the school curriculum in Kenya so that teachers begin to use both material and human resources which are locally available to meet curriculum goals. By using the local resources, the learners began to view the local knowledge and skills as being important to school knowledge. The study employs participatory action research which derives strength from its emphasis on shifting the power balance between the researcher and researched, encouraging dialogical relationships, providing a voice and feelings to disenfranchised peoples and showing commitment to social transformation through action and reflection. The research methods were primarily dialogue and conversations, discussions, creation of discourses and reflections. The thesis documents some of the struggles, tensions and frustrations associated with participatory action research for educational change. This research makes clear that experiential knowing emerges through participation with others and people can learn to be self-reflexive about their world and their actions within it.

Genetic diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of Rhizobium isolated from perennial Trifolium species.

Author: Gebeyaw, Mesfin Tesfaye

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Genomics ; Deoxyribonucleic acid--DNA ; Trifolii semipilosum ; Clover ; Kenya white clover ; Trifolii semipilosum ; Rhizobium leguminosarium ;

Abstract:

Soil bacteria that form functional nodules on the genus Trifolium (clover), a taxa of about 240 plant species, are included in a single species, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii. T. Semipilosum fresen (Kenya White clover), is one of the perennial clover species of agricultural importance in tropical and sub-tropical farming systems. The objectives of this study were to use nodulation characteristics, substrate utilization patterns and DNA analyses to determine the phylogenetic relationships of rhizobium isolated from temperate and tropical perennial trifolium species. Nodulation and symbiotic effectiveness of compatible and incompatible bacterial strains were investigated using the T. Semipilosum host. The symbiotic association of 22 R. I. Bv trifolii strains appeared to be highly specific: no single R. I. Bv trifolii strain was able to nodulate all six perennial trifolium species included as hosts in cross-inoculation experiments. Bacterial strains that were effective on temperate perennial species including T. Repens, T. Pratense, T. Hybridum and T. Fragiferum produced $/rm nod/sp+/fix/sp-$ phenotypes on T. Semipilosum and vice versa. Genetic relationships of R. I. Bv trifolii strains were obtained by DNA analyses using four Polymerase Chain Reaction (pcr) based techniques: Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (Rapd-pcr), Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergeneric Consensus (Eric-pcr), and pcr-based nucleotide sequence analysis of 16s and 23s Rdna regions. A considerable level of genetic diversity was found using rapd- and Eric-pcr. Rhizobium i. bv trifolii strains that are effective on the tropical perennial clover, T. Semipilosum, formed a tight cluster, especially with eric-pcr, that was distinct from R. I. Bv trifolii effective on temperate hosts. 16s Rdna nucleotide sequences were found to be highly conserved among R. I. Bv trifolii. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of 23s RDNA regions clustered R. I. Bv trifolii effective on T. Semipilosum, T. Repens, T. Pratense, T. Hybridum and T. Fragiferum into two distinct groups, which were consistent with the pattern of symbiotic effectiveness observed in cross-inoculation experiments. In compatible interactions, both T. Semipilosum and T. Repens were infected via root hairs. Nodules induced by effective strains on T. Semipilosum were localized near the upper region of the tap root where fewer root hairs are located; nodules of t. Repens were distributed largely on lateral roots. A rhizobium strain anu843, effective on T. Repens, caused root hair branching and twisting on T. Semipilosum, although infection threads were not detected in any of the plants examined. Microsymbionts for T. Semipilosum and T. Repens were transformed with a constitutively expressed gusa gene to provide a visual assay of rhizobial infection and nodulation. Strain anu843 was shown to enter the root system of t. Semipilosum mainly at the epidermal sites of emerging lateral roots. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Geographies of displacement : gender, culture and power in UNHCR refugee camps, Kenya.

Author: Hyndman, M Jennifer

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Refugees/United Nations High Commission for Refugees/Gender/Human rights/ ;

Abstract:

The end of the Cold War marks a period of human displacement greater in scale than any other this century. The number of refugees in 1995 numbered over 16 million; a conservative estimate of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPS) in the same year was 26 million. Approximately 36% of the worlds' refugees and half of all IDPS are located in continental Africa, suggesting an uneven world geography of forced migration. This research analyzes the 'safe spaces' where displaced people seek protection from threats of persecution and violence. In particular, it examines the major humanitarian organization providing assistance to involuntary migrants, the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), both at its headquarters in Geneva and in the context of refugee camps administered by the agency in Kenya. As resettlement targets in countries like Canada, the U.S., and Australia decline, many states hosting large numbers of refugees are less interested in allowing refugees to integrate or settle locally. In the case of Kenya, most refugees have the choice between returning home on a voluntary basis or staying in the camps. A few are resettled abroad and many more seek unofficial livelihoods beyond the borders of the camps. Questions of legal status, social and spatial segregation, and camp management constitute the major themes of this study. The legal framework which defines refugee status and entitlements originated after the Second World War and has, with few exceptions, become increasing irrelevant to crises of displacement in African locations. Ad hoc measures on the part of UNHCR to accommodate refugee who fall outside the 1951 definition have been flexible but insufficient. Camps have become more permanent, suspending refugees in 'safe spaces' without many political, social, cultural, and economic rights. The organization of the camps is scrutinized in detail for its relation to colonial administrations, the impact of its design and operations for refugee women and men, and the correspondence of UNHCR policy to practice in the field. The research contributes to the practice, politics, theory, and geography of humanitarian responses to human displacement.

Women's agency and educational policy : the experiences of the women of Kilome, Kenya.

Author: Ndunda, Mutindi Mumbua Kiluva

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Education policy ; Women's studies ; Gender ; Kilome Division, Makueni District ;

Abstract:

This study examines women's experiences of formal education in Kenya. The study aims at making visible the cultural, historical, economic and political factors that shaped, and continue to shape, women's educational and employment opportunities. It also highlights women's agency exemplified in their struggle to provide their children, and particularly their daughters, with educational opportunities. The study draws attention to the gender and power issues that limit women's participation in the public sphere. These are issues that policy makers, politicians, and development agents have not and still do not adequately address. The study employs post-positivist research methodologies, particularly feminist methodologies informed by post- colonial critiques. The women in this study are treated as social agents not as victims of men, and of economic and political trends. The women formulate strategies aimed at influencing or shaping the social system in which they are a part. The women's agency resides in their individual and communal endeavours and is constantly reinvented in the context of political and social change. This research is an analysis of the experiences of 38 women born, raised and partly schooled in Kilome Division, Makueni District. It focuses on the educational experiences of rural women living in two villages and a small town in Kilome Division, Kenya. I use the women's discourse to critique the public discourse on education articulated in policy documents produced in the last 30 years since independence in 1963. This study illustrates how women in Kenya have been largely absent at the national level where educational policies are formulated. Policy making has remained male dominated. Policy makers, charged with structuring and restructuring education to meet the country's development needs, continue to limit women's agency to the private sphere. The formulation of policies from the male perspective has intensified the public and private dichotomy. Absent in the public discourse on education has been the discussion of how gender, a social construction, has influenced opportunities available to men and women in colonial and post-colonial Kenya. Colonial gender constructions of femininity have continued to limit educational opportunities made available to women in post-colonial Kenya. The Kenyan women in this study are cognizant of how these gendered assumptions shaped, and continue to shape, women's educational and employment opportunities. They re-negotiate and resist these gendered assumptions and they have become intervention agents for their children's education. The women's agency, however, is limited by their lack of economic power. The interplay between gendered cultural assumptions about femininity and the increased costs of schooling imposed by policy makers continue to have a negative impact on women's education.

Analysis of growth and mortality from daily growth increments in the otoliths of dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) in Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya.

Author: Njiru, Murithi

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : MSc

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Otoliths ; Rastrineobala argentea ; Lake Victoria, Kenya ; Fish ; Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Effect of plant population density and shading on the productivity of beans (Phaseous vulgaris L.) and beets (Beta vulgaris L.) under intercropping.

Author: Muli, Musyimi B

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : MSc

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Beans ; Phaseolus vulgaris ; Vegetables ; Beets USE Beta vulgaris ; Beta vulgaris ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE