9 Records out of 22207 Records

Middle Pleistocene archaeology and paleohabitats of the lacustrine facies, Kapthurin Formation, Kenya.

Author: Roure, Cara Alana

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology/Pleistocene/Archaeology/ ;

Abstract:

The taxonomy of Middle Pleistocene hominins remains unresolved, and little is known regarding their behavior and ranging patterns. The Middle Pleistocene is of particular importance because it is the time period immediately preceding the appearance of modern Homo sapiens. The Kapthurin Formation, Kenya, which spans most of the Middle Pleistocene, provides the ideal location to address these issues. The time interval under investigation spans roughly 40,000 years and is tightly constrained by two 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates of 509 ? 9 ka and 545 ? 3 Ka. This target interval contains abundant archaeological remains as well as hominin fossils now attributed to Homo rhodesiensis, the most likely precursor of modern H. sapiens. The archaeological and fossil deposits are found in varied paleohabitats, including a saline/alkaline lake, a fresh water spring and a fluviolacustrine floodplain crosscut by small ephemeral streams. This project focuses on the paleoenviornmental investigation the lacustrine and spring facies of the Kapthurin Formation and the excavation of three archaeological localities. Although this target interval dates to a time period during which Acheulian technology is ubiquitous in East Africa, excavations at GnJh 42, GnJh 50 and GnJh 23 unearthed a simple flake and core lithic industry that lacks formal tools such as handaxes, the fossiles directeurs of the Acheulian. Consequently, these assemblages would fit comfortably within either Acheulian or Middle Stone Age technological repertoires. However, blade cores and refitting blades, most commonly found in MSA and LSA industries, were recovered from GnJh 42. This represents the earliest known occurrence of blade technology worldwide. Blade production is known from the time interval ~285-510 ka in the Kapthurin Formation, and the new finds establish the existence of a longstanding tradition for the production of laminar industries in this part of East Africa. Although the manufacture of blades may not indicate any cognitive leap per se, the presence of well executed blade cores does indicate a diversification in the conception of the lithic manufacturing process that long precedes the Middle Stone Age and highlights the inadequacy of the three stage system to describe the behavioral variability present in the Middle Pleistocene

Middle Stone Age of technology at Cartwright's site, Kenya.

Author: Waweru, Veronica Njoki

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology/Stone age/Cartwright's, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Technological complexity, including the use of projectile weaponry, is an important attribute of modern human behavior. The transition from the hand-held hand axe to smaller hafted tools may have happened as early as 285 ka, but the unequivocal use of the bow and arrow is undocumented before the Later Stone Age. This investigation contributes to the understanding of Middle Stone Age (MSA) behavior from a technological perspective and directly addresses behavioral complexity as part of the adaptive package of Homo sapiens in the MSA of East Africa. The work investigated the technology and functions of points found at the MSA Cartwright's site, Kenya. The description of the MSA assemblage at the site has been carried out to find out its character and how it compares to other MSA sites in the surrounding Central Rift Valley sites of Prospect Farm and Prolonged Drift. Stone points occur at all three MSA sites that have been examined in this study, but they may have been used to arm short stabbing spears (assegais), long throwing spears (javelins), or arrows. To clarify this issue, the points' aerodynamic properties and traces of damage and use-wear were examined and compared with those documented in experimental studies to determine what weaponry systems they were part of. Replicated points were used with the bow and arrow to test the proposition that some MSA points were used to arm bows and arrows. The findings from this experimental study suggest that some MSA points were used with the bow and arrow and are effective weapons in terms of distance, accuracy and penetration, and may have served to increase the hunting success of MSA hominids. The study also provides useful insights into the technological variability found among assemblages. Results from comparative analyses of artifacts from Cartwright's site, Prolonged Drift and Prospect Farm show that Cartwright's site largely conforms to MSA patterns that include plasticity in manufacture techniques and variation in assemblage composition among other parameters

The Acheulian to Middle Stone Age transition : tephrostratigraphic context for archaeological change in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya.

Author: Tryon, Christian Alexander

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology/Stone age/Archaeology/Transition USE Changes/Changes/ ;

Abstract:

The disappearance of the Acheulian Industrial Complex from the African archaeological record between 150,000-300,000 years ago is an important, but poorly understood phenomenon. The replacement of the Acheulian by diverse stone tool industries of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) signals profound hominid adaptive changes that led to the appearance of modern humans in Africa prior to their dispersal and global colonization. A succession of Acheulian and MSA sites occur in the Middle Silts & Gravels and Bedded Tuff members of the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. I address the nature and timing of the Acheulian-MSA transition in the Kapthurin Formation by (1) constructing a comprehensive stratigraphic framework of volcanic ash (tephra), allowing chronological ordering of known archaeological sites, and (2) discovery and excavation of Koimilot (GnJh-74), a MSA site with two stratified lithic assemblages. Tephrostratigraphic correlation shows that Koimilot is the youngest presently known site from the Kapthurin Formation. Correlation of Bedded Tuff Member tephra is by field stratigraphic and textural observations combined with 272 geochemical analyses by electron microprobe of 53 samples from 20 archaeological and geological locales. The Bedded Tuff Member preserves a succession of basaltic followed by trachytic eruptions from a single volcanic source that underwent progressive chemical evolution, the latest stages of which date to ~235,000 year ago. Stratigraphic position and geochemical composition define eight sub-divisions of the Bedded Tuff Member. Tephrostratigraphic correlation demonstrates the interstratification of Acheulian and MSA sites, and thus erodes any notions of a simple or gradual shift from the Acheulian to the MSA. Excavations at Koimilot (GnJh-74) produced two stratified assemblages formed in a distal alluvial fan environment. The older Locus 1 preserves multiple episodes of local raw material procurement and the production of flakes from radial cores using Levallois and other methods. At the younger Locus 2, artifacts occur as lag deposits within stream channels, but include characteristic large (~10 cm) Levallois points and elongated flakes. Comparison of Koimilot with other, older Kapthurin Formation sites suggests that although the nature of the transition is complex, sites with MSA lithic technology reflect an elaboration of methods derived from the local Acheulian.

Three essays on the economics of land title in Kenya.

Author: Kieyah, Joseph Gichuru

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Land reform/Property rights/Economics/ ;

Abstract:

I apply economic theory in the analysis of land title institution as an important component of land reform in Kenya. In chapter 2, I examine the role of title registration in providing security of property rights for landowners. A simple model is developed to examine the trade-off between increased security of registering title against the administrative cost of accessing the system. The model predicts that the demand for registration should be increasing in the value of land, the education of the landowner, and proximity to the Central Government. Evidence on land registration in Kenya provides support for the model. In chapter three, I develop a simple model of a landowner's problem of seeking a Land Control Board's approval in order to deal with his or her land. The model is based on tradeoffs between the board's legal consent that formalizes any land transaction and cost of seeking the Board's approval. In the model, the landowner faces the risk of the Board rejecting his or her application for consent and possibility of losing ownership through non-consensual means if the consent is denied. The model provides theoretical support for the argument that higher values of parcels and lower transaction cost will increase the likelihood of seeking the Board's approval. Using farm-level cross-sectional data the chapter empirically demonstrates that the land control board has impacted the title registration. Two conjectures on Boards' behavior are made based on efficiency and rent- seeking models respectively. Anecdotal evidence provides support for the rent-seeking model. In chapter 4, I develop a simple model of land title reform which shows that a policy of voluntary adoption of a new system is not likely to be successful, even if the new system pareto dominates the existing one. The problem is the existence of an externality that prevents individual landowners from fully internalizing the benefits of the new system. Some evidence for the theory is presented based on historic efforts to institute land registration in the United States and England, as well as ongoing attempts by Kenya to establish formal property rights systems for land.

Breaking traditional bonds analysis of female rural-urban migration in Kenya.

Author: Ambenge, John Teddy

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Gusii (African people) ; Luyia (African people) ; Luo (African people) ; Rural urban migration ; Women ; Education ;

Abstract:

This dissertation undertakes an analysis of female rural to urban migration in Kenya. The main goal of this study is to identify some of the factors contributing to female rural-to-urban migration in Kenya. A basic argument of the study is that as more women become educated, and gain skills suited to off-farm activities, the consequence is an increase in their migration to urban areas in search of non-manual jobs. The data obtained from primary sources -291 migrant women and 186 non-migrant women - reveal that there is a class distinction among migrant women. The better educated who arrive in the urban centers with relatives or on their own to seek employment in the formal sector, and the less educated who are brought into the urban centers to work in the informal sector. As a whole, migrant women were better educated than non-migrants. The majority of Abagusii and Luhya women are more apt to have some high school or college education prior to the move than Luo migrants. Abagusii women were more likely than Luhya or Luo to be single at the time of the move. But Luhya and Luo women were much younger than Abagusii at the time of migrating to the urban centers. Female rural-to-urban migration is highly characteristic of single women with more education. These qualities, combined with contacts in the urban center, increase one's chances of migrating. The data support the hypothesis that; contacts, marital status, education, and occupation are positively associated with migration. Female migration is motivated by much the same reasons as male migration.

Interest groups and the price of cereals in Kenya.

Author: Onyango, Benjamin Morang'a

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics ; Pricing policies ; Cereals ; Maize ; Wheat ; Rice ;

Abstract:

This study empirically investigates the political and economic factors influencing post-independence cereals pricing (maize, wheat and rice) in Kenya. The study applies interest group theories of government and rent seeking as advanced in public choice literature to explain Kenya's cereal price policy formation. The uniqueness of this study stems from the fact, past studies on Kenya agricultural policies have been largely descriptive. This study for the first time deviates from this path testing empirically the influence of interest groups competition on Kenya's post-independence cereal price policy outcomes. The empirical findings demonstrate that interest groups competition is responsible partly for the producer and consumer price policy outcomes in Kenya. The factors that came out explicitly included geographic producer concentration, food deficit or producing cabinet concentration, production subsidies and urban population pressure. The introduction and implementation of structural adjustment programs has played a role in depoliticing the interest groups thus paving way to market based solutions to the cereals price policies. In addition, the economic reform process in the cereal sub-sector was unevenly being implemented largely due to the deep-seated personal stakes of the various groups who are not well prepared for the reforms.

Supply response of maize in Kenya : a district level analysis

Author: Munyi, Veronica W

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : MSc

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ;

Subject Terms: Maize ; Zea mays ; Agricultural economics ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Workers' health and safety in Tanzania and Kenya.

Author: Kiwara, Angwara Denis

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1989

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Industrial development/Workforce/Health/ ;

Abstract:

The dissertation examines and compares Workers' Health and Safety (WHS) in Kenya and Tanzania. It focused on the socio-structural factors that influence whs in both countries before and after independence. The questions posed are related to national policies for WHS, their implementation and enforcement, worker participation, linkages between the general health care services and WHS, and the role of workers' unions in WHS. Interviews with government officials, factory works, union leaders, a tour of factories and plantations, and analysis of secondary data constituted the main methods of study. The study found that, before independence, no specific whs policy existed in either country. Workers' organizations were outlawed by the colonial state, and any such attempts were met with repression. Neither workplace standards nor WHS health care services were provided for. After independence the two countries adopted different approaches to socio-economic development. WHS fared differently under the two approaches. A structure for WHS health care services was established in Tanzania, but none was established in Kenya. Tanzania adopted policies which favor WHS, but its control over technology remains poor. This has influenced negatively Tanzanias' overall success in establishing specific services for those at work. Kenya's postcolonial State advocated policies which favored among others the growth of a local bourgeoisie, less developed workers' unions, strong linkage with multinational corporations and low levels of workers' awareness of the health effects of the production process and raw materials. These factors have negatively affected the level of WHS in Kenya. As the dissertation shows, the post independence development policies adopted by Kenya and Tanzania have been the major influences behind the different levels of WHS in the two countries.

The evolution of Nairobi, Kenya, 1888-1939 : a study in dependent urban development.

Author: Smith, Earl

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1984

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi, Kenya/Urban development/Colonialism/Multiculturalism and pluralism/ ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this dissertation is to explain the social, political and economic processes governing urban colonial development in Nairobi, Kenya. Since the physical and spatial arrangements which distinguish urban development are the unique products of a particular society and culture existing within a given political arena, this study explains the development of Nairobi as the expression and outgrowth of the social organization of colonialism. The time span of the study is limited to the period from 1888 to 1939. It analyzes the process by which a metropolitan power, Great Britain, created, incorporated and exploited the city of Nairobi. The effects of colonialism are examined especially as they influenced the creation and maintenance of social relationships in Nairobi. The relationship between Africans, Europeans, Indians and the city of Nairobi is investigated. Ethnic segregation was a major factor in establishing and maintaining the colonial social, economic and political system. This type of segregation secured the structure necessary for an administration interested in social control. The African response to the imposition of colonial rule in Nairobi is included. At a general theoretical level issue is taken with a number of studies that have examined dependent urbanization, racial/ethnic segregation and colonialism in an uncritical manner. There have been few investigations heretofore undertaken without a partisan interest in, or support of, European expansion into East Africa. To understand the dependent urban structures in various geographical sectors of the 'Third World' requires that a theoretical orientation deal with the phenomenon of colonialism. To conclude, this study analyzes the manner in which a built environment is physically and spatially arranged for export production. It is demonstrated that the genesis of Nairobi is the outgrowth of the expansion of capitalism in the Third World.