65 Records out of 22207 Records

Three essays in development economics [Kenya].

Author: Ferre, Celine

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Essays ; Development economics ;

Abstract:

This dissertation presents three topics of development economics that try to unravel different aspects of poverty dynamics: internal migration towards urban centers, early fertility reduction and urbanization are three fundamental potential factors of poverty reduction. In Chapter 1, we look at whether internal immigration fostered poverty in urban centers, looking at headcount ratio, basic infrastructure access, polarization, and municipality budget. We use data on Brazilian migration between 1995 and 2000. We instrument the proportion of new immigrants using a combination of three variables: unemployment volatility at origin, proportion of population who left the place of origin, and travel distance between origin and arrival. We find that domestic immigration reduced poverty in urban centers, increased infrastructure access, but did not increase local polarization. The positive effect is mainly due to categories of migrants that have adaptive skills and characteristics complementary to locals'. In Chapter 2, we investigate whether education could reduce early fertility in the context of Kenya, using data from the DHS surveys of 1989 to 2003. We instrument the number of years of education with the 1985 education reform, which increased by one year time spent in primary school. We find that one more year spent in school decreases by 10 percentage points the probability of teenage childbearing, or a reduction of 15% of teenage fertility rates. One additional year of schooling curbs the probability of pregnancy each year by 7.3% (respectively 5.6) for women with at least a primary (secondary) degree. Investing in education can therefore have positive spillovers on health. In Chapter 3, we draw upon small area poverty estimation to investigate the relationship between poverty and city size in six developing countries. We find substantial variation in the incidence and depth of consumption poverty across city sizes in five of the six countries. For all five countries where the data permits a disaggregation of the incidence of public service access, there is also considerable variation across city sizes. In all cases, poverty is lowest and service availability is greatest in the largest cities, precisely those where governments, the middle-classes, opinion-makers and airports are disproportionately located.

Essays in experimental development economics [Kenya].

Author: Jakiela, Pamela

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Development economics/Essays/ ;

Abstract:

Experimental economic methods are used to explore individual decision-making in poor communities with limited access to the formal credit and insurance markets. I explore preferences for sharing in the United States and rural Kenya using experimental dictator games which measure altruism and inequality-aversion in non-strategic environments. In a sample of U.S. undergraduates, I find that the context of a dictator game impacts the level of selfishness and altruism observed, but not the willingness to sacrifice efficiency to enhance equity. In a related study, I measure the willingness to reward individual effort, relative to underlying preferences for sharing unearned income, among rural Kenyans and U.S. undergraduates. The results suggest that Kenyan subjects are more generous on the whole, but that they do not reward others for their labor; U.S. subjects, on the other hand, share more with those who have exerted effort than with those who have received lottery winnings--just as they are more generous with their own unearned income than with wages they received for exerting effort. In the final study, I report the results of a framed field experiment testing the impact of microfinance contract structure on moral hazard in project choice. I find that joint liability contracts encourage free-riding and risky investment decisions, but that the costs to the lender are more than compensated for by forcing borrowers to insure each other.

Community and private sector approaches to development in Kenya.

Author: Leino, Jessica Leigh

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Development economics ; Community action ; Private sector ; Economic development ;

Abstract:

Economic development policy increasingly emphasizes the role of communities and the private sector. Communities may enjoy informational advantages in providing services, while the private sector can provide considerable employment and growth opportunities. This dissertation presents three essays that investigate the impact of community and private sector approaches to development in rural Kenya. The first two chapters explore the design of community-based institutions that provide and maintain rural water infrastructure. The third chapter examines the productivity of teams in commercial agriculture. Chapter 1 studies the extent to which women's participation in local public goods management is enhanced by advocacy efforts and how increased women's participation affects water infrastructure maintenance. Gender advocacy can be a useful means of boosting women's participation, with little distortion in the effectiveness of these committees in delivering public goods. However, there is no evidence that enhanced participation by women results in greater project sustainability. Chapter 2 examines the health impacts and valuation of improved water sources, and the potential effects of alternative property rights institutions. Improvements in water infrastructure lead to large improvements in source water quality, increased use of improved water sources, moderate gains in home water quality and to a one quarter fall in reported child diarrhea incidence. Households appear willing to spend an additional 100 hours per year to walk to improved water sources. Simulations suggest that a social planner would only improve water sources with many nearby households. Allowing landowners to charge households for protected water only if they continue to provide access to unprotected water is Pareto improving relative to the status quo. Chapter 3 studies the productivity of teams of casual workers in Kenya's commercial agriculture sector. Workers choose to sort into more ethnically homogenous teams than would be expected with random matching, but ethnically diverse teams are more productive even after controlling for individual fixed effects. Workers may prefer to trade off higher earnings for opportunities to socialize or for mutual insurance, both of which may be easier to provide within tribal groups. Productivity may thus be improved by facilitating inter-ethnic team formation or by offering formal insurance schemes.

Three seemingly unrelated essays in development economics [Kenya].

Author: Baird, Sarah Jane

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Development economics ; Essays ; Comparative studies ;

Abstract:

Mitigating risk, new technology adoption and improving health and education are key mechanisms for lifting households out of poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In this dissertation we use micro-level analysis to investigate these issues in the contexts of Vietnam, India and Kenya. Although all three chapters look at diverse topics in different settings, at the heart of each analysis is an attempt to address issues essential to improving the well-being of households in developing countries. In Chapter 2 we draw on the full-insurance literature to examine the ability of households in Vietnam to smooth consumption when faced with idiosyncratic income shocks. Given the potential vulnerability of households in developing countries to weather shocks, illness and other sources of income variability, it is important to understand the extent to which households can cope with an uncertain income flow. We modify the standard approach taken in the full-insurance literature by focusing on smoothing of quantities, as opposed to expenditures. This is an important distinction because quantities, not expenditures, are what really matter for household welfare. In addition we allow for a more general characterization of preferences. We develop a simple model that leads to an estimation equation which we then test using panel data from Vietnam. We still reject full insurance across all goods, although the degree of insurance varies across goods. In particular we find that households are better able to smooth normal goods, such as rice, as opposed to more luxury goods such as meats. Chapter 3 looks at the factors that drove technology adoption of high yielding variety seeds in India during the Green Revolution. We test alternative models of technology adoption using household level panel data from a nationally representative sample of rural Indian households from 1968-1971, years that correspond with the onset of the Green Revolution. The 'price model' emphasizes input availability and price as the key determinants of the scale of adoption, while the 'learning model' focuses on learning and experience. Using decision rules derived from these two alternative models we find that although both models capture certain aspects of the adoption decision, they each disregard important components of the alternative model. We then propose a third model that combines aspects of these two approaches and use it to characterize the decision both on the scale of adoption as well as whether or not to adopt. Chapter 4 examines the long run health and education impacts of a deworming intervention in primary schools in Western Kenya. We collect a panel dataset of Kenyan youth from 1998 to 2005 to examine the medium to long term impacts of the intervention on health and education outcomes. Our results suggest that deworming treatment does have some medium-run effects, particularly on health. We find positive impacts of deworming on height, weight and a subjective measure of general health. These results seem to be largely driven by benefits to females, students in lower grades in 1998, and students living in higher infection areas, particularly high schistosomiasis areas. We find some impacts of deworming on education outcomes, most notably on dropout rates. Overall, our results suggest that a larger scale deworming project targeted at specific vulnerable sub-groups of the population may have fairly substantial health and education benefits.

Essays in applied environmental and health economics [Kenya].

Author: Yeh, Ethan Yih

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Essays/Environmental conditions/Health/Economics/ ;

Abstract:

Public health crises are the most dramatic in developing countries, and this dissertation is concerned with two critical health issues: air pollution and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Both issues are extremely complex, with many players, regulations, and policies impacting millions (if not billions) of people worldwide. Research and knowledge is vitally important in the design of regulations and interventions to reduce the disease burden related to both air pollution and STIs, and I hope these essays are a step in the right direction. These two issues are also related conceptually in economics because of externalities. Air pollution is the classic negative externality because firms or drivers that produce harmful air particulates generally do not incur the costs. Instead, people living near power plants, people living near highways, people with asthma, young children, elderly, tend to bear the brunt of the costs, often in the form of negative health impacts. Similarly, externalities play a large role in the transmission of STIs and the HIV epidemic. For example, risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sex, anal sex, or sex with commercial sex workers have significant negative externalities beyond discomfort, stigma, or psychological effects on the parties involved. HIV transmission to an uninfected partner has substantial health consequences for that individual as well as an impact on the larger HIV epidemic. The externalities related to air pollution and sexual behavior are therefore key concepts in policymaking. The first essay concerns New Source Review, a key component of the Clean Air Act in the United States in regulating ambient air pollution from coal-fired power plants. With the large amount of coal-fired generation in China and other countries, it is important to utilize knowledge from existing environmental regulations in the United States in the design of future regulations in developing countries. The second essay examines the effect of indoor air pollution from house-hold biomass fuel use on child mortality in Pakistan. The last two essays investigate risky sexual behaviors among a population of informal and formal commercial sex workers in Western Kenya. In particular, the final essay examines the relationship between sex work and income risk using a unique daily panel dataset

Fuel from the savanna : the social and environmental implications of the charcoal trade in sub-Saharan Africa [Kenya].

Author: Bailis, Robert Eric

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Environmental impact ; Social impact ; Charcoal USE Fuels ; Fuels ; Grasslands ;

Abstract:

The heavy reliance on woodfuels that characterizes energy consumption in much of the developing world is often cast as inherently damaging to the environment. However, a more critical analysis reveals that the range of social and environmental implications of woodfuel use are complex and contingent on a wide variety of factors. Moreover, the impacts of woodfuel use are not necessarily negative for all groups of actors or under all circumstances. Nor do they necessarily lead to permanent environmental change. In addition, outcomes are driven as much by social as by environmental conditions. I explore these complexities using multiple methodologies, including an in depth case study and several analytic models. For the field-based case study, I conducted a commodity chain analysis of Kenya's charcoal trade. Used by nearly half the population and constituting roughly 40% of the country's primary energy supply, charcoal is a critical fuel in Kenya. Despite its importance, it is not regulated by any overarching policy. The regulations that do exist are implemented through ambiguous and selectively enforced district-level ordinances that local authorities can easily apply to their own advantage. Although they are ostensibly meant to prevent environmental damage from the charcoal trade, there is little ecological knowledge incorporated into the design of existing regulations. Moreover, there is no consideration of the socioeconomic context in which charcoal production occurs. As a result, the regulations, when they are enforced, foster tension between local land managers and authorities, encourage corruption, and do little to promote sustainable woodfuel production. In spite of the popular discourse that portrays charcoal as an agent of environmental destruction, there are a wide range of social benefits flowing from the country's charcoal trade. The trade constitutes an important source of income for tens, if not hundreds of thousands of charcoal makers throughout Kenya. It also forms part of a land management strategy for thousands of landowners who supply trees to the charcoal kilns. However, understanding how and why benefits from the charcoal trade are distributed among different groups of actors in the commodity chain requires an understanding of the local histories and social relationships in which the trade is embedded. For example, in Narok district, where field work was conducted for this research, gradual reforms in land tenure over the past century, first from communal to corporate tenure and then to individual freehold tenure, created the conditions in which the charcoal trade now thrives, aided by an influx of migrants from neighboring districts who supply both their technical knowledge and their labor to the industry. Simultaneously, conservation efforts in a large and threatened area of forest that Narok shares with neighboring districts, but which, ironically, supplies very little of the district's charcoal, was used to justify authorities' efforts to clamp down on all trade in forest products, thereby criminalizing charcoal and creating the space for rent-seeking behavior among corrupt local officials. Analytically, it is possible to quantify a range of possible outcomes resulting from large-scale commercial woodfuel exploitation. Outcomes depend strongly on social and political decisions related to land management. For example, post-harvest decisions are critical in determining the degree to which a plot of land exploited for woodfuel production is a net source or sink of carbon. Finally, the availability and affordability of woodfuels, and the technology with which they are utilized, has additional implications for health and social welfare. All of these factors are explored below.

Connective power : solar electrification and social change in Kenya.

Author: Jacobson, Arne Edward

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Geography/Solar energy/Social change/ ;

Abstract:

Household solar photovoltaic systems have emerged as a key alternative to grid-based rural electrification in many developing countries. This may seem a victory for appropriate technology advocates, but my research indicates that the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya, which is among the largest developing country solar markets per capita, is far removed from the classic 'small is beautiful' neo-populist vision of building small-scale alternatives to global capitalism. Instead, solar electrification is more closely connected to neo-liberal goals of market-based service provision and economic integration. In this study I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including surveys, intra-household energy allocation studies, and historical analysis, to analyze the social significance of solar electrification in Kenya. I find that 'connective' applications, including television, radio, and cellphones, are centrally important. Television is especially notable; the expansion of TV broadcasting to rural areas was a key condition for solar market development. Solar electricity is also used for lighting. In Kenya, income and work related uses of solar lighting are modest, while education uses are more significant. However, in many households, especially those with small systems, intra-household dynamics constrain key social uses (e.g. children's studying), as the energy is allocated to other uses. Social use patterns combine with access dynamics in Kenya's unsubsidized market to shape the social significance of solar electrification. Solar ownership is dominated by the rural upper and middle classes. Thus, productivity and education uses make small contributions to differentiation and middle class formation. Additionally, solar electrification's role in supporting rural television and radio use improves business advertisers' ability to expand consumer goods markets. These findings link solar electrification to important processes of rural development and social change. Mainstream policy makers have sought to expand the market through credit-based sales. However, my analysis indicates that, without subsidies, credit-based sales are unlikely to deepen access beyond levels established in the existing cash market. Thus, while solar electrification may potentially contribute to sustainable development, concerns about equity and other social issues indicate a need for careful attention to the implications of policy choices and processes that influence the social use possibilities of the technology.

Economic evaluation of HIV/AIDS interventions in resource scarce settings [Kenya]

Author: Masaki, Emiko

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; HIV infection ; Economic policy ; AIDS (Disease) ;

Abstract:

This dissertation focuses on the allocation of scarce resources for HIV/AIDS interventions. The research investigates, via three different studies, how the economic evaluation of information can be used in the efficient allocation of resources. The studies demonstrate the use of economic analyses to establish priorities in HIV/AIDS interventions, to optimize allocation of resources, and to examine both short-term and long-term impacts. Chapter 1 provides an overview of economic policy related to the AIDS epidemic in poor countries. Chapter 2 applies cost-effectiveness analysis to determine an optimal allocation of resources in prevention and treatment within Kenya, a country where resources are scarce and the AIDS epidemic is severe. The chapter concludes that even if prices for generic antiretroviral (ART) drugs are low, prevention is more cost-effective than ART treatment. Chapter 3 evaluates the long-term impacts of policy options using demographic and epidemiological models to project the consequences of resource allocation in Kenya. Results suggest that while ART treatment has short-term benefits, the effects of a preventive effort will only become apparent over time. The chapter further establishes that the benefits of ART gradually decrease, while costs continue to grow over time; and it concludes that the cost-effectiveness of prevention over treatment is reinforced by a long-run, dynamic analysis. Chapter 4 evaluates the costs and impact of the rapid expansion of ART treatment within Thailand. The chapter concludes that given the success of Thailand's national prevention program and the country's relative wealth in terms of its national financial and health care resources, Thailand can afford the policy of government-financed ART. The overall conclusions from this dissertation can be summarized as follows: (1) Prevention continues to be highly cost-effective in resource-scarce countries like Kenya that have a severe AIDS epidemic; (2) Long-term as well as short-term analysis are necessary to better understand the implications of AIDS policies; (3) The ranking of policies depends on parameters that are specific to the individual countries within the model; and (4) Since the number of ART patients accumulates over time, the fiscal burden of ART can grow rapidly and has the potential to overwhelm resource-poor countries.

Greenhouse gas, indoor air pollution, and wood use implications of the charcoal fuel cycle [Kenya]

Author: Pennise, David Michael

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Pollution/Air pollution/Greenhouses/Greenhouse effect/Fuels ;

Abstract:

Charcoal is a processed-biomass fuel used for household cooking and space heating in many parts of the developing world, particularly the African continent, where cleaner fuels such as petroleum products or electricity are unavailable or unaffordable. In this dissertation I developed and tested methods for the quantification of the airborne emissions from several types of charcoal-making kilns commonly used throughout the developing world. Complete carbon balances and emission factors (amount of pollutant emitted per unit activity) for carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulates were experimentally determined for several kiln types in Thailand, Kenya, and Brazil. The relationships between kiln type, operator know-how, kiln efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions were examined. The charcoal-making emission factors determined herein were combined with existing data on charcoal and fuelwood stove emissions. Empirical relationships (exponential and linear fits) were derived for greenhouse gas emissions, indoor air pollutant emissions, and fuelwood use versus charcoal kiln and charcoal stove efficiencies, as well as versus fuelwood stove efficiency. These three impacts were combined to form the charcoal and fuelwood impact (CFI) index, which was then used to compare the impact of charcoal use to that of fuelwood use over a range of kiln and stove efficiencies. The CFI index showed that the environmental and human health impacts of charcoal and fuelwood are likely quite comparable, that neither is definitively cleaner than the other. What was clearly elucidated by the CFI index were the substantial benefits of achieving higher efficiencies, due to either kiln operator expertise, improved kilns, or improved stoves. The CFI index also demonstrated that even if maximum efficiencies are achieved, the environmental and human health effects of both the charcoal and fuelwood cycles are vastly greater than those from biogas or petroleum fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene. Hence, neither charcoal nor fuelwood should be considered a sustainable, nor preferable, household fuel choice. Rising awareness of and concern for the global environment and international health provide a mechanism for assisting poor households with the transition away from such dirty fuels.

Behavior and natural history of the Blacktipped mongoose, Herpestes sanguineus, in central Kenya.

Author: Takata, Steve

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology/Animal behavior/Blacktipped mongoose USE Herpestes sanguineus/Herpestes sanguineus/ ;

Abstract:

I examined the behavior and ecology of the Blacktipped mongoose, Herpestes sanguineus, in a central Kenyan savanna. Prior evidence had suggested that blacktipped mongooses may form stable, long-term groupings, and thus might offer insight into the evolution of social behavior in the mongoose family. I surveyed the small mammal fauna of the study site and captured six other species of mammalian small carnivore. Dietary analysis demonstrated that blacktipped mongooses are primarily predators of small vertebrates, but also consume small quantities of arthropod prey. Reproduction in Blacktipped mongooses occurs in two synchronous peaks, spaced six months apart. Births take place in spring and fall, and babies remain with the mother for several months. It is not clear what synchronizes reproduction, but the onset of the spring rains corresponds to the larger of the two birth peaks. Female Blacktipped mongooses occupy tightly packed, exclusive territories, and do not tolerate other female mongooses with the exception of subadult young. Although this was expected based on prior studies, observed territory size was three times greater than those reported from Serengeti National Park. In contrast to females, males had much larger home ranges that overlapped the ranges of neighbors extensively. Male mongooses apparently attempt to defend areas that are too large to patrol effectively. Their inability to exclude neighbors creates a situation in which males must tolerate immediate neighbors, although they appear to avoid face-to-face encounters. This tolerance of neighbors may be an important step toward formation of the stable multi-male groups observed in the Serengeti. Distribution of receptive female mongooses may dictate male behavior. When female mongooses are synchronously receptive but widely spaced, as found in central Kenya, males are apparently unable to successfully defend them. In contrast, Serengeti females are apparently highly clumped in small territories and thus may be more defendable, but only by cooperative groups of male mongooses. Thus, distribution of prey may influence female distribution. Female distribution (and reproductive synchrony) then determines male tactics, including the formation of stable groups in Serengeti.