36 Records out of 22207 Records

The voluntary sector in urban service provision and planning in Nairobi city, Kenya.

Author: Otiso, Kefa Mairura

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Urban planning ; Poverty ; Low income groups ; Nongovernmental organizations ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Rapid population growth combined with poor planning, weak institutional, financial, and administrative conditions in many Third World cities has undermined many municipal governments' urban management capacity, especially the provision of basic services such as potable water and sanitation. Most of the urban residents with inadequate access to basic public services live in slum and squatter settlements. Traditionally, these residents have relied on informal sector services, which while affordable to many low-income people, are actually costly to the very poor, who constitute a growing segment of the population in slum and squatter settlements. The failure of municipal governments and the informal and/or the private sector to meet poor people's service needs has compelled them to turn to a third alternative-the voluntary sector, i.e., Non-Governmental and Community Organizations (NGOs and COs)-collectively referred to as Voluntary Organizations (VOs). Although the voluntary sector's role in rural development in Africa is widely acknowledged, its work in the continent's urban realm is scarcely understood, despite its increasing activity in this arena, and many scholars' contention that the sector is best suited for the role of meeting poor people's service needs and making urban planning policy more cognizant of their needs. Within the voluntary sector, there are many actors, including NGOs and COs. While the advocacy, intermediary, and community mobilizing role of NGOs is widely known, the role of COs is less appreciated because of the lack of sufficient information on their number, activities, and ability to contribute to development and poverty alleviation (Holmen and Jirstrom 1994). Using the case study of Nairobi city, Kenya, this research project (1) investigated the role of the voluntary sector (including COs) in urban service provision and planning-especially in the promotion of planning and building standards that are suitable to low-income areas); (2) sought to highlight the role of COs; and (3) analyzed several causes of VO effectiveness in these endeavors, including: funding and cost recovery, community composition and participation, service provision experience, use of technology, VO structure and leadership, organizational objectives, state support and cooperation with other VOs. The study's major findings are that the voluntary sector plays an important role in urban service provision and in the promotion of appropriate planning and building standards for low-income areas of Nairobi. Although voluntary organizations' service efforts are overwhelmed by the existing need for services, their contributions do ameliorate service needs in low-income areas. Moreover, even though ngos are more visible in the literature, this study found that COs are crucial voluntary sector actors and that NGOs and COs are actually complementary, rather than competing, organizational forms. Thus, the most successful service provision initiatives are NGO-CO partnerships that utilize the strengths of each organizational type.

Women in higher education : case studies from Kenya.

Author: Siaya, Laura Mae Paulson

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Higher education/Social conditions and trends/Women/ ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth view of the educational experiences of Kenyan women in higher education. More specifically, this project attempts to look at the salient elements and critical events which aid or hinder Kenyan women during their rise to, and through, higher education. Three groups of women were examined for this project, each at varying stages of their academic experience. These groups included undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty members. Various aspects of their educational experience were examined, including motives for continuing their education, how their education affects their social interactions and private lives, the prevalence of role models and family support, and the barriers they encountered along the way. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted with all participants. Because this study was interpretive and exploratory in nature, there were no pre-set hypotheses. Interview questions were open-ended to provide an avenue for the study participants to identify and explain, in their own terms, their educational process and the factors which guided it. This more flexible approach was deemed appropriate given the cross-cultural context of this project. The interviews were transcribed and a coding scheme was developed, using thematic content analysis. The texts were then put in case study formats for within and cross-case comparisons. While no generalizations can be made, many of the participants noted that the personal attention that they received from their parents, and others, was the initial primary motivation for continuing their education. Most of the participants described how they were tracked into teaching, although they had other goals in mind. Many felt their private and professional lives clashed and that there are social disadvantages to being an educated woman in Kenya, albeit there are economic and personal advantages too. All the participants have ambitious professional goals, but will not sacrifice their family life. Consequently, they work diligently and employ a variety of methods to balance both worlds.

Student attitudes, values and beliefs towards vocational training.

Author: Ondigi, Samson Rosana

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Vocational education ; Kisii, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The present study has been designed to investigate Kenyan students' attitudes, values and beliefs towards vocation training. The main purpose was to determine if students are satisfied with their vocational training for future work. The researcher chose to look at the youth polytechnics because of the central role these grassroots training institutions are expected to play in catering to both primary and secondary graduates (and dropouts) who do not have the opportunity to pursue further education or have no immediate skills for any particular job in the labor market. The main objectives of these youth polytechnics are: (1) to train youths with specific technical skills and knowledge that will equip them for future work, and (2) to prepare individuals to be self-employed and self- reliant. In order to investigate the students' attitudes, values and beliefs towards vocational education, four youth polytechnics were randomly picked from three districts in Gusii, Kenya to participate in this study. A total of 119 students (56 males and 63 females) from the four institutions participated in this study. The researcher developed a questionnaire instrument that was used for collecting the data. The research assistant in Kenya administered the instrument to the students in the four youth polytechnics. He mailed the raw data to the researcher in the us for analysis, the researcher used quantitative analysis techniques to analyze the data and test the null hypotheses in order to answer the stipulated research questions the study was intended to address. The findings of this study indicated that age, level of education and gender (except for yp3 and students' future career aspirations) have no effect on the students' attitudes towards vocational training. However, there were significant differences between schools. These differences cannot be explained statistically, but could be attributed to confounding factors beyond the scope of this study. Students indicated that they were highly satisfied with their vocational training, and the skills and knowledge they attained could help them to secure jobs in the labor market or be self-employed and self reliant. In conclusion, these youth polytechnics are important institutions for training school-leavers and drop-outs.

Recent and late-holocene paleolimnology of lakes Naivasha and Sonachi, Kenya (holocene, Lake Naivasha, Lake Sonachi).

Author: Verschuren, Dirk

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology/Sediments/Alkalies/Lakes/Lake Naivasha, Kenya/Lake Sonachi, Kenya/Crescent Island/Lake Oloidien, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Lakes Naivasha and Sonachi (Eastern Rift, Kenya) together form a complex of four limnologically and sedimentologically distinct, but hydrologically interconnected shallow lake basins: the main basin of Lake Naivasha, Crescent Island crater, Lake Oloidien, and Lake Sonachi. This system constitutes a natural laboratory to study how basin hydrology, morphometry, mixing regime, and sedimentation patterns affect the formation and preservation of climate-proxy signatures in the lake-sediment record. This study calibrates climate- proxy signatures in $/sp[210]$pb-dated sediment profiles from each basin against documentary evidence of climatically driven lake-level and salinity change over the past century. The results demonstrate that continuity and temporal resolution of a climate-proxy record strongly depend on the persistence and quality of the local depositional environment, as determined by the physical and chemical limnology of the particular lake basin. Further it is found that at all timescales gradual environmental change will be recorded as an apparent steplike event when change in the selected climate proxy is controlled by limnological or sedimentological thresholds. Calibration of the recent sediment record in all four basins is then used to interpret the lithostratigraphy of an 8.20 m-long sediment profile from crescent island crater, representing the last 1500 years of climatic history in equatorial East Africa. Ecological aspects of the dissertation focus on the potential of fossil assemblages of aquatic invertebrates to resolve past water-level fluctuations in African lakes on a timescale of decades. Analysis of the stratigraphic distribution of fossil chironomidae, ostracoda, and cladocera in recent sediments of lakes Oloidien and Sonachi form the basis for an investigation of the mechanisms regulating aquatic-invertebrate communities of shallow fluctuating lakes in tropical Africa. The results indicate that in addition to salinity, also mixing regime and availability of preferred substrate are important proximate causative factors driving the immigration, local expansion, and extinction of individual invertebrate species. It is argued that analysis of fossil invertebrate assemblages can be a valuable complement to quantitative methods of paleosalinity inference because of its ability to reconstruct lake- level change independently from salinity change.

Academic and social learning of Kenyan students at the University of Minnesota.

Author: Ondigi, Benjamin Abaya

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Cross-cultural studies ; University students ; Social conditions and trends ; University of Minnesota, USA ;

Abstract:

This study sought to identify the aspects of both academic and social learning in terms of skills and knowledge which the Kenyan students at the University of Minnesota had acquired. It also sought to identify the skills and knowledge acquired that would be transferred back to their home country and be used, and those which would not be transferred. These aspects of learning were examined in light of selected characteristics such as age, gender, marital status, and graduate/undergraduate students. University of Minnesota including graduate and undergraduate, singles and married, and those who are enrolled for non-degree work (adult special students). The qualitative method of data collection and data analysis was used. The following three qualitative methods were used to collect the data: (1) In-depth, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews with all respondents; (2) focus group interviews, and (3) a demographic form. The in-depth interviews revealed that the following knowledge and skills had been learned and would be transferred: computer technology, research skills, communication knowledge (e.g. E-Mail, telephones, fax, etc.), knowledge on the major area of study, logical reasoning leading to critical thinking, technical skills, interpersonal relations, appreciation of other people's cultures, children taught to be independent at an early age, students taking jobs while at school. The following areas would not be transferred: lack of international application of some courses, expensive technology, separation and divorce, and the use of dangerous weapons by adolescents. According to the focus group interviews, the following were prioritized first: computer technology, knowledge of one's major area of study, and technical skills. On the question of strategies to be used to implement the technology, the following were identified: (1) to set a real life model (good living example), (2) be able to approach those in authority and convince them to support the technology, (3) to establish a communication network that would enable those with the technology to reach both those in the hierarchy of the government as well as the beneficiaries of the technology. The following were identified as some of the problems that would be encountered: (1) Conflict between the acquired foreign and the home culture, (2) Difficult in changing the system in place, (3) Elitism, (4) Scarce resources, (5) Competition and challenges from abroad, (6) Level of economic structure, and (7) Time factor. Concerning the steps the government would need to take to implement the technology, the following were identified: (1) Create a good working environment that is motivating and encouraging. (2) Create a communication network with the returnees. (3) Identify talents. (4) Provide the machinery necessary for technology. (5) Seek loans from abroad and give capital to those who would be potential investors. (6) Send more talented students to developed nations to learn the technology and return home to implement it. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Genetic diversity among North American spring wheat cultivars as determined from genealogy and morphology (Triticum aestivum).

Author: Van Beuningen, Leonardus Theodorus

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1993

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Genetics/Biology, Genetics USE Genetics/Plant growth/Spring wheat USE Triticum aestivum/Triticum aestivum/ ;

Abstract:

Genetic diversity in production fields can reduce vulnerability to stresses and it constitutes the raw material for plant breeders. Relative divergence measures among accessions can be based on marker traits, on pedigree information, or on quantitative morphological traits. For some crops a relationship has been found between parental genetic distance and their breeding behavior, more distant parents resulting in more heterosis and/or larger variances among offspring. For this thesis the objectives were to: (1) make classifications of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) cultivars, according to their distances based on pedigree relationships and quantitative morphological traits; (2) investigate the agreement between these two sources of distance information, and (3) to evaluate contributions of ancestral lines to different genepools in time and space. Cluster analysis of the Coefficient of Parentage (cop) matrix among 270 spring wheat cultivars released in North America resulted in 20 major clusters. About 125 ancestral parents from 32 countries contributed to the genetic base of this spring wheat collection. Seven interrelated clusters included most hard red spring wheat cultivars from the U.S. and Canada. These clusters were based mainly on a foundation of the common parent marquis. Most Canadian cultivars released since 1950 were in a tight cluster around Thatcher (1934), whose quality became a standard. U.S. hard red spring cultivars have incorporated new sources of resistance and reduced height, resulting in a slowly widening ancestral base. Nine interrelated clusters included most cultivars from cimmyt. All shared ancestry from Mentana and Kenya 324, but a large and increasing number of contributing ancestors resulted in a smaller mean cop among cimmyt cultivars. Thirty-five morphological traits of 289 cultivars (267 in common with cop study) were scored in three environments, resulting in a classification into 17 major clusters, that tended to group cultivars of common origin, parentage and/or era of release. Regression of the morphological distance on pedigree distance demonstrated a moderate level of linear association (r2 = 0.46; p $<$ 0.01). Until reliable and affordable molecular marker based measures of distance become available, combinations of distance measures based on pedigree and morphology can provide useful measures of genetic distance.

Gender in Oromo (Ethiopia, Kenya, Afroasiatic).

Author: Clamons, Cynthia Robb

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1992

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Oromo language ; Grammar ; Ethiopia ;

Abstract:

Oromo is a cushitic language of the afroasiatic family, spoken in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. Nominals in Oromo are masculine or feminine, but the morphological gender markers, and the bases for assignment of gender vary across the dialects. There is also variation in gender assignment across discourse contexts in all dialects. Gender in Oromo considers variants from both different dialects and different contexts. In all the dialects of Oromo, masculine and feminine gender markers are found on nouns, anaphors, modifiers and predicates. Gender agreement is marked in the same constructions in all varieties, but there are some differences in the exact membership of stems in the various classes and in the form of the gender markers across the dialects. Also, a class of modifiers and anaphors with initial alternants t (feminine) and k (masculine) is found in all eastern dialects, while in western varieties all forms are now k initial. In the eastern and southern dialects, nominals are classified as feminine or masculine on the basis of semantic, phonological and lexical factors. Nominals referring to inanimate referents may be temporarily reclassified in speech to indicate a diminutive, augmented or pejorative meaning. In the western dialects, since all inanimates are classified as masculine in the grammar, shift of gender can only be to feminine gender, with a diminutive or pejorative meaning. The analysis proposed in gender in Oromo considers gender across dialects and contexts. A grammar of multiple dialects allows a more complete and accurate portrayal of the language, and also allows identification of the exact extent and nature of overlap among the gender systems in the different dialects. Because variation in forms across contexts is considered, the relationship between grammatical and pragmatic information is clear. Variability in class allocation is found across a typologically wide range of languages. Two kinds of variability need to be considered in a typology of nominal classification, one based on grammatical information, the other on pragmatic information. This allows accurate predictions about variability across languages. If only variability based on information in the grammar is considered, languages with pragmatically based variability, like Oromo, are characterized incorrectly.

The social construction of contemporary international hierarchy. (Volumes i and ii)

Author: Doty, Roxanne Lynn

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1991

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: International relations ;

Abstract:

One of the basic features of international relations as we know it is the existence of hierarchy. Enduring relations of inequality are standard themes in the international relations literature. This is evident in the relations between what is commonly referred to as the 'north' and the 'south'. Despite differences among the various bodies of literature that focus on this issue, they share in a particular oppositional structuring of the world which includes the conceptual divisions of; 'First World'/'Third World', 'core'/'periphery', and 'developed'/'underdeveloped'. These divisions are accepted as central features of our current hierarchy. Two problems arise from this. First, the basis for hierarchy is held to be the same across time and space. The identity of those on top and those on bottom may change but what differentiates the two is accepted as universal. The second problem is that existing literature gives analytical priority to a type of power that operates on and through already constructed subjects inhabiting an already constructed world. This overlooks and potentially obscures other forms of power which are implicated in the very construction of worlds and their inhabitants. This study suggests that there is a productive and disciplining power that inheres in discursive practices, the result of which is the social construction of and simultaneous arrangement of particular kinds of subjects and objects into hierarchical relations. This study gives empirical content to this suggestion by examining a set of relationships between two dominant countries (Britain and the U.S.) and one of their respective colonies/neo-colonies (Kenya and the Philippines).

Agricultural potential from an agro-climate analysis for a semiarid area of Kitui District, Kenya.

Author: Corbett, John Dorschel

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1990

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural production ; Farming ; Maize ; Kitui District ; Climate ;

Abstract:

Agro-climate simulation results provide a way to characterize and define an environment as to its agricultural potential. Agro-climate models attempt to capture the essence of the physical environment so that computer simulations might contribute to--and hasten-- agricultural development. Management practices and the resource access characteristics of the farmers must be included for a correct agro-climate evaluation. In semiarid areas, crop management plays an enormous role in the yield potential (and risk) of a given field. I took an enhanced FAO-type water budget model to the field to better account for management and resource access features of the agricultural system. For maize, this agro-climate analysis distinguished areas of agro-climate similarity in terms of practices suitable to each area. For Kitui District, Kenya, the potential for maize production is found to be much greater than previous agro-climate work would predict. Farmers influence the micro-environment of a crop. Computer simulations must be able to distinguish macro-scale climatic affects from micro-scale human influences. Simulating terrace construction, timely planting, runoff harvesting, cultivar selection, and proper plant density, results in a much higher agricultural potential description for semiarid Kitui District. Correctly identifying agricultural potential encourages adequate infrastructural development. The suitability of a crop climate model to a particular place must be carefully evaluated. Crop climate modeling is eminently geographic in practice--what is appropriate for one environment may not be in another.

Managing tea plantations in Sri Lanka : a comparative analysis of productivity relationships among size, management, and environmental factors within two elevation zones.

Author: Mendis, Patrick

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1990

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Sri Lanka ; Agricultural economics ; Tea ;

Abstract:

Sri Lanka's share of the world tea production and export has declined over the last two decades. During this period, the level of Sri Lanka's tea productivity (production per hectare) has remained stagnant while other tea producing countries (India, Kenya, Indonesia, and Japan) experienced increasing productivity. The domestic tea industry faces increasing competition from other tea producers. The industry also needs to raise productivity by optimizing the use of inputs (land, labor, and fertilizer). This study examines human-environment and spatial relationships and uses a production function analysis of green tea leaves in plantations (estates) to investigate and understand the determinants of productivity within the two study districts of Nuwara Eliya in the high- elevation zone and Ratnapura in the low-elevation zone. First, the intensity of production factors, examined by employing two size-input models for labor and fertilizer, indicates that land use intensity in terms of labor and fertilizer is greater in Nuwara Eliya District than in Ratnapura District. Second, returns to scale, studied by fitting the cobb-douglas production function model to management factors (land, labor, and fertilizer) and environmental factors (rainfall and altitude), suggest that both districts experience constant returns to scale. Third, the relationships between output (green tea leaf production) and other input variables, using the input- output model, exhibit positive correlations in both districts (except the relationship between output and rainfall in Nuwara Eliya District). Residual maps and scatter diagrams are employed to explain spatial associations and patterns of productivity relationships. Since environmental and management factors in the estate tea sector vary between the two regions, locational characteristics must become an integral part of proposed policy measures. Some policy options are proposed to increase tea productivity/efficiency and equity in the two tea-growing districts. Policy alternatives such as the increased use of inputs (i.e., labor and fertilizer), land segmentation, privatization, and diversification should depend on the locational factors of the two study districts.