36 Records out of 22207 Records

Marital risk factors and HIV infection among women : a comparison between Ghana and Kenya.

Author: Rombo, Dorothy Owino

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Sociology/Women/HIV infection/Ghana ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to establish and compare marital risk factors associated with HIV infection among women in Ghana and Kenya, regions representing low and high HIV prevalence, respectively. The study controls for individual demographics, sexual behavior, and socio-cultural contexts. Samples of 2,057 in Ghana and 1,657 in Kenya are drawn from Demographic Health Surveys of 2003. Of married/cohabiting women, about 3% and 8% are infected with HIV in Ghana and Kenya respectively. These mirror the general population prevalence in both countries. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate that when individual demographics including SES, degree of autonomy to make self-healthcare decisions, religious affiliation, sexual behavior, and socio-cultural factors are controlled for, marital characteristics significantly account for HIV infection. For Ghana, the model accounts for 7% of variance and remarriage is the only significant marital risk, increasing the odds of infection 1.9 times over those who are not remarried. For Kenya, marital factors explain one-half (6%) of the 12% total variability accounted for by the model. Remarriage, polygyny, and traditional marriage are the positive risk factors, with estimated increased risk likelihood of 2.8, 2.4, and 2.2 respectively. Negative predictors include delayed sexual debut and marriage and longer duration of marriage. The latter is a significant predictor in Kenya. Implications for educators are including content stating the life course risk factors, beginning with early sexual debut, delayed marriage, and ending up in a marriage that is likely to be characterized by multiple occurrences of consensual unprotected sex. Such unions include traditional/cohabitation, polygyny, and/or remarriage. Additionally, public health and social policies that delay sexual debut, marriage, and reduce the risk of infection both before and after marriage should be put in place. Risk-reduction policy is a public health approach that provides options for safe sex for young people who might be engaging in sex. Social policies include laws that govern social life, such as marriage. Both countries need to outlaw early marriage and enforce laws against it. The challenges of multiple partner marriages like polygyny and remarriage, which are protected by human rights laws, can be addressed through continued dialogue in communities to adopt risk-reduction strategies in such unions. Other factors that support such practices, like poverty, require long-term plans. These should be relentlessly pursued. Further research with valid measurements for empowerment and socio-cultural factors that are relevant to HIV infection is needed. Similarly, research on long-term marriages that have weathered the HIV era could provide insights for strengthening marriages through education.

Effectiveness of riparian forestry best management practices to protect stream habitat and biota : lessons from temperate and tropical systems [Kenya].

Author: Atuke, Dickson Misati

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Biological sciences ; Forestry ; Trees ; Management ; Habitats ;

Abstract:

I conducted related studies in Minnesota and Kenya. In northern Minnesota, I evaluated effects of riparian forest harvest with forestry best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat, water quality, fish and macroinvertebrates, in eight streams. Site-level effects were evaluated for no harvest, riparian control and two levels of riparian harvest one year prior to harvest and three years post-harvest. In Kenya, I assessed government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) officers' views on riparian forests and water quality, the factors that influence the ability to know, comply with, and implement BMPs for forest harvest in riparian areas and evaluated application and effectiveness of BMPs to protect water quality in government and private forests in south-west Mau region of Kenya. In northern Minnesota, canopy cover along harvested reaches was significantly reduced and woody cover increased at a few sites. Percentage fine sediments increased in reaches downstream of the intermediate harvest treatment. Percentage tolerant fish species increased in both riparian harvest treatments. Water quality parameters exhibited seasonal and year-to-year variation with few harvest effects. Macro invertebrate abundance increased initially with low harvest but declined to pre-harvest levels in subsequent years. Taxonomic and functional feeding group composition were similar among treatments except for a decline in percent EPT, increase in Margalef's richness index, and an increase in proportion of collector-filterers and scrapers with treatment. In Kenya, riparian areas were under pressure from human activities, and timber harvest affected riparian areas. Government and NGO officers considered lack of sound policy, poor enforcement, corruption, non-compliance, and overexploitation to be important threats to conservation of riparian forests and water quality, although there were disagreements on specific causes. Visitation by forestry officers, proportion of land under forestry, and catchment location were important predictors of landowners' knowledge of and compliance with forest regulations and BMPs. Landowner age and knowledge of traditional BMPs significantly influenced landowner decisions. Application of BMPs was greater in private lands than government-owned lands. Sediment delivery into streams was reduced with increased BMP application. These two studies suggest ways that BMPs can be used to reduce the effect of harvest on riparian and aquatic resources

Canonicity, postcoloniality, and power : a critical review of the secondary school literature curriculum in Kenya.

Author: Michira, James Nyachae

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Curricula ; Secondary education ; Secondary schools ; Literature ;

Abstract:

In this study, I critically examined a number of aspects related to the secondary school literature in English curriculum in Kenya. Some of the questions I posed were: What literary texts are taught in Kenyan secondary schools? Why are certain authors canonized and not others? How is text selection done and who controls the process? How do political and economic interests shape the literature curriculum? First, I conducted a reconstruction of the pedagogical canon by analyzing prominent cultural and ideological patterns that emerged. Secondly, I provided a detailed analysis of the literary text selection policy in Kenya including the roles played by the three key governmental departments under the Ministry of Education--the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE), the Department of Quality Assurance and Standards (DQAS) and the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC). Thirdly, I examined the text selection process by describing the panel system of selection as well as the criteria used to conduct the selections. Fourthly, I conducted a critical review of the text selection process by investigating the influence of social, political and economic interests. I discussed the impact of official secrecy, state censorship, lobbying and corruption on the literature in English curriculum in Kenya. Ultimately, I demonstrated that the literature curriculum in Kenya is socially constructed by showing how historical and contemporary contexts influence both the curriculum content and decision-making process. Therefore, I concluded that given the serious flaws in the literary text selection process, there is urgent need to re-evaluate the entire selection policy. I argue, however, that for any curriculum reforms in Kenya to be meaningful; broader social, political and economic reforms specifically targeting corruption and governance must be undertaken as well.

The Structural Adjustment Program and education reform in Kenya.

Author: Gichuri, Anne Nduta

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Structural adjustment ; Education reform ;

Abstract:

I researched on the role the World Bank's Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) played in education reform policies formulated and implemented by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MOEST) in Kenya between 1980 and 2000. My key respondents were the World Bank education specialist at the Kenya Office, and two senior officials with in the MOEST. My research primarily consisted of open-ended interviews guided by my basic research question. I analyzed the resultant data thematically based on the broad categories generated by my basic research questions. I triangulated interview data with extensive document analyses and direct informal observations of salient issues raised during interviewing. My findings revealed that the SAP adjustment credits were closely intertwined with the MOEST education reform policies between 1980 and 2000. Indeed, the SAP adjustment credits seem to have playing a pivotal role in the formulation and implementation of MOEST education reforms. My conclusions reveal notable benefits in favor of sustainable local development, apparent as a result of these close interactions and partnerships. I recommend further longitudinal and cross national research studies to explore these emergent findings further.

The history and evolution of human resource development (HRD) in Kenya as it relates to technical and vocational education and training (TVET).

Author: Mosoti, Zachary Mumbo

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Technical education USE Vocational education ; Vocational education ; Human resource management ;

Abstract:

This was a study of the history and evolution of human resource development (HRD) in Kenya as it relates to technical and vocational education and training (TVET) from pre-colonial days to 2005. The purposes of the study were to: (1) Identify the definition of HRD as derived and used in Kenya. (2) Trace the history of HRD in Kenya as it relates to TVET since pre-independence years to 2005. (3) Describe the evolutionary patterns of HRD in Kenya and how it relates to TVET. (4) State the impact and status of HRD in Kenya as it relates to TVET through the years since pre-colonial period to 2005. The author used an historical methodology to review and discuss the history, definition, evolution, and state of HRD in Kenya and how it relates to TVET. Using this methodology, the study delved into HRD policies and strategies used by the government of Kenya to advance its TVET programs. As the field of HRD continues to grow in all countries, it is not easy to trace the historical background, definitions, status, and focus on the field in many of the young economies like Kenya. This study examined HRD in Kenya, its emergence and historical development and showed how it has influenced the development of education and training organizations. The government of Kenya had, therefore, encouraged the existence of a national structure of government agencies and organizations that contribute to the evolution and status of HRD in Kenya and made education and training center piece of its development agenda. The government had also liberalized and restructured the economy for purposes of strengthening the role of HRD in Kenya. Finally the author established the bond between HRD and TVET in Kenya by providing the patterns derived from the history of HRD, strategies, policies and practices as it relates to TVET since pre-colonial period and posited the functions of Kenya's HRD system. In addition, from the interviews, the author provided a definition of HRD provided by Kenyans themselves.

The role of short study abroad in the development of cultural sensitivity and the ability to provide culturally competent care in senior baccalaureate nursing students [Kenya].

Author: Drake, Karen Bernette

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Cross-cultural studies ; Nursing ; Students ;

Abstract:

Our world is increasingly becoming a global community. Cities in the US are rapidly increasing in the diversity. Nurses who care for culturally diverse this populations need to be able to give care to these clients from multiple ethnic backgrounds with cultural sensitivity and cultural competence. Nurse educators have found that study abroad for nursing students increases cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in caring for diverse clients their families and communities. The purpose of this study was to explore the short study abroad and reentry experience of senior baccalaureate nursing students to discover their perceptions of their ability to become culturally competent as professionals in their nursing practice and ethnorelative as citizens in their community. An additional aim was to explore the role of the faculty mentor in this process. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the data from student journals, and individual and group interviews of students who took a twenty-four day trip to Kenya. Results indicated that the immersion and reentry experience accelerated the process of developing cultural sensitivity and cultural competence. Students used the cultural learning cycle that included the processes of anticipating, noticing, contemplating, and learning in the contexts of Pre-trip in the US culture, 'in country' in Kenyan culture, reentry back in the US cultural context, and in their return to life as a senior nursing student in the US cultural context. Faculty mentorship was essential to the acceleration of the development of cultural competence in the nursing students. This study adds to the knowledge about how students process difference in a cultural immersion and reentry experience as well as the role of the faculty in facilitating the process of developing cultural sensitivity and cultural competence.

Sexual selection and the African lion's mane.

Author: West, Peyton McLean

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology/Tsavo National Park, Kenya/Lions/Hair/Diet/Global warming/ ;

Abstract:

This thesis explores the role of sexual selection in the evolution of the African lion's mane and the general relationship between sexual selection and environmental factors. Using a combination of demographic, behavioral, photographic and serological records, playback and dummy experiments, and infrared thermography, I investigated the costs and benefits associated with the mane in the Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania and Tsavo East National Park, Kenya from 1996-2001. The mane does not appear to confer significant protection during fights. The mane area was not a specific target of attacks, and injuries to the mane area were not associated with higher mortality than other injuries. Within the mane area, regions that were most frequently attacked were not the regions associated with greater hair length and/or darkness in the manes of adult males. Mane characteristics were related to aspects of male condition and functioned as signals to conspecifics. Mane length decreased with serious injury, and mane darkness increased with age, foraging success and serum testosterone. Male lions were intimidated by long and dark manes, while females found darker manes more attractive and benefited from their preference through increased reproductive success. Infrared thermography demonstrated a relationship between temperature and mane characteristics. The surface temperatures of maned males were higher than those of females and darker-maned males were significantly hotter than those with lighter manes. Darker-maned males also suffered higher proportions of abnormal sperm and reduced food intake in hotter weather. The heat-related costs of the mane suggest that predicted increases in global temperature may have a significant impact on mane morphology. Males in hotter climates are often maneless, and average mane size and darkness across populations may begin to decline. Climate change may have far-reaching implications for sexual selection not only through direct temperature costs but also through indirect mechanisms such as nutrition. An exploration of the relationship between mineral nutrition and sexual selection suggests that many sexually-dimorphic traits are influenced by minerals, particularly calcium, phosphorus, copper and zinc, and suggests that the size and color of these morphological traits may also vary in response to global climate change.

The experience of being an adult literacy education student in Kenya.

Author: Muiru, John Kiarie

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Adult education ; Students ;

Abstract:

In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, I examined the experience of being an adult literacy education student in Kenya. Ten adult literacy education students in three learning centers were interviewed between June and August, 2002. Participants were asked on broad open-ended question on their experience of being an adult literacy student. Subsequent questions were based on the participants' responses. The interviews were transcribed and translated from Kikuyu to English. I conducted a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts to uncover the common themes shared by participants. The themes that emerged from the study are: Be able to read, write, and compute; have a second chance to acquire education; acquire knowledge and skills with immediate application; integrate into the community; interact socially; ability to read, write, and compute; acquisition of other useful skills; recognition in their communities; poverty; lack of support; feeling of being too old; lack of motivation; under-qualified teachers; time constraints; gender bias; and knowledge gained not applicable. These themes were grouped into three broad categories: students' reasons for participating in the adult literacy program; effects of literacy in the daily lives of students; and challenges students encountered in their endeavor to become literate. Participants in this study wanted the adult literacy program to help them to master the basic literacy skills of reading, writing, and computation in addition to other things. They also reported that the adult literacy program helped them acquire several useful skills. However, the path to literacy is not straight and smooth as the study participants came to realize. Although the findings of this study cannot be generalized, providers and planners of adult education and adult literacy might find experiences of the study participants useful.

Women's medicine and fertility : a social history of reproduction in South Nyanza, Kenya, 1920--1980.

Author: Odinga, Agnes Adhiambo

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: African history ; Women's studies ; Fertility ; Sexual behavior ; Social change ; Luo (African people) ; South Nyanza District ;

Abstract:

The British colonial occupation of Kenya in 1895, led to profound transformation of human disease ecology, the therapeutic map, healing and reproductive knowledge. Changes in household labor organization, the shift from subsistence to cash crop production, improved transportation infrastructure, establishment and expansion of trading centers including changing gender roles and family structures, not only altered disease patterns, but also increased indigenous population susceptibility to new diseases, and exacerbated the spread of old ones. By mid 1920, the colonial government's effort to intervene and transform the reproductive and sexual practices of the Luo of South Nyanza in order to hasten the output of healthy and abundant male laborers for the settler economy was a clear manifestation of the impact of these changes. My dissertation examines Luo women's health work, struggles, and negotiations around reproduction and sexuality from 1920-1980. Between 1920-45, the British colonial government initiated and funded maternal and child health care programs aimed at fostering population growth. From 1946 onwards, these efforts shifted to anti-natalist campaigns as the post-independent Kenyan government sought to curtail population growth through family planning programs. Drawing on extensive oral and documentary evidence from Kenya and England, I explore not only the varied and competing interest over reproduction and sexuality, but also how Luo women contested and re-defined state attempt to manipulate and control reproduction, Luo sexual practices, diet, nutrition, childbirth and healing. These struggles reconfigured gender and generation hierarchies at times forcing the colonial state and the independent Kenyan government to conform to the women's desire for autonomy over their bodies. Analysis of contestation over reproduction and sexuality, raises questions about the symbolic and material significance of fertility particularly female fertility as resource subject to control, manipulation and ownership by certain individuals. When the interest of these individuals were threatened by other forces tension evolved which sometimes culminated in resistance and other times negotiation. Therefore we cannot understand these changing interests without knowing the social, economic and political process which shaped and influenced interests in female fertility and reproduction.

Writing Gikuyu : Christian literacy and ethnic debate in northern Central Kenya, 1908--1952.

Author: Peterson, Derek Raymond

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: French Institute for Research in Africa Library ; University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: African history/Language/Presbyterian churches/Kikuyu language/Kikuyu (African people)/TumutTumu, Nyeri District/ ;

Abstract:

Historians and theorists of literacy have taken uncritically the legitimating myth of European colonialism: that modern schooling made rational citizens of colonized subjects. This dissertation argues instead that Gikuyu 'readers' remade the techniques of schooling for their own moral purposes. Focusing on the rural schools connected with the Presbyterian Mission of Tumutumu in Kenya's Nyeri District, the dissertation shows that literacy was never a modern mindset for Gikuyu readers: writing was rather a rhetoric, a way that literates and illiterates alike argued about old ethnic virtues in order to meet the moral challenges of colonialism. Gikuyu had long called themselves Mbari ya atiriri, the 'clan of I say to you'. Political solidarities emerged from oral debate. Missionary texts and materials extended the imaginative language with which young debated with old, offering converts a powerfully compelling stock of stories with which to claim a hearing from their fathers. It was as a rhetoric that the first converts at Tumutumu adopted missionary dress and ideology in the dreadful aftermath of World War I. Youthful converts argued in the translated bible that the soap they washed with, and the redemption they earned in baptism, amounted to ituika, the process of public cleansing in which youth purchased government from elders. Schooling was a vocabulary of generational debate. It became the proving ground for a new polity in the 1930s, when women's wage work and men's landlessness made rural people worry about social decay and sexual strife. In their public writing literate male converts shaded bureaucratic ideas into the vernacular, hoping that new political models would guard families from dissolution. Women also used missionary ideas to redress social disorder. In the vocal confessions of the East African revival, women blamed men for domestic strife and demanded moral discipline of husbands. Women's talk and men's writing were contending gendered answers to widespread Gikuyu fear of social decay. 'Mau Mau' carried Nyeri people's debate over moral order into the forest, where guerillas used bureaucracy give shape to the moral cleansing promised in ituika .