19 Records out of 22207 Records

Baboon Endogenous Virus (Baev) variation in natural populations of Cercopithecine primates (Papio hamadryas, Cercopithecus aethiops).

Author: Uddin, Monica

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Monkeys and apes/Papio hamadryas/Baboon endogenous virus/Cercopithecus aethiops/Evolution/Primates/Ethiopia/Masai Mara, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

The following study was undertaken to investigate the evolutionary significance of Transposable Element (TE) activity in mammalian hybrids. The specific aims of this work were twofold: (1)&nbsp;to assess the relationship between a particular te, Baboon Endogenous Virus (Baev), and reproductive isolation in a graded series of papionin hybrids and (2)&nbsp;to evaluate endogenous retroviral dynamics in natural primate populations. Baev nucleotide sequence data, quantitative real-time pcr data, and baev nucleotide sequence insertion site data were collected from wild-caught baboons (Papio hamadryas ssp) from Awash National Park (ANP), Ethiopia. Quantitative data were also collected from wild-caught baboons from Masai Mara, Kenya, as well as a number of captive baboons, f<sub>1</sub> hybrids, and geladas. Additional baev sequence data were collected from ANP wild-caught grivets (Cercopithecus aethiops). Results indicate a non-uniform pattern of Baev amplification across hybrids of varying phylogenetic distance: whereas backcrossed baboon and f<sub>1</sub> 'rheboon' (Macaca mulatta &times; P. H. Hamadryas) hybrids showed no evidence of copy number amplification, the f<sub>1</sub> 'geboons' (Theropithecus gelada &times;P. H. Hamadryas) hybrids did. This finding refutes the hypothesis that hybridization-related baev amplification is correlated with actual or potential reproductive isolation, as the rheboon represents the only confirmed case of hybrid sterility. Baev sequence data suggest a non-uniform rate of evolution across the proviral genome: those areas that encode proteins external to the mature virion show a greater degree of sequence divergence and/or nonsynonymous substitution than those that encode proteins with more conserved functions. Insertion site data confirm a pattern of vertical inheritance in the four baboon forms tested, suggesting long-term residence in the Papio genome. Baev shows considerable copy number heterogeneity among individuals yet conforms to a pattern of maternal inheritance previously observed for endogenous retroviruses in other organisms. Most importantly, average proviral copy numbers in non-hamadryas, hamadryas and gelada baboons, respectively, appear to be a function of the progressively greater degrees of inbreeding observed in each of these primate taxa. This finding represents the first example in primates relating transposon dynamics to social structure and suggests that element number may be regulated though a mechanism of ectopic exchange rather than deleterious selection.

Donors' dilemmas in democratization : foreign aid and political reform in Africa (Malawi, Kenya).

Author: Brown, Stephen

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Foreign aid ; Democracy ; Political power ;

Abstract:

In sub-Saharan Africa more than anywhere else, direct intervention from foreign aid donors has played an important-and under--examined--role in several recent transitions to democracy. For example, in Malawi and Kenya (the dissertation's two case studies), multilateral and bilateral donors specifically suspended new foreign aid in the early 1990s until political reform was enacted--a practice known as political conditionality. As a direct result, in both cases, authoritarian rulers held multiparty elections. In Malawi, power was subsequently transferred to the opposition, while in Kenya a severely flawed electoral process returned the same regime to power. Using data gathered during fieldwork in 1997-98, this dissertation examines the interaction of international and domestic actors to determine the effectiveness and consequences of donor intervention for both democratic transitions and eventual consolidation. Donors can assist the process, notably by raising the cost of continued authoritarian practices and helping build democratic institutions and local capacity. However, international actors' involvement, if only short term, can jeopardize future democratization. In countries such as Malawi, donor intervention, though extremely positive in bringing about a transition, could ultimately be a negative factor for consolidation if it is not sustained, because domestic actors never acquired the strength required to act as a check on the government and pressure for further change. Where donors played a less proactive role, as in Kenya, democratization has proceeded more slowly, but democracy enjoys greater popular legitimacy and domestic actors are in a better position to strive for additional political reform. This study suggests that political conditionality is inherently most effective in prompting political liberalization in an authoritarian country, less effective in ensuring a full transition to democracy and least effective in promoting consolidation. It becomes progressively more difficult for donors to focus their limited leverage effectively as the political reform agenda becomes more broad. Recipients also learn to resist pressure to democratize further. Moreover, donors' lack of long-term commitment, of understanding of the democratization process and how best to assist it, and the prevalence of other priorities (mainly economic reform and political stability) have contributed to political conditionality's middling results to date.

Mechanisms by which dietary Acacia may act as proximate regulator of breeding seasonality in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus [aethips] pygerythrus) [Kenya].

Author: Garey, Joan Deborah

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Acacia ; Feeds ; Animal reproduction ; Vervet monkeys ; Monkeys and apes ;

Abstract:

Mechanisms were investigated by which dietary acacia may act as a proximate regulator of the breeding season in an equatorial population of the vervet monkey, Cercopithecus ( aethiops ) pygerythrus . Equatorial vervets contend with seasonal changes in climate and food availability not unlike many temperate zone mammals. It is advantageous for them to give birth at an energetically optimal time of year. Products of Acacia species (i.e., leaves, seeds, flowers, and gum) comprise 50% or more of the diet of certain equatorial, savannah populations of vervets. The hypothesis of this study is that dietary Acacias have intrinsic chemical properties which have the potential to directly regulate reproduction in savannah vervets. The chemicals would likely act in combination with other environmental and social factors to control breeding. Data from a Kenyan, equatorial captive vervet breeding colony was analyzed for evidence of birth seasonality. The colony exhibited birth seasonality at its inception; it was greatly diminished after seven years. A quality diet, coupled with the absence of other factors from the wild, most likely accounts for this observation. Whitten (1982) suggested a causal association between the ingestion of Acacia elatior flowers and the onset of mating activity among female vervets in the Samburu-Isiolo Game Reserves. A. elatior flowers were collected in Samburu and analyzed them for estrogenic activity, which could stimulate mating behavior in vervets. Data collected by two assay methods suggest that A. elatior flowers have significant estrogenicity. The fatty acid content of the diet may also directly effect ovulation. The fatty acids of Acacia elatior and A. tortilis plant parts from Samburu were thus analyzed. A diet high in linoleic acid may help stimulate ovulation, while a diet high in linolenic acid may inhibit ovulation. only the seeds of both species contain a high linoleic acid content; Whitten's (1982) data suggest that vervets are conceiving at a time when they have an increased ingestion of acacia seeds. Since the vervet diet is weighted more heavily toward linoleic acid at the time of conception, vervets may be using higher linoleic acid levels in their diet to most effectively achieve ovulation.

ZACT : theatre for development in Zimbabwe.

Author: Byam, L Dale

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Theater ; Freire, Paulo ; Botswana ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the research is to determine whether the theatre for development movement in Zimbabwe, as guided by the Zimbabwe Association of Community Theatre (ZACT), is congruent with Paulo Freire's philosophy of conscientization. To this end, chapter i outlines Freire's philosophy of conscientization while chapter ii explores African theatre and its application to the concept of theatre for development. Chapter iii describes the growth of selected theatre for development projects from Botswana, Nigeria, Zambia and Kenya and analyses them in the context of freirian pedagogy. Chapter iv describes the growth of theatre for development in Zimbabwe from 1983 to 1993. Finally, chapter v aims to recognize possible congruence between theatre for development in Zimbabwe and Paulo Freire's philosophy of conscientization.

Learning to live together : a study of the changing structures of everyday life within Kipsigis farming communities in western Kenya (progress).

Author: Donovan, Michael M

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1993

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Kipsigis (African people) ; Ethnology ; Social change ; Social conditions and trends ; Farming ; Ndaraweta Sublocation, Kericho District ;

Abstract:

This dissertation describes the transformation of an East African landscape, Ndaraweta sublocation, Kericho District, in western Kenya since the late colonial era. It focuses on the changing structures of everyday life: patterns of land use, cooperative work groups, villages, farms, families. These are changes which Kipsigis are likely to describe as 'progress', a term they freely translate by the phrase bandap tai, which literally means traveling ahead or moving forward. Progress is shown to be a contested ideology which people employ to advance separate and at times competing ideas about history, person, and place and to locate themselves within a wider political economy and political culture. Ethnographically, this work considers the ways Kipsigis employ their notions of progress to legitimize their farming strategies, advance their claims to land, labor and other resources and more broadly, to organize their experience of rapid structural and geographic change. Many of the practical and existential problems of living and working together on family farms are described. Farm surveys, and other micro-economic data provide empirical ballast for subsequent discussions of the transformation of values attached to land, labor, and livestock. It is shown that as farms grow smaller and are worked more intensively Kipsigis must revise some of their most basic cultural notions about autonomy, intimacy, gender, work, mobility, and space.

The historical anthropology of a mission hospital in northwestern Kenya (medical care).

Author: Bianco, Barbara A

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1992

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Pokot (African people) ; Ethnology ; Cross-cultural studies ; Hospitals ; Missionaries ; Colonialism ; Irish Catholic Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary ; Catholicism ;

Abstract:

This study examines the shift from home to hospital care in an outlying district of northwestern Kenya during the late colonial period to the present. Drawing on field and archival data, it argues that the incorporation of a western medical institution into a non-western therapeutic landscape is best understood in terms of the changing politics of vulnerability that linked european newcomers and African natives. Like the provision of hospital care, the use of hospital services was also caught up in the tensions of empire. Ethnographically, the study calls attention to a place, a time period, and a kind of missionary that have received relatively little attention in the anthropological and historical literature on christian evangelism and colonial rule. The missionaries who ran the hospital in west Pokot were women rather than men of the cloth. Members of the Irish Catholic Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, they began working in the district in 1956 when the modalities of British administration had long been established and missionaries acted less as agents of empire than as envoys of God. The gender of the missionaries and the time of their arrival are critical to understanding how Pokot men and women made sense of the hospital and its medicines and staff. As a locus of inquiry, the hospital itself challenges commonplace understandings about the dynamics of colonial and cross-cultural encounters because it constitutes one of the few settings in which Europeans and Africans were drawn together by physical contact and mutual dependence. Analytically, the study seeks to determine what an historical anthropology of a complex organization in a non-Western setting might look like. By analyzing the explanatory vocabularies that British civil servants, Irish Catholic nuns, and Pokot cattle-keepers invoked to make sense of themselves, one another, and their various misfortunes, the study charts the changing public imagery of the hospital, along with the sociological imaginations of the men and women who gathered in and around its wards.

The functional and phylogenetic significance of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb in anthropoid primates.

Author: Rafferty, Katherine L

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : MSc

Year: 1990

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ; University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Anatomy and physiology/Primates/Thumb/ ;

Abstract:

The ability of catarrhine primates to oppose the thumb has been associated with the unique acquisition of a saddle-shaped first carpometacarpal joint that permits rotation of the first metacarpal. However, it has also been suggested that the saddle-shaped carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is a primitive primate feature and therefore has little functional or phylogenetic significance. To resolve this problem, the bony morphology of the first carpometacarpal joint was surveyed in extant anthropoid primates and in the Miocene primate Proconsul africanus. Cross-sections were made through casts of the trapezium and first metacarpal in the dorsoventral and mediolateral plane in order to study the &;figuration and relationship of the joint surfaces. Platyrrhines exhibit a diversity of morphological patterns of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. This joint is consistently concavo-convex (or saddleshaped) in the more generalized platyrrhines, suggesting a saddle-shaped joint is a primitive anthropoid feature. Cross-sections reveal that the joint surfaces that are highly congruent in the dorsoventral and mediolateral planes. This high degree of congruency prevents axial rotation of the first metacarpal necessary for opposition.In cercopithecids, the joint surfaces are reciprocally concavo-convex and show little morphological variability. The base of the first metacarpal has a smaller radius of curvature than the facet of the trapezium in the mediolateral plane. As a result of this joint incongruity,the first metacarpal is highly mobile and unstable in the mid-position and thus can undergo axial (adjunct) rotation, allowing opposition of the thumb. Differences in the prehensile abilities among cercopithecid genera are reflected in the relative lengths of the thumb and index and in soft anatomy, rather than in joint morphology.The primitive anthropoid concavo-convex joint surfaces and the primitive catarrhine mediolateral incongruity are retained in hominoids, except for hylobatids which have a specialized ball-and-socket first carpometacarpal joint. The joint surface of the trapezium of Pan and Gorilla exhibits features that have been associated with indirect (conjunct) rotation of the first metacarpal in humans. In humans and perhaps in African apes as well, the first metacarpal will undergo rotation as a bi-product of the movements of abduction followed by flexion by virtue of the slightly curved path created by differential convexity of the trapezium. The first carpometacarpal joint of Proconsul afn'canus exhibits the mediolaterally incongruent joint surfaces unique to catarrhines among anthropoid primates. Overall, the trapezium of Proconsul africanus is cercopithecid-like, but, like the rest of the carpus, there are hominoid features as well.

An assessment of comparative quality of life by gender in a typical rural Kenyan village, and of the predictive ability of the Physical Quality of Life Index indicators in determining quality of life differences by gender.

Author: Saccardi, Joan Victoria

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1990

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Sociology/Gender/Quality of life/Social conditions and trends/Rural areas/ ;

Abstract:

The quality of life of developing world women is inferior to that of men. High fertility rates, prolonged breast feeding. Hard physical labor and unmet health and nutrition needs conspire to deprive women of a life quality comparable to that of men who live in the same area. This study compared the quality of life for women with that of men living in a typical rural Kenyan village. This study also evaluated the predictive ability of the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), the most widely used social measurement tool in international development, in determining quality of life differences by gender. The PQLI is comprised of three indicators; infant mortality, life expectancy and adult literacy. The PQLI's failure to correct for the inherent gender bias of both infant mortality and life expectancy precludes the index's ability to predict differences in life quality for women as compared to men. With the current scaling, infant mortality and life expectancy scores reflect women's biological superiority and not women's life quality. The third indicator, adult literacy, is culturally irrelevant for developing world women. For these women, literacy equates not with improved life quality but with increased potential for participation. Other social indicators are relevant for rural developing world women. These indicators include adult mortality, physical stature, water collection data, fertility rates, access to vital resources, wage employment, chronic disability, rates of female heads of household, and self-assessments of comparative health and quality of life for gender. This study applied these alternate indicators to adults of a typical rural Kenyan village. The result was a clear consensus of the inferior life quality of women as compared to men. The PQLI, applied to adults of Machakos district was unable to detect differences for gender and actually resulted in identical scores for men and women of the district involved. The main findings of this study were two. First, that women of Machakos district had an inferior quality of life when compared to men. Second, that the PQLI was unable to predict differences in quality of life by gender. The results of the study suggest that the PQLI be corrected for inherent gender bias.

Land reform and agricultural development in Kenya : a study of post-uhuru policy-making, 1963-1978.

Author: Middleton, Gretta Anne

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1988

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Land reform ; Agricultural policy ;

Abstract:

This case study of land reform examines the execution of land policy of the inaugural government of Kenya. It was undertaken to evaluate program successes and failures and to identify missed opportunities for more effective management of land and agricultural resources. As the first Black African country to opt decisively for individualized land tenure, and as the site for the largest and most complex land reform program in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya merits special attention. Two field trips were made during the conduct of the study. Government documents and legislative proceedings supplemented by interviews of resettled African peasants, European farmers, civil servants, politicians and intellectuals provide the primary data for analysis. It is maintained that a land reform program formulated to facilitate political objectives and the transfer of power at independence is inappropriate for sustaining change and fostering economic and institutional development. The main findings are: (1) tens of thousands of smallholders were settled on formerly alienated land, introduced to cash cropping and a new way of life. Resettlement however was costly: personnel and funds were inefficiently deployed; a majority of farmers defaulted on land loans; marketed production declined; export earnings decreased and government indebtedness soared. (2) rare in the developing world, a land tenure system of individualized tenure was installed. Secure titles increased from five percent at uhuru to over fifty percent by 1978. Prominent among the repercussions were the following: land tenure reform extinguished some previously held customary rights; exaggerated unemployment and landlessness; disrupted family and community relations, and failed to stimulate production or redistribute land. (3) half of the large-scale farms were transferred intact from Europeans to Africans. The new ownership group, dominated by urban elites, was devoid of commercial agricultural management skills which resulted in a rise in absentee landlordism, a lost of mixed farms, diminished output, and land speculation. The lack of a ceiling on land acquisition has led to the creation of ownership patterns approximating Latin American land disparities.

The molar morphology, natural history, and phylogenetic position of the Middle Miocene monkey victoriapithecus, and their implications for understanding the evolution of the old world monkeys.

Author: Benefit, Brenda Regina

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1987

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Maboko Island ; Monkeys and apes ; Victoriapithecus macinnesi ; Teeth ;

Abstract:

Dental and cranial specimens of victoriapithecus collected by Martin Pickford at the middle miocene site of Maboko Island in western Kenya from 1982-1984 are described within this dissertation. Delson's interpretation of the maboko monkeys as representing two species, one at or near the origin of colobinae and the other of cercopithecinae, is rejected. Instead, it is concluded that only one species is present at maboko Victoriapithecus macinnesi on the basis of the distribution of non-metric features such as the crista obliqua and 'hypoconulid' along the molar row, and comparison of metric variation within the maboko sample of monkeys to variation measured in extant and paleospecies. Univariate and multivariate discriminate analyses demonstrate that the molars of Victoriapithecus macinnesi differ phenetically from those of monkeys of modern aspect. Colobines and cercopithecines share derived dental features, including the alignment of the long axis of lower p4 parallel to that of the molar row and complete loss of both the crista obliqua and 'hypoconulid', that they do not share with V. Macinnesi. Based on phenetic and cladistic evidence, V. Macinnesi is placed into the family victoriapithecidae to denote its distinction from colobinae and cercopithecinae which are more closely related to each other than either is to the early monkeys. The origin of bilophodonty in monkeys is associated here with an increased capacity relative to early catarrhines for puncturing and crushing hard fruits or seeds rather than for shearing. Compared to extant monkeys, V. Macinnesi is reconstructed as having been highly frugivorous. The divergence and diversification of colobine and cercopithecine monkeys is discussed from the perspective of dietary reconstructions based on shear crest length and tooth wear for fossil species, and their evolution from a frugivorous ancestor.