1791 Records out of 22207 Records

Large herbivores and process dynamics in a managed savanna ecosystem.

Author: Augustine, David J

Awarding University: Syracuse University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Grasslands ; Herbivores ; Ecosystems ; Mpala Research Centre, Laikipia ; Soils ;

Abstract:

Feedbacks between soil nutrients, plant communities, and large mammalian herbivores were studied at the Mpala Ranch and Research Centre in Laikipia, Kenya. The landscape consists of short-grass glades, typically 0.5-1.0 ha in size, dispersed throughout the dominant acacia bushland vegetation. I examined (1) whether glades are created through the use and abandonment of overnight cattle corrals or ‘bomas’, (2) the importance of these glades as habitat for native and domestic ungulates, (3) feedback effects of herbivores on aboveground herbaceous productivity (anpp) and soil nutrient dynamics, and (4) effects of climatic variability on herbivore abundance and soil-grass-grazer interactions. All soil characteristics measured across a boma-glade chronosequence indicate glades are indeed derived from abandoned bomas. In particular, soil n, p and organic matter quality in the surface (0-15 cm) layer were similar for glades and 30-39 year old bomas, but were enriched relative to surrounding bushland. Soil texture was similar for bomas, glades, and bushland, indicating glades were not derived from a unique parent material. Cynodon leaves from bomas and glades were highly enriched in p, ca and n relative to Cynodon from nearby bushland sites. Local abundance of impala, zebra and eland was closely tied to the distribution of nutrient-rich glades. Seasonal analyses of impala habitat selection suggested that selection for glade habitat was related both to predation risk and the availability of mineral-rich forage. In particular, p in boma and glade grass was above recommended levels for growing and lactating ruminants, while p content of bushland grass was lower than recommended levels. Across a soil nutrient gradient, large herbivore consumption rates were linearly related to anpp. A fertilization experiment and analyses of grass n:p ratios indicate that n and p co-limit productivity on the most nutrient-poor sites. Grazing pressure was consistently high (>60% of anpp) at all but one site in a dry year (1999), and was greater in nutrient-rich glades (73.0 &Plusmn; 4.2% of anpp) compared to nutrient-poor bushland sites (42.7 ± 6.7% of anpp) in a wet year (2001). Nitrogen budgets constructed for nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor sites showed that large herbivores themselves caused a net n input to the former and a net n loss from the latter. During short (1 month) growing seasons, grazers reduced aboveground productivity regardless of soil nutrient availability. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

The construction of the Abanyole perceptions on death through oral funeral poetry (Kenya).

Author: Alembi, Ezekiel Brown

Awarding University: Helsingin Yliopisto, Finland

Level : FT

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Nyore (African people) ; Folklore ; African literature ; Western Kenya ; Poetry ; Nyole (African people) USE Nyore (African people) ;

Abstract:

A number of studies exist on the theme of death in Africa. However, a critical reflection on existing literature reveals that research has largely ignored an examination of how funeral poems add to the interpretation and meaning of death. It is within this context that I have formulated this study to gain a deeper understanding of the Abanyole perceptions on death as presented through oral funeral poetry. The study has been used to fulfill the need for a micro-level analysis that is applied to a selected category of oral poetry (funeral poems) and an experienced phenomenon in the community (death). In this study I have adapted and utilized ethnopoetics framework. The study has employed interactive and dialogical techniques. The following methods have thus been used to gather data: in-depth interviews, participation, observation and tape-recording of live- performances. In addition, I discussed the research report with the respondents to reach a collective and inter-subjective consensus in the interpretation of the information collected. The analysis has revealed that the causes of death in this community include mystical powers, murder, spirits, etsisila and ebiila (AIDS like conditions) and curse. Death affects family members of this community in different ways and for different reasons. In relation to performance, the study has shown that oral funeral performances are quite elaborate and involve the entire community. The analysis of style has shown that the styles used in the poems have a social basis in the sense that they are deeply rooted in the culture of the Abanyole. The dominant devices in the poems are: euphemim, repetition and poetic register.

Originary syncretism and the construction of Swahili.

Author: Rolingher, Louise

Awarding University: University of Alberta, Canada

Level : MA

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: African history/Anthropology/Swahili language/Swahili-speaking peoples/Kenya Coast/ ;

Abstract:

Since the eighth century, the East African coast was part of the Indian ocean system of economic and cultural exchange. The identity of the coastal people was, and still is, comprised of an ambiguous and shifting mix of Arab and African, ex-slave and freeborn. Controversy has surrounded the study of swahili identity at least since european colonization in the nineteenth century and continues today. This study proposes a problematic for a new approach to examination of swahili identity based on French anthropologist Jean-Loup Amselle's concept of 'originary syncretism' against earlier studies that assumed essential identities-e.g., African or Arab-this approach proposes a process of cultural mixing through ongoing 'conflictual and peaceful practices' in which identity is negotiated. Islam, slavery, gender and colonialism each serve as fields within that problematic in which to experiment with postmodern and postcolonial theories of identity construction in late nineteenth and twentieth- century East Africa, especially present-day Kenya, Tanzania and Zanzibar.

Differentials in infant and child mortality in East Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania).

Author: Rutaremwa, Gideon

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Infant mortality/Socioeconomic factors/East Africa/Rift Valley/Luo (African people)/ ;

Abstract:

Using data from the 1990 round of censuses of East Africa, the current study adopts a comparative approach to examine differentials in under-five mortality in this african sub-region. Whereas much of the recent research in under-five mortality in East Africa has dwelt on country specific studies, the current investigation attempts to contribute to knowledge and expand understanding by examining three main issues: first, to examine urban differentials in under-five mortality. Second, to examine the extent to which national context is related to under-five mortality among the Luo population group. Lastly, to investigate the spatial differentials in under-five mortality within context of the East African Rift Valley region. In chapter 1, I examine the methodological aspects particularly the count-data analysis techniques. In chapter 2, the study shows that under-five mortality risks are less in Nairobi than in Kampala or Dar-es-Salaam. Estimates of trends in under-five mortality, however, reveal an increase in mortality rates for Nairobi since the mid-1980s. Comparison of results indicates that the pattern of individual covariates of under-five mortality is similar for the three major cities of East Africa. In chapter 3, I investigate Luo under-five mortality differentials in East Africa. The findings suggest that irrespective of political and geographic setting, the factors that influence under-five mortality among the Luo are similar. Furthermore, the study shows that country specific differentials in under-five mortality exist, with the highest incidence rates estimated for Uganda followed by Kenya and the least for Tanzania. Finally, the thrust of chapter 4 is to examine geographic differences in under-five mortality in the Rift Valley regions of the three countries. The findings suggest that differentials are substantial and could not be overcome by controlling for socioeconomic variables. Except for Luo mortality, which was higher in Kenya than in Tanzania, current results suggest less under-five mortality risks for Kenya than Uganda and Tanzania for the population groups examined. Though several correlates of under-five mortality are examined in this study, mother's educational level attainment and household type of toilet facility are the most important.

The acquisition of Nairobi Swahili : the morphosyntax of inflectional prefixes and subjects (Kenya).

Author: Salah Ud Deen, Kamil Ud Deen

Awarding University: University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Swahili language/Dialects/Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

This study investigates the acquisition of inflectional prefixes in Swahili, an Eastern Bantu language. The order of morphemes in adult Swahili is: subject agreement - tense - (object agreement) - verb root - (derivational suffixes) - mood vowel. I present data from an original corpus of 4 swahili-speaking children (ages 1-3.0) who were recorded in Nairobi, Kenya. An analysis of the children's verbal utterances reveals that four clause types occur in the speech of all four children, with omissions diminishing with maturity: <table cwl='29:127:137' wdm='100' dispwid='5.72in'><Rowrule rty='.'> <Tablerow><cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>a.</Tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>agr - t - verb stem</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>full clause</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'></Tablerow> <rowrule rty='.'> <Tablerow><cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>b.</Tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>&oslash; - t - verb stem</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>[-sa] clause</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'></Tablerow> <rowrule rty='.'> <Tablerow><cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>c.</Tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>agr - &oslash; - verb stem</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>[-t] clause</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'></Tablerow> <rowrule rty='.'> <Tablerow><cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>d.</Tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>&oslash; - &oslash; - verb stem</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'> <Tablecell>bare verb stem</tablecell> <cellrule rty='.'></Tablerow> <rowrule rty='.'> of these four, only full clauses and [-sa] clauses are permitted by adults in this non-standard dialect of Swahili (Deen, 2002). Furthermore, tense becomes obligatory earlier than subject agreement, the omission of which persists until the latest data points. The data support the agr-tense omission model (sch&uuml;tze &amp; Wexler, 1996) in showing that agreement and tense may be optionally and independently underspecified. Interestingly, the omission of agr and t has effects on the occurrence of overt subjects, suggesting that the omission is not purely phonological, but rather is of a syntactic nature. When full clauses occur, children allow overt subjects at approximately adult rates (Swahili being a null subject language, this rate is approximately 17%). In [-sa] clauses, overt subjects occur at significantly higher rates in both child and adult Swahili (&sim;40%). In [-t] clauses, overt subjects are entirely unattested. This is expected if we assume that in the absence of t, children allow pro subjects, as in adult infinitives. Surprisingly however, in bare stems (which are also missing t), overt subjects occur at approximately 12%. I provide an analysis that makes use of a null constant-anaphoric topic operator construction (Rizzi, 1992; 1997). I show that in both adult and child Swahili, this construction occurs in the absence of agreement. It is this anaphoric topic operator (and not a true subject) that occurs in both [-sa] clauses (adult and child) as well as child bare stems.

Talking sheng : the role of a hybrid language in the construction of identity and youth culture in Nairobi, Kenya.

Author: Samper, David Arthur

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Slang/Sheng language/Teenagers/Nairobi, Kenya/Cultural change/ ;

Abstract:

Young people in Nairobi use sheng, an urban, youth sociolect that mixes English, Kiswahili, and ethnic languages and shares many features with slang, to forge a new, hybrid identity. Sheng signifies the negotiations and struggles of youth's identity project. The institutions of family, church, school, and popular media present kenyan youth with different possible identities. The voice of the family comes to them in ethnic languages that embody tradition and heritage. The voice of education asks them to place Kiswahili at the center of a multicultural ideology, but does so in English. The church calls to them in Kiswahili and English. The voice of the media comes to them in videos, movies, music, radio, and television and is heard mostly in English. Each of these languages represents a particular ideology of living in the world and young people respond through language. sheng gives young people the wherewithal to question and challenge the ideologies and identities that attempt to define them. Sheng also signifies the construction of a linguistic third space between the global, represented by a transnational African diasporic culture, and the local, represented by tradition. This dissertation also focuses on two groups of culture brokers that are helping to shape sheng and, as a consequence, shape identity-rap musicians and manambas. Manambas are young men who work on Kenya's privately owned public service vehicles popularly known as matatus. Many of Kenya's rappers feel a sense of responsibility toward the youth; and as the voices of their generation they feel an obligation to promote the importance of African heritage in young people's definition of self. Manambas are the master innovators of sheng, however, they do not share rappers' sense of responsibility nor do they have a coherent social agenda for young people. While rappers negotiate between tradition and modernity, manambas stand in between the global and the local. Through their consumption of commodities, including fashion and music, transnational culture is given currency and symbolic power in the expression of identity. The discourse on hybridity and globalization constitute the theoretical ground on which the empirical data is explored and analyzed.

The functional role of fish diversity in Lake Victoria, East Africa

Author: Schwartz, Jesse David Merton

Awarding University: Boston University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology/Fish/Biological diversity/Lake Victoria, Kenya/Cichlidae/Endangered and extinct species/Lates niloticus/Nile perch ;

Abstract:

Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake, is home and provides livelihood to millions of East Africans. Historically it contained 500+ species of indigenous fishes, most of which were haplochromine cichlids. The 1959-60 introduction of the predatory fish nile perch (Lates niloticus), coupled with other sources of environmental degradation, caused the extinction of hundreds of cichlid species. The resultant L.Niloticus fishery, now the world's largest freshwater fishery, gained popularity as a food and revenue source for the East African nations, often overshadowing concerns regarding cichlid conservation. This study examined functional roles of fish diversity in Lake Victoria using field, laboratory, and modeling techniques. I hypothesized that fish diversity was related to community function. In the laboratory I found that nile perch captured cichlids (Haplochromis 'ruby') more easily than schooling cyprinids (Brachydanio rerio) at several predator, and prey densities. Increased expenditures in active metabolism, such as increased feeding costs, can negatively impact growth. I related dietary correlated changes in nile perch growth to changes in activity and consumption using a bioenergetics model. The loss of cichlids from the nile perch diet may affect activity and consumption, with varying consequences for growth efficiency. The effects of fish diversity on system throughput were investigated using a dynamic mass-balance model. Haplochromine stock sizes impacted total system detritivory and phytoplanktivory. The restoration of cichlid diversity may benefit system function. Metabolic variance was described in two cichlid species (Xystichromis phytophagus and Pyxichromis orthostoma) and their f2 hybrid. For the hybrid, standard metabolic rates and surface to volume ratios of digestive and respiratory organs were intermediate of the parentals. Metabolic diversity may be heritable and can govern the potential functional roles of cichlids. Fish communities were studied in the Lake Kyoga system in Central Uganda. The system contains diverse pristine cichlid lakes and disturbed nile perch lakes. Stable nitrogen isotopic signatures suggested that nile perch have altered food webs in the Kyoga system much like they have in Lake Victoria. The Kyoga satellite system represents a natural experiment for further investigating the functional role of fish diversity in Lake Victoria.

Taphonomy of abandoned Maasai settlements in southern Kenya with special reference to livestock enclosures : implications for the spread of pastoralism in East Africa.

Author: Shahack-Gross, Ruth

Awarding University: Washington University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ; University Microfilms International ; British Institute in Eastern Africa Library ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Masai (African people)/Archaeology/Pastoralists/Ethnology/Sediments/ ;

Abstract:

Early pastoralism in East Africa dates to 5000-4000 bp. Archaeological sites from this period contain relatively few features. Neither do lithics, ceramics, and faunal remains, in these sites, show consistent patterns, a phenomenon thought to be the result of social interactions between pastoralists and hunter-gatherers living in the same area at the same time. Livestock enclosures are distinctive indicators of pastoral settlements. Thus, the primary goal of this study is to identify enclosure sediments, and in this way to determine whether sites were occupied by pastoralists or hunter-gatherers. Determining the size and placement of other features, such as hearths and trash pits, may also be useful in reconstructing differences in site structure between pastoralists and hunter-gatherers. Ethnoarchaeological fieldwork focused on Maasai pastoralists in southern Kenya and sampling of sediments in and around livestock enclosures, houses, hearths, trash pits, gates, and fences. A series of settlements were sampled, that ranged in age from currently occupied to long abandoned, creating a 40 year taphonomic sequence. The micromorphology, mineralogy, and phytolith assemblages of the sediments were analyzed in the laboratory. Field observations showed that 20-30 years after site abandonment, dung in enclosure sediments cannot be recognized visually. It is possible, however, to differentiate enclosure from regional sediments. I have identified a unique microlaminated structure in enclosure sediments. In addition, enclosure sediments, especially caprine, contain a rare mineral, monohydrocalcite. They also contain the mineral opal in the form of phytoliths. Phytoliths are found in high quantities in enclosure sediments relative to regional sediments. Field observations of other features showed that they are difficult to recognize because within 20 years of abandonment all above ground structures are completely destroyed. Hearths and trash pits, however, can be identified using the same techniques mentioned above. To identify enclosure sediments and other features in the archaeological record clearly and definitively, all three techniques must be applied together. My study demonstrates that in order to delineate early site formation processes, it is important to combine ethnoarchaeological fieldwork with geoarchaeological laboratory analyses. This approach can be used to investigate the spread of pastoralism in Africa and elsewhere.

Integrating forest conservation and rural development : a Kenyan study.

Author: Simons, Gacheke

Awarding University: Pennsylvania State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Conservation/Agricultural economics/Rural development/ ;

Abstract:

Kenya and other Third World countries are tying to effectively make the transition from policing of national parks and reserves to more people-oriented approaches. This study has focused on this transition by addressing the problem of conservation-development conflicts and possibilities for integrating these objectives. The results suggest that in spite of increasing policing of forests, affected communities are still using the same resources they need for subsistence, and in fact that villagers help outsiders in illegal commercial harvesting. The main change after the new policies has been increased costs and hardships for the villagers and for the government forest guards, not more conservation. Increasing household incomes through better agriculture, higher education, and lower children's education costs reduces poverty related dependency. This impact is more significant when the socioeconomic improvements accrue to female rather than male heads of households. This study concludes that while increasing socioeconomic status reduces poverty related dependence on protected resources, that alone is not sufficient to effect the type of social change necessary for villagers to willingly and ably contribute to conservation by protecting or improving resources in their vicinity. In a suggested 'incentive based social fencing model of conservation' it argues that true transition to a people-oriented approach to conservation, and in fact any chance of achieving long-term conservation objectives, will occur only with more fundamental and sometimes challenging changes in policies and activities governing people-resources relationships. It argues that for effective transition, affected villagers need some long term rights over the resources, sufficient long term economic benefits and ability to adjust to new changes in the short term, and that resources use and management activities must take account of distribution among rural economic classes and between men and women.

Yearning

Author: Slocomb, Lori Ann

Awarding University: California State University, USA

Level : MFA

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Painting/Art ;

Abstract:

The making of the project yearning aided me in the reconstructive process of retrieving personal memory and meaning in reference to a particular time when I lived in Kenya, Africa. A longing to remember and re-enter the specific place of Kenya through the physical and visual experience of painting was the motivation behind these exhibited works. Persistent in the Kenyan series was the digital manipulation of several layers of personal photographs to form a resource image in the painting process. The transparent layering of photographic images allows me to re-envision the natural world once fixed within light, time, and space. In the creation of near-life scale canvases, thin washes over thick paint, light over dark values, as well as an active application and removal of the painted surface, enabled the painting process itself to act as a visual metaphor for the constant interchange of time between present and recollected moments.