1791 Records out of 22207 Records

Childhood mortality and reproductive behavior in Ghana.

Author: Gyimah, Stephen Obeng-Manu

Awarding University: University of Western Ontario, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Infant mortality ; Fertility ;

Abstract:

The argument has been made that the relationship between childhood mortality and fertility varies over the course of demographic transition. Given their different stages in fertility transition, Ghana and Kenya were chosen to examine the nature and magnitude of the relationship between childhood mortality and fertility. Methodologically, the dissertation seeks to examine the usefulness of frailty models in analyzing the mortality- fertility relationships. The specific research questions pursued in this dissertation are as follows: to what extent does couples' reproductive behavior change in response to child loss? Do women who experience child death have higher number of children than those whose children survived? What are the long term implications of childhood mortality on reproductive behavior? Does the death of the first child, for instance, affect the risk of a higher order birth? To answer these questions, this dissertation uses data from the 1998 Ghana and Kenya demographic and health surveys undertaken by macro international in collaboration with reputable host institutions. Using these data, all births to women in the reproductive ages of 15-49 years were decomposed into various parities. A series of accelerated failure time models were used to estimate the timing of subsequent births by treating the survival status of the index child as a dummy covariate together with other theoretically meaningful covariates. To examine the stability of the estimated covariates, the models were reestimated by introducing a term for unobserved heterogeneity. To examine the long term effects, a series of models on the risk of higher order births were estimated by treating the survival statuses of all previous children as covariates. At all parities, it was observed that women whose index child died had shorter transition times and thus a higher risk of subsequent birth than women whose index child survived, suggesting a physiological and behavioral response to child death. Other covariates such as education, age cohort, age at first birth and sex composition of surviving children were found to have significant association with the timing of births. While the results of the frailty models corroborate these findings, there were significant changes in the time ratios. In general, the models without a term for unobserved heterogeneity tended to produce biased estimates. Finally, fertility response to childhood mortality was found to be weaker in Kenya suggesting that indeed, the relationship weakens in the course of fertility transition. The results also indicated that infant deaths have long term effects on reproductive behavior. For example, women who lost their first child were found to have a higher risk of a fourth birth than those whose first child survived. Fertility response to mortality in this case cannot be physiological but more of a behavioral response. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

The effects of refugee camp life on the self concepts of Somali women in Kenyan camps.

Author: Abdi, Cawo Mohamed

Awarding University: University of Guelph, Canada

Level : MA

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Refugees ; Women's studies ; Self image ; Somali (African people) ; Hagadera Refugee Camp, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This thesis focuses on Somali women in the Hagadera refugee camp in Kenya. It is based on a nine-week fieldwork conducted in the summer of 2001. The research examines the transformations of self-perception experienced by these women as a consequence of their loss of country and long-term camp life. Goffinan's discussions of total institutions and of stigma, and berger's analysis of identity theory are employed to analyze refugee women's narratives. The narratives indicate a drastic transformation of women's self perception engendered by the precariousness of the conditions prevailing in the camps: insecurity; diminishing rations; and uncertain future. Furthermore, the loss of social support that close and extended family provided and the loss of physical and economic autonomy increase the women's sense of vulnerability. The most pressing concern the women identify is the issue of security: the narratives convey an 'anxiety of disfigurement ' (Goffman 1961: 21) or a permanent fear of rape.

Epidemiological impact of door-to-door voluntary HIV counseling and testing in rural Kenya.

Author: Damesyn, Mark Anthony

Awarding University: University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Level : DPH

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Epidemiology ; HIV infection ; AIDS (Disease) ; Counseling ; Diagnostic tests ; Medical treatment ; Rural areas ;

Abstract:

Background. Though Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) is recognized as an effective HIV intervention, the service is largely inaccessible in rural Africa. This dissertation was completed to evaluate the potential epidemiological impact of door-to-door VCT in rural Kenya and factors influencing that impact. Methods. Door-to-door VCT(DVCT) includes administration of pre- and post-test HIV counseling and sample collection at the household of the client. Community Health Workers (CHWs) were trained to administer DVCT. Saliva samples were collected from clients and assayed for HIV antibodies at a local laboratory. The CHWs offered the service to a probability sample of couples with a female 15-35 years of age (n = 391). The association between utilization and characteristics of the client and the CHW were assessed. The validity of prevalence estimates obtained was evaluated. A spreadsheet model was constructed to calculate the cost per HIV infection averted by the intervention. Findings. Of those contacted, 68% of individuals and 38% of couples utilized the service. Individual utilization was associated with the following client characteristics: female gender, lower education, younger age (males only) and the following CHW characteristics: prior HIV/AIDS experience, higher age, lower income, and higher education (females only). Couple utilization increased with younger age and lower income of the client and the following CHW characteristics: years prior HIV/AIDS experience, lower household income, and longer residency in the community. Participants in the study preferred to provide a finger-stick blood sample over oral fluid: due to potential sources of bias, it is not recommended that dvct results be used for surveillance. The estimated cost per HIV infection averted by the study was $1,287; however, due to requirements of the study design, this estimate was much higher than could be expected from dvct program implemented without a research components. A hypothetical, community based, dvct service was estimated to cost $122 per infection averted ($14.65 per disability adjusted life year). Interpretation. Door-to-door VCT has potential to be a cost-effective intervention to prevent HIV transmission in rural African settings. The cost effectiveness of the service can be improved through selection of service providers and targeting of clients.

Citizenship on the septic fringe : urban social policy and peri-urban development in Kisumu, Kenya.

Author: Baker, Martha Grace

Awarding University: University of Michigan, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ethnology ; African history ; Colonialism ; Urban planning ; Social services ; Manyatta, Kisumu ;

Abstract:

This dissertation presents an analysis of peri-urban settlement and urban social policy as played out in the aftermath of the second world war in Kenya's third largest city, Kisumu. Based on over two years of ethnographic and archival research, it outlines the emergence of Manyatta, a peri-urban 'squatter' community on the outskirts of Kisumu, by examining a series of policy interventions in urban planning and welfare. The study traces the history of three specific policy domains: local government, welfare, and housing development, to explore how shifting ideas and assumptions about urbanism and citizenship played out across national, international, and local levels. These policy interventions are analyzed from their inception in the post war period, through the 1950's, to demonstrate points of contrast and continuity, and to highlight some of the ways they may continue to inform socio-political relations in the present. Organized around the dual ideals of city and citizen, these policies are shown to be problematic in the way they have shaped the course of urban settlement and obscured the political implications of their projected outcomes. The study interrogates both the problems and potentials of peri-urban development, and elaborates the history of Manyatta as a window on broader themes of colonial governance, state power, and policy expertise. It outlines some of the dynamics by which state actors at various levels have tended to constrain and de-politicize ideas of urban development and civic participation. The narrative points up several instances in which the ends and means of policy interventions have been conflated, and how attendant policy outcomes were experienced as directly contrary to the self-defined aims and interests of Manyatta residents. By tracing the outcomes of these policy interventions and interrogating the terms by which they were debated and implemented in Kenya, and in Manyatta in particular, the account offers a critical reflection on the logics of policy transfer, the ideas and ideologies of urbanism, and the power of development orthodoxies to determine the urban futures of post- colonial residents of peri-urban communities.

A genetic basis for resistance to infection by HIV-1.

Author: Ball, Terry Blake

Awarding University: University of Manitoba, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: HIV infection ; HIV infection ; Immune system ; Genetics ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) pandemic continues unabated despite increasing public health efforts and intense research. Considerable effort has gone into the development of HIV vaccines, and natural model of resistance to HIV-1 would be invaluable in this endeavor. Within a sex worker cohort in Nairobi, Kenya we have identified a group of women who are resistant to infection by HIV-1. Resistance correlates with cellular and mucosal immune responses to HIV-1 suggesting that these women have developed acquired immunity to HIV-1 thus providing a natural model of immunity. The question remains however as to why do these women appear to be able to mount an effective immune response to HIV-1 while the vast majority of individuals are unable to? It is our hypothesis that resistance to HIV-1 is mediated by genetic factors that are involved in the regulation of protective immune responses to HIV-1. Using the tools of epidemiology, immunology, and genetics we provide data to show that there is a genetic basis for resistance to infection by HIV-1. We show that individuals related to a HIV resistant woman are less likely to become infected by the HIV-1 virus compared to individuals related to an HIV susceptible woman. This strongly suggests that there is a genetic component responsible for resistance to infection by HIV-1. To further investigate this finding we investigated polymorphisms in a number of genes involved in immune responses to HIV-1. These included microsatellite markers in a region important in regulating cellular and humoral immune responses. We identified an allele in the immunoregulatory molecule Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1) that was found at an increased frequency in HIV resistant women. This allele (IRF-1 179) was associated with the resistance phenotype and was shown to protect against HIV infection. This is the first report of a polymorphism in a transcription factor that may account for differential susceptibility to HIV-1. We believe that individuals with the IRF-1 179 allele are better able to respond to HIV with what has been proposed to be protective cellular immune responses. This finding confirms our hypothesis that there are genetic factors responsible for resistance to infection by HIV-1.

Functional morphology of the forelimb in victoriapithecus and its implications for phylogeny within the catarrhini.

Author: Blue, Kathleen Teresa Brundrett

Awarding University: University of Chicago, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Paleontology ; Monkeys and apes ; Victoriapithecus macinnesi ; Maboko Island ;

Abstract:

Victoriapithecus macinnesi represents the earliest best-known old world monkey. Recovered from sediments on Maboko Island, Kenya dated to &sim <coded data>;15 ma, victoriapithecus antedates the split between the two extant old world monkey subfamilies (Von Koenigswald 1969; Leakey 1985; Benefit and Pickford 1986; Benefit 1987, 1993; Harrison 1987, 1989; Benefit and Mccrossin 1993). The large sample of forelimb fossils (n = 216) and phalangeal specimens (n = 268) attributed to victoriapithecus provides the basis for my analysis of the morphology of the forelimb. Statistical analysis indicates that the Maboko cercopithecoid sample represents a single species, albeit one with significant intraspecific variation. Victoriapithecus macinnesi from Maboko represents a single species of an early cercopithecoid characterized by habitual terrestriality best suited to a woodland environment. Morphological affinities are closest to extant cercopithecines, although some semblance of characters last shared with the common ancestor of both new and old world monkeys is retained. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) This dissertation includes a cd that is multimedia (contains text and other applications not available in printed format). The cd requires the following system application: internet browser.

Teaching the ABC's : a naturalistic four-case study of curricular enactment strategies used by four Kenyan preschool teachers.

Author: Branyon, Jill Beatty

Awarding University: University of South Carolina, USA

Level : EDD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Curricula ; Education, Early Childhood USE Preschool education ; Education, Curriculum and Instruction USE Curricula ; Preschool education ;

Abstract:

Curriculum enactment strategies employed by four preschool teachers in Kenya were studied. Investigations sought to understand influences on and decisions about curriculum enactment. During two and one-half-years, four preschool teachers were observed and interviewed with regard to curriculum enactment. A naturalistic multi-case study design was used. Four teachers were chosen in two schools that served different socioeconomic clienteles. One novice and one experienced teacher were selected. All data focused on these teachers' perceptions of factors influencing enactment. For each teacher, twenty hours of observations, ten written interviews, ten hours of informal interviews, a final taped interview, lesson plans, and a journal were analyzed. The teachers were asked to check the vignettes thereby increasing credibility. The teachers described eight external factors including standard 1 interviews (first grade), materials available, timetable, students' parents, students' abilities, nacece guidelines, salaries, and their training experiences. Curricular enactment included internal factors such as the teachers' practical theories, biographies, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of 'self', and decision-making strategies. The findings concluded that external and internal factors affect enactment. School culture and social conditioning emerged as additional factors in enactment. Ethnicity was held constant allowing socio-economic factors to emerge as significant. The recommendations for practice include encouraging awareness of the factors in curricular enactment, further training in the use of reflection and curriculum theory to improve decision-making, and bridging the gap between curriculum writers and classroom practitioners through communication and cooperation.

Seasonal factors influencing livestock herding strategies.

Author: Butt, Bilal

Awarding University: Michigan State University, USA

Level : MA

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Livestock ; Pastoralists ; Masai Mara National Reserve ; Masai (African people) ; Connochaetes taurinus ; Trypanosomiasis ; Talek, Narok District ;

Abstract:

This thesis explores the factors that influence the traditional herding practices of pastoralists livestock. The study is centered on the Talek area of the Narok District in southwestern Kenya, adjacent to Kenya's most popular protected conservation area, the Maasai Mara National Reserve. The study incorporates a political ecology framework, which seeks to examine cultural, demographic, economic, and political dimensions of resource use and ecological change, focusing on these issues and their linkages at and across multiple spatial and temporal scales. The study examines both the biophysical and socio-economic factors that affect the traditional livestock herding strategies of Maasai pastoralists. These two separate, but interactive components are discussed within the contexts of both spatial and temporal scales of analysis. The biophysical components that this study examines are the effects of the following factors on seasonal livestock herding activities: (1)&nbsp;the tsetse fly (glossina spp.) And the transmission of human and animal Trypanosomosis (sleeping sickness), (2)&nbsp;resident and migratory wildebeests (connochaetes taurinus) found within the greater Mara- Serengeti ecosystem, (3)&nbsp;the role of the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) as a biophysical reservoir, and (4)&nbsp;climatic variability. The socio-economic components of this study examine the effects of the following on the seasonal herding activities of Maasai livestock: (1)&nbsp;bush land and the spread/retreat of tsetse, (2)&nbsp;economic needs and markets, (3)&nbsp;the policies of protection on the MMNR, and (4)&nbsp;dramatic demographic changes. The study provides feedback to the discourses on the political ecology conceptual frameworks, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.

Sustainable tourism development : a comparison between Tanzania and Kenya.

Author: Chami, Cyril August

Awarding University: University of Alberta, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Tourism ; Economic models ; East African Community ;

Abstract:

In this study, the Almost Ideal Demand Systems (AIDS) model and the Stated Preference Method (SPM) are used to analyze demand for tourism -a key economic sector-in Tanzania and Kenya. In tandem with a review of existing tourism studies in the region, the models' findings compare the performance of the sector in the two nations and examine whether or not the region's current levels of tourism development are sustainable. The findings of the AIDS model indicate that during the entire period of the study (1970-1998), Kenya, which promoted pro-market policies after independence, has performed better than Tanzania, which adopted socialist policies for two decades since 1967, in key tourism indicators. However, during the 1990s, Tanzania is shown to have performed relatively better than Kenya, a credit to the pro-market policies the country adopted since the late 1980s, its more natural tourist sites, and its internal tranquility. Results also indicate that the two countries are substitute tourism markets for each other, an important finding as it questions the suggestions of promoting Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda as a single tourism destination under the recently re- established East African Community. The SPM results and the surveyed studies show that while Kenya is better known abroad, attracts more affluent tourists and has better services, Tanzania is renowned for the unique nature of its wildlife, its potential for future development, and its relatively less spoiled habitats. However, of concern to Tanzania is that most of the services that Kenya is better at providing are rated in the spm estimation as important determinants of the likelihood of choosing a country as a tourism destination. In both countries tourism has had little or no benefit to local people, and this discourages them from conserving wildlife habitats. Tourism in East Africa has also been developed without due consideration to the environment, leading to soil erosion, deforestation, and extinction of rare wildlife species. It is recommended that in order to enhance tourism sustainability in the region, a concerted effort be made to improve services, to protect environment and most importantly, to provide more proceeds to the local people.

Behavioral ecology of perceived risk of predation in sympatric patas (Erythrocebus patas) and Vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya.

Author: Enstam, Karin Lee

Awarding University: University of California, Davis, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology ; Animal behavior ; Monkeys and apes ; Erythrocebus patas ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Laikipia District ;

Abstract:

In this dissertation, I explored how habitat structure affected perceived risk of predation and anti-predator behavior in closely related, Sympatric Patas (Erythrocebus patas) and Vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. While Patas were restricted to non- riverine habitat at my study site, Vervets used both non- riverine and riverine habitats. The use of two structurally different habitats by the Vervets allowed me to examine the effect of differences in tree height and canopy cover across and within species while controlling for effects of group size, group composition, and phylogeny. During alarm calls at mammalian predators, vervets adjusted their anti-predator behavior and acted more like Patas when they were in areas with shorter trees. Tree height also affected perceived risk of predation in patas monkeys. Within the Patas home range two distinct microhabitats with the same tree species differed in tree height. Patas preferred the tall microhabitat when grass height was similar. Within the preferred microhabitat, patas scanned more and fed less in tall trees. My results indicate that the increased visibility provided by tall trees may have increased the patas' ability to detect predators. Visibility afforded by changes in ground cover can also affect animals' perceived risk of predation. I examined the effects of ground cover on the Vervets' behavior after a wildfire swept through an area near my study group's home range. Reduced grass height after the fire enabled the vervets to see significantly farther. Vervets abruptly changed their ranging behavior and moved into the area that had been burned. They had not been observed in that area previously. The Vervets scanned bipedally less often in the burned area, apparently because they perceived a reduced risk of predation due to increased visibility and reduced predator presence. My findings indicate that Patas and Vervet monkeys are sensitive to the structure of their immediate environments and change their behaviors to accommodate differences in habitat structure and predation risk. Habitat structure, therefore, is an important variable to consider when studying the variation in primate behavior.