1791 Records out of 22207 Records

The politics and administration of agricultural development in Kenya : the Kenya Tea Development Authority

Author: Steeves, Jeffrey Sayre

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 19975

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Politics/Agricultural economics/Kenya Tea Development Authority/ ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Tea Development Authority is one of the most successful agricultural development programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike re-settlement schemes such as the Gezira in the Sudan or the ujaama villages in Tanzania, the Authority has introduced a new cash crop among widely scattered small farmers within the former African Reserves of Kenya. Its achievement seems even more remarkable in that it has introduced a technically demanding estate crop as a viable smallholder enterprise. Utilizing an integrated approach to agricultural development, that is, the provision of a wide range of services for the farmer within one institutional framework, the Authority has staked a leading position within the world tea industry. The central reason for this success has been the institution's early ability to generate local enthusiasm for tea-growing and a system of tight central control. The first can be traced to a credit system which offered credit in kind and on terms sufficient to allow all strata within the farming community to participate in the programme. The second is due to a system of close field supervision with strong links to the central offices. Over time, however, for financial reasons the K.T.D.A. found it necessary to restrict and then eliminate credit; this led to a fundamental challenge to the Authority's structured system of control. It was found that the ability of the institution to plan, direct and implement its policies depended directly on the participation of all strata of the farming community. This study identifies the strata which were relevant to the tea programme and their significance for central goals. The research was undertaken in Kenya during 1970 and 19]1 a particularly interesting period for it was during this time that the full effects of the elimination of credit were being felt. The author spent six months studying the central offices of the Authority and in addition lived in each of Nyeri, Meru, Murang'a, Kericho, Kisii and Kakamega Districts for a minimum period of one month conducting interviews and analyzing documentary materials. Documents pertaining to the other t ea-gr-owfng districts were also analyzed in combination with follow .?.. up interviews in the core districts. The research findings reveal the complexi~y of the agricultural community, The credit revisions of the 1960's and the field reaction illustrate the importance of the strata divisions within the farming community. The full effects of the exclusion of lower strata farmers from formal and legal participation led to aq alliance between lower strata farmers and lower field staff. This alliance directly threatened central control. The study has, therefore, direct relevance to public policy formation and development efforts related to rural Kenya. The major conclusions can be stated as follows: A.Implementation of integrated agricultural development programmes requires control. B. Control depends on an organization establishing its legitimacy within the total farming community. C. The legitimacy of the organization is directly tied to the participation of all strata levels on a continuing basis in the programme of development. Thus, implementation can only be realized by the inclusion of all strata at terms and on conditions which they can meet,

Language use in a medical setting : reconciling explanatory models of illness in the diagnostic interview among the Giriama of Kenya.

Author: Furaha Chai, Jonathan

Awarding University: University of Essex, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Giriama (African people) ; Linguistics ; Ethnology ; Witchcraft ; Physicians ;

Abstract:

This thesis is based on an analysis of Giriama divination as a speech event comparable to the biomedical diagnostic interview. Its main objective is the reconciliation of the discourse strategies used in divination with those used in the biomedical clinic during the diagnostic interview. Interactional sociolinguistics, which incorporates anthropological approaches with sociolinguistics, guided this research and data analysis. In terms of data collection, ethnographic approaches involving participant observation and unstructured interviews were used. A total of 30 diviners and three medical doctors were observed attending their clients/patients in a period of six months between October 2000 and March 2001. Unstructured interviews were used to gather more ethnographic information from the diviners/doctors and their clients. Personal Communication (PC) with some of the Giriama diviners helped to fill in information on the belief system about witchcraft and divination among the Giriama-information that is presented in chapter two. The data collected consisted of digital recordings of the interactions. A total of 25 x 74 min. Minidisks were used to record the data. Data analysis involved first transcribing the recorded interactions. From the transcripts, a representative sample of fifteen diviners and two doctors was chosen and then questions and cases of repetition were identified, coded and quantified. It follows the principles of ethnographic discourse analysis, which makes use of participants' organisational strategies while using surrounding discourse as data in understanding some fragment of talk-in this case, questions and repetition. The research found that structurally divination and the biomedical diagnostic interview share some characteristic features. However in terms of the functions of questions and repetition as discourse strategies are used, there were some differences. These differences are the ones that need to be reconciled if doctor/patient interaction among the Giriama is to be improved. The results are significant, in that they contribute to an understanding of both divination and the doctor/patient relationship. These could also have a bearing on medical training and healthcare provision among the Giriama in particular, and other communities that make use of similar 'alternative therapies' that involve the 'revelatory'divination.

Baboon Endogenous Virus (Baev) variation in natural populations of Cercopithecine primates (Papio hamadryas, Cercopithecus aethiops).

Author: Uddin, Monica

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Monkeys and apes/Papio hamadryas/Baboon endogenous virus/Cercopithecus aethiops/Evolution/Primates/Ethiopia/Masai Mara, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

The following study was undertaken to investigate the evolutionary significance of Transposable Element (TE) activity in mammalian hybrids. The specific aims of this work were twofold: (1)&nbsp;to assess the relationship between a particular te, Baboon Endogenous Virus (Baev), and reproductive isolation in a graded series of papionin hybrids and (2)&nbsp;to evaluate endogenous retroviral dynamics in natural primate populations. Baev nucleotide sequence data, quantitative real-time pcr data, and baev nucleotide sequence insertion site data were collected from wild-caught baboons (Papio hamadryas ssp) from Awash National Park (ANP), Ethiopia. Quantitative data were also collected from wild-caught baboons from Masai Mara, Kenya, as well as a number of captive baboons, f<sub>1</sub> hybrids, and geladas. Additional baev sequence data were collected from ANP wild-caught grivets (Cercopithecus aethiops). Results indicate a non-uniform pattern of Baev amplification across hybrids of varying phylogenetic distance: whereas backcrossed baboon and f<sub>1</sub> 'rheboon' (Macaca mulatta &times; P. H. Hamadryas) hybrids showed no evidence of copy number amplification, the f<sub>1</sub> 'geboons' (Theropithecus gelada &times;P. H. Hamadryas) hybrids did. This finding refutes the hypothesis that hybridization-related baev amplification is correlated with actual or potential reproductive isolation, as the rheboon represents the only confirmed case of hybrid sterility. Baev sequence data suggest a non-uniform rate of evolution across the proviral genome: those areas that encode proteins external to the mature virion show a greater degree of sequence divergence and/or nonsynonymous substitution than those that encode proteins with more conserved functions. Insertion site data confirm a pattern of vertical inheritance in the four baboon forms tested, suggesting long-term residence in the Papio genome. Baev shows considerable copy number heterogeneity among individuals yet conforms to a pattern of maternal inheritance previously observed for endogenous retroviruses in other organisms. Most importantly, average proviral copy numbers in non-hamadryas, hamadryas and gelada baboons, respectively, appear to be a function of the progressively greater degrees of inbreeding observed in each of these primate taxa. This finding represents the first example in primates relating transposon dynamics to social structure and suggests that element number may be regulated though a mechanism of ectopic exchange rather than deleterious selection.

Sexual selection and the African lion's mane.

Author: West, Peyton McLean

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology/Tsavo National Park, Kenya/Lions/Hair/Diet/Global warming/ ;

Abstract:

This thesis explores the role of sexual selection in the evolution of the African lion's mane and the general relationship between sexual selection and environmental factors. Using a combination of demographic, behavioral, photographic and serological records, playback and dummy experiments, and infrared thermography, I investigated the costs and benefits associated with the mane in the Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania and Tsavo East National Park, Kenya from 1996-2001. The mane does not appear to confer significant protection during fights. The mane area was not a specific target of attacks, and injuries to the mane area were not associated with higher mortality than other injuries. Within the mane area, regions that were most frequently attacked were not the regions associated with greater hair length and/or darkness in the manes of adult males. Mane characteristics were related to aspects of male condition and functioned as signals to conspecifics. Mane length decreased with serious injury, and mane darkness increased with age, foraging success and serum testosterone. Male lions were intimidated by long and dark manes, while females found darker manes more attractive and benefited from their preference through increased reproductive success. Infrared thermography demonstrated a relationship between temperature and mane characteristics. The surface temperatures of maned males were higher than those of females and darker-maned males were significantly hotter than those with lighter manes. Darker-maned males also suffered higher proportions of abnormal sperm and reduced food intake in hotter weather. The heat-related costs of the mane suggest that predicted increases in global temperature may have a significant impact on mane morphology. Males in hotter climates are often maneless, and average mane size and darkness across populations may begin to decline. Climate change may have far-reaching implications for sexual selection not only through direct temperature costs but also through indirect mechanisms such as nutrition. An exploration of the relationship between mineral nutrition and sexual selection suggests that many sexually-dimorphic traits are influenced by minerals, particularly calcium, phosphorus, copper and zinc, and suggests that the size and color of these morphological traits may also vary in response to global climate change.

Aspects of the ecological flexibility of the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus) in its fragmented habitat, Tana River, Kenya.

Author: Wieczkowski, Julie Ann

Awarding University: University of Georgia, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ecology/Wildlife conservation/Tana mangabey USE Cercocebus galeritus/Cercocebus galeritus/Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya/Monkeys and apes/ ;

Abstract:

This dissertation investigated the ecological flexibility of the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus) and its use of a fragmented habitat, within the context of its ecological flexibility. The Tana mangabey is one of the world's most endangered primates, endemic to a 60-kilometer stretch of the lower Tana River in Kenya. The strength of this study is in its examination of both the mangabey's diverse habitat and its behavior. The research had two major foci. One examined the ecological correlates of mangabey abundance, with the goal of recommending management strategies. The other extended the temporal investigation of the mangabeys' ecological flexibility by studying one mangabey group that was also studied in 1974 and in 1988-89. Thirty-one study forests were selected throughout the mangabeys' distribution. One hundred and seven vegetation belt transects were sampled and 307 mangabey surveys were conducted in these study forests. From August 2000 until July 2001, monthly 3-day samples were conducted on the mangabey group to collect behavioral, dietary, and ranging data. In addition, phenology was monitored monthly in 226 trees in 11 species across the three forests visited by that group. The Tana mangabey was found to be very general in its habitat needs; the mean number of mangabey groups per forest was positively associated with forest size, density of trees &ge;10 cm diameter at breast height, and basal area of the top 15 food species (in forests within the Tana River Primate National Reserve). Behavioral changes exhibited by the study group can be linked to the group's increased size and diet differences. Although ecological explanations for dietary changes are limited, it was found that the mangabey does not consume ripe fruit in relation to availability. Instead, they concentrate on ripe fruit, ripe seed, unripe fruit, and/or unripe seed on a species-specific basis. Finally, the most important reason for the group's expansion of its home range was the increased group size. Overall, the research supports the conclusion that the general habitat needs and ecological flexibility of the mangabey aid their survival in their highly diverse and fragmented habitat.

Three essays on the economics of land title in Kenya.

Author: Kieyah, Joseph Gichuru

Awarding University: University of Connecticut, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Land reform/Property rights/Economics/ ;

Abstract:

I apply economic theory in the analysis of land title institution as an important component of land reform in Kenya. In chapter 2, I examine the role of title registration in providing security of property rights for landowners. A simple model is developed to examine the trade-off between increased security of registering title against the administrative cost of accessing the system. The model predicts that the demand for registration should be increasing in the value of land, the education of the landowner, and proximity to the Central Government. Evidence on land registration in Kenya provides support for the model. In chapter three, I develop a simple model of a landowner's problem of seeking a Land Control Board's approval in order to deal with his or her land. The model is based on tradeoffs between the board's legal consent that formalizes any land transaction and cost of seeking the Board's approval. In the model, the landowner faces the risk of the Board rejecting his or her application for consent and possibility of losing ownership through non-consensual means if the consent is denied. The model provides theoretical support for the argument that higher values of parcels and lower transaction cost will increase the likelihood of seeking the Board's approval. Using farm-level cross-sectional data the chapter empirically demonstrates that the land control board has impacted the title registration. Two conjectures on Boards' behavior are made based on efficiency and rent- seeking models respectively. Anecdotal evidence provides support for the rent-seeking model. In chapter 4, I develop a simple model of land title reform which shows that a policy of voluntary adoption of a new system is not likely to be successful, even if the new system pareto dominates the existing one. The problem is the existence of an externality that prevents individual landowners from fully internalizing the benefits of the new system. Some evidence for the theory is presented based on historic efforts to institute land registration in the United States and England, as well as ongoing attempts by Kenya to establish formal property rights systems for land.

Dynamics of potato late blight on tubers and farmers' management of the disease in Kenya highlands.

Author: Nyankanga, Richard Ombui

Awarding University: Cornell University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Crop diseases ; Farming ; Phytophthora infestans ; Pesticides ;

Abstract:

The focus of this dissertation was on understanding the dynamics of field infection of potato tuber infection by Phytophthora infestans. It also examines methods that could be used to manage tuber blight in the field. Factors affecting the relationship between foliage late blight and tuber infection were studied both in New York and in Kenya. The relationship between levels of foliage blight and tuber infection was examined by varying disease on foliage by different fungicide regimes. Fungicide application either in terms of different rates or spray intervals did not have a significant effect on tuber blight incidence. No significant association was found between foliage disease levels and tuber infection. Generally, cultivar characteristics, soil temperature, and precipitation events moderated the relationship between foliage and tuber blight. Development of regression models using tuber resistance and depth, soil temperature, and precipitation had moderate predictive ability in ny (r<super>2</super> = 0.56) but poor prediction in Kenya (r<super>2</super> = 0.34). Evaluation of hill sizes and mulch as barriers or filters of inoculum before reaching the soil was assessed in ny. Hilling suppressed tuber infection moderately under moderate epidemics but was ineffective under high disease pressure. Mulching was ineffective under the epidemics in the two years the experiments were conducted. Potato cultivars and advanced clones were assayed in vitro over two years in Kenya for tolerance to tuber blight. Relative resistances of the genotypes differed significantly among cultivars and advanced clones. Resistance in tubers was marked by high variability and may be due to minor genes. No significant correlation was observed between components of tuber resistance and foliage blight ratings indicating that tuber resistance might be different from the resistance in the foliage. A range of tuber blight resistance was observed from which lines with resistance may be developed. A survey of farmers was conducted in three potato growing areas in Kenya in 2000 and 2001 to evaluate farmers' perception, knowledge and management potato late blight. Results indicated that farmers had a limited understanding of late blight. High cost of fungicide, poor application techniques, incorrect dosage of fungicides, and preference of susceptible cultivars were among the reasons contributing to lack of adequate control of late blight. Farmers' preference for potato cultivars was not based on late blight resistance. Other constraints like lack of markets, prevalence of bacterial wilt and scarcity of quality seed were identified as serious constraints of potato production. Improvement of potato late blight control should include provision of knowledge and addressing these other constraints.

Analysis of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Author: Fudyk, Trevor Charles

Awarding University: University of Manitoba, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Immunology ; Neisseria gonorrhoeae ; Neisseria infections ; Gonorrhea ; Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae constitutes an important cause of morbidity in human populations. The Porin protein (Por) is the major outer membrane protein of the gonococcus and displays considerable antigenic diversity among gonococcal strains. Two hypotheses to explain the diversity and dynamics of gonococcal populations is that protective, serovar- specific immunity, mediated by antibody to Por, develops following gonococcal infection, and that the development of protective immune responses within the core group act as a selective force for por antigenic heterogeneity in the gonococcal population. One core group in which gonococcal epidemiology has been studied extensively includes a collection of women working the commercial sex trade in the lower socioeconomic district of Pumwani in Nairobi, Kenya. Two experimental strategies were used to evaluate these hypotheses in a more recent longitudinal study of these female, sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. The first line of experiments sought to examine the nature and distribution of genetic polymorphism in the Por genes of the gonococcal serovars infecting the Nairobi cohort. Nucleotide substitutions were observed predominantly in surface-exposed encoding segments of the 1a and 1b por genes. The majority of substitutions, particularly those occurring in surface- exposed encoding gene segments, resulted in amino acid change. The second line of experiments sought to determine the effect of the antibody response to por on serovar-specific gonococcal infection. Cohort women were assayed for baseline antibody responses to a recombinant 1b2 porin and a collection of polypeptides corresponding to 1b Por surface-exposed loops and followed longitudinally for gonococcal infection. Overall, antibody to the 1b2 porin appeared to provide limited protection from 1b infection, although this protective effect did not appear to extend to infection with 1a serovars. Women with antibody to 1b2 Por experienced significantly fewer homologous 1b2 and heterologous 1b3 serovar infections, compared to women without antibody. The data observed in this study support the hypothesis that the humoral immune response to Por is an important component in the ecologic interaction of human and gonococcal populations, while the generation of antigenically diverse pathogen populations act a mechanism to ensure endemic infection and pathogen survival in the face of this immune barrier. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Sedentarization, seasonality, and economic differentiation.

Author: Fujita, Masako

Awarding University: University of Victoria, Canada

Level : MA

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Nutrition ; Pastoralists ; Ariaal (African people) ; Rendille (African people) ; Northern Kenya ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines the impact of the recent transition from nomadic pastoralism to sedentism and concomitant economic differentiation upon seasonal patterns in maternal diet, morbidity, and anthropometry made by Ariaal and Rendille peoples in northern Kenya. Results reveal clear differences between the dietary patterns of nomadic and sedentary mothers. The reduction of dietary protein, the increase in dietary energy, and the alleviation of seasonal dietary stress affected sedentary mothers' body compositions such that their body fat and protein stores fluctuated in a distinct manner each from the other. Morbidity patterns of sedentary mothers reflected neither the dietary seasonality nor the seasonal patterns of rainfall, both of which were important determinants of nomadic mothers' health statuses. The results demonstrate the importance of longitudinal research design in studying and understanding the consequences of sedentarization.

Discovering the face of an intercultural God : Christian evangelization among the Turkana nomads of Kenya and implications for the worldwide church.

Author: Grenham, Thomas Gerard

Awarding University: Boston College, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Turkana (African people) ; Acculturation ; Ethnology ; Christianity ; Evangelism ;

Abstract:

This dissertation defines interculturation as the activity of persons from diverse cultures and religious worldviews mutually and respectfully interacting with the intention of discovering the vision of the Gospel. Seeds of Gospel vision exist in every person, culture, and religion. Religious intercultural engagement uncovers the spirituality of the gospel which can lead to both a local and global commitment for the well-being of every person, culture, and religious perspective. The process of interculturation perceives cultural and religious interdependency as crucial for life-giving relationships within all creation. Worldwide collaboration is necessary to sustain human dignity and life for all. Within an age of globalization that fosters economic interdependency among nation-states, diverse cultures and religious perspectives encounter different challenges and opportunities for understanding religious and cultural identity, faith, human freedom, transcendence, justice, peace, reconciliation, relationships, and so forth. All religious evangelization, particularly Christian evangelization, needs further exploration in order to foster a diverse spiritual solidarity within this interconnected and interdependent world. Religious education functions in nurturing the life-giving seeds of the Gospel into plants of spiritual nourishment that reflect scented flowers of life-giving interpretation, appropriation, and transformation for sustained hope. Agents of Christian evangelization have the task of actualizing Gospel vision through relevant religious practices, localizing this vision within the contextuality of lived human experience, and globalizing this sense of transcendence for human well-being worldwide. For diverse communities of faith, meaning and a sense of belonging are discerned when each engages the other in an evolution of conversation. Such life-giving conversation is underpinned by a respectful reciprocity that shares power to create a conducive environment for mutual trust. This environment shapes and nurtures 'right relationship' with ourselves, others, creation, and God.