389 Records out of 22207 Records

'Staying together' : people-wildlife relationships in a pastoral society in transition, Amboseli ecosystem, southern Kenya.

Author: Ferreira de Lima Roque de Pinho, Maria Joana

Awarding University: Colorado State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Biological sciences ; Animal behavior ; Pastoralists ; Wildlife ; Amboseli, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This study looks at three dimensions of the relationship between Maasai and wildlife: attitudes towards wildlife; cultural models of human-wildlife relationships; the aesthetic value of wildlife and its relation to support for wildlife conservation. First, I found that attitudes varied with land tenure, formal education, religion and gender. I used a regression analysis to identify predictors of positive attitudes towards wildlife. Being a Christian is the strongest predictor, followed by being male and residing on communal land. Second, I followed a cognitive anthropology approach to analyze how Maasai relate to wildlife. 'Cultural models' are implicit, shared cognitive representation of a conceptual domain that mediate our understanding of the world and are differentially distributed, socially transmitted and correlated with behavior. I investigated content and distribution of Maasai models of their relationship with wildlife. With discourse analysis, I identified two contrasting models of human-wildlife relationships. In the 'traditional' model, wildlife are seen as different from cows in everything but as having the right to be on the land since God meant for humans, cows and wildlife to 'stay together'. In contrast, in the 'modern' model, wild animals are useful and income-generating like cows, but people wish to be separated from them. I used cultural consensus analysis to determine the distribution of agreement with each model. It shows that there is one consensual model that is close to the 'modern' model. This study shows a shift towards models of human-wildlife relationships that are informed by western culture, the market economy and conservation. The consensual model contrasts with the vision that conservationists have for the ecosystem. Investigating stakeholders' cultural models is a step towards addressing such conflicts. Lastly, I examine the role of aesthetic value in human-wildlife relationships. I show that Maasai appreciate visual beauty in wild animals and enjoy the sight of wild animals. Then, I determine that there is an association between how Maasai aesthetically value species, preferences thereof and support for their conservation. The community-based conservation approach emphasizes the economic value of wildlife to local communities. This study suggests that these strategies would benefit from considering non-economic dimensions of human-wildlife relationships

Epidemiology of polyparasitism in Coastal Kenya : determinants, interactions and health effects of Plasmodium species and Schistosoma haematobium infections

Author: Florey, Lia Smith

Awarding University: University of Michigan, USA

Level :

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; Epidemiology ; Parasites ; Coast Province ; Plasmodium ; Schistosoma haematobium ;

Abstract:

Concurrent infections with multiple parasites are common in human populations inhabiting tropical regions of the world. Although morbidities associated with single parasite infections are well-established, much less is known about the risk factors for co-infection, the epidemiological and biological associations among parasite species, or the related health effects of polyparasitism. This cross-sectional study of Plasmodium species and Schistosoma haematobium co-infections among people in a rural village of coastal Kenya was conducted to address some of these questions. Predictors of polyparasitic infections were identified within the social, environmental and spatial context of households. The relative importance of individual- versus household-level factors in predicting parasite infection also was examined using multi-level modeling techniques, thereby providing insights into mechanisms by which socio-economic position (SEP) and other factors might influence disease risk. In addition, evidence for biologically meaningful associations between parasites was evaluated after adjustment for household clustering of individuals. Finally, potential synergistic relationships between these infections and their effects on anemia and stunting in children were assessed. Results revealed a heavy burden of parasitic infection in this population, especially in children. Intense Plasmodium species and S. haematobium infections were found to cluster in a subset of children with suggestions of synergistic effects on anemia and stunting. Determinants of heavy infections were age-specific and included household SEP. Individual-level characteristics explained much more of the household-level variation in infection than did household-level variables. Finally, analyses of species-specific Plasmodium infections demonstrated fewer co-infections that expected by chance, suggesting the presence of cross-species interaction. This research highlights the unacceptable burden of parasitic disease in tropical regions of the world, and suggests that integrated control efforts which consider multiple infections, and which are targeted at school-aged children, should maximize disease reduction under resource-limited conditions.

Parliamentary independence in Uganda and Kenya 1962--2008.

Author: Johnson, John K

Awarding University: State University of New York, Albany, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Political science/Independence movements/African history/Uganda ;

Abstract:

This comparative case study examines the independence of the Uganda and Kenya parliaments from the time of their independence from the U.K. in the early 1960s, until 2008, focusing especially on the past 12 years. Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, these East African legislatures became two of the most independent in Africa, censuring ministers, developing effective committees, amending legislation, and enacting private member bills that significantly enhanced their power relative to that of their executive branches. Following the enactment of these private member bills, the two parliaments gained control over their budgets and staffs, expanded their campuses, and began playing unprecedented policy-making and oversight roles. Uganda's Parliament censured ministers, and its committees became very active. It reached its highest levels of independence and power in the Sixth Parliament (1996-2001) during Uganda's no-party era, but has since become a less independent institution. The Kenya Parliament, in contrast, continues to expand its power relative to the presidency, and members are relatively unconstrained by political parties. The dissertation describes how, after decades of presidential and party dominance over the Uganda and Kenya parliaments, the two legislatures were able to become independent institutions. Key factors in both cases were the efforts of parliamentary reformers, who recognized the need to strengthen their legislatures, and were able to win the support of other legislators. The study finds, somewhat paradoxically, that while the restoration of multi-party politics in Kenya in the early 1990s helped make possible the development of Kenya's independent parliament, the re-establishment of multi-party politics in Uganda has been a key factor in reducing the independence of the its parliament. The dissertation combines indicators of legislative institutionalization with indicators of formal legislative powers and their use to arrive at approximate measures of parliamentary independence. The study also introduces the Independence of Parliament Triangle, to illustrate the relative influence of presidents, political parties, and 'the independent parliament' over decisions emanating from the legislatures.

Transmission and potential resistance among HIV-1-discordant couples [kenya]

Author: Guthrie, Brandon L

Awarding University: University of Washington, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; HIV infection ; Immune system ; Couples ;

Abstract:

In areas of sub-Saharan Africa with mature AIDS epidemics, the majority of new heterosexually acquired HIV-1 infections occur within HIV-1-discordant couples. Interventions that appreciably reduce the risk of transmission within discordant couples could prevent a large proportion of all new infections. Factors associated with HIV-1 transmission, including the presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and immune responses in exposed, uninfected partners, may interact in important ways with prevention strategies. We sought to identify correlates of these factors in discordant couples to inform the development of future prevention interventions. We recruited heterosexual HIV-1-discordant couples in stable relationships in Kenya. Couples were tested for HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. HIV-1-specific T cell responses were detected using IFN-? ELISpot assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the Clade A HIV-1 genome. Couples were followed and assessed quarterly for pregnancies. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of these factors. Among discordant couples, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (p<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR=2.43; p<0.01) and those with low education (OR=3.00; p<0.01). Out of 324 women in discordant relationships followed for pregnancy, 67.0% were HIV-1-infected. One-year cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 10.4%. Desire to have children in the future (HR=4.81; p<0.001) and age (HR=0.91; p=0.004) were significant predictors of pregnancy. We identified 14 participants with T cell responses and 166 without responses. Among females 13.0% were responders compared to 5.6% among males. In a multivariate model female gender (OR=4.65; p=0.016) and CD4 count (OR=1.39; p=0.015) were significantly associate with T cell IFN-? responses. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce HIV-1 transmission in discordant couples depends on the distribution of factors related to transmission risk in these couples. Understanding the correlates of these factors will aid rational design of population-level interventions, and will be essential in developing mathematical models of effectiveness to maximize intervention impact.

Radio listening habits among rural audiences : an ethnographic study of Kieni West Division in Central Kenya.

Author: Gathigi, George W

Awarding University: Ohio University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Mass media ; Radio broadcasting ; Rural areas ; Kieni West Division ; Nyeri District. ;

Abstract:

In the 1990s, the liberalization of the media industry in African countries such as Kenya was faced with the challenge of continuing to provide much-needed information to the African population. One segment of particular interest in Kenya was the rural audience that makes up 80% of the country's population. This is a research on the role of radio in rural listeners' everyday lives within a liberalized media environment. Using the media ethnography method, I examined the radio consumption habits of rural people of the Kieni West Division, Nyeri District, Kenya. How do they choose content from the stations that are available? What type of content do they seek and how does this relate to their daily lives? Data was collected using interviewing, focus-group discussions and observation methods. In addition, documents relating to radio broadcasting in Kenya were analyzed. This research found that radio is the most important and accessible medium in Kieni West and that vernacular radio stations are the most preferred ones. Kieni West listeners use radio to obtain information about what is happening locally and beyond. They use radio to access information on health and agriculture. In addition, listeners rely on radio for social interactions, civic engagement, and as a platform where they can take some of their problems and seek solutions. This research concludes that media liberalization and commercialization of radio in Kenya has led to a number of outcomes to rural listeners. These include emergence of a competitive radio industry that provides multiple outlets and a wide variety of content from which people can choose. Secondly, the rise of vernacular radio stations has provided access to broadcasting in various local languages which allows for diverse content to a wide section of the population. Vernacular stations demonstrate sensitivity to the needs of rural audiences and therefore higher acceptance

Suswa volcano, Kenya rift : evidence of magmamixing, sodium-fluorine complexing and eruptions triggered by recharge.

Author: Espejel Garcia, Vanessa Veronica

Awarding University: University of Texas, El Paso, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Earth sciences ; Suswa, Kenya ; Geology ; Volcanoes ;

Abstract:

The Cenozoic East African rift system (EARS) is a sequence of grabens, intraplate transforms, accommodation zones, and abundant magmatism. The Central Kenya Peralkaline Province (CKPP) includes a variety of volcanic rocks -trachyte, pantellerite, comendite, phonolite, trachy-basalt, basaltic trachy-andesite, and basalt- which erupted from volcanoes including: Mount Kenya; Eburru and the Greater Olkaria volcanic complexes; Longonot, Menengai, and Suswa volcanoes; and Ndabibi, Elmenteita, and Tandamara mafic volcanic fields. Only two of the volcanoes, Mount Kenya (on the flank of the central graben) and Suswa (the southernmost of the CKPP volcanoes), have phonolites as part of their assemblage. The evolution of Suswa volcano is divided into three major stages separated by caldera collapse events: (1) pre-caldera, (2) syn-caldera, and (3) post-caldera. Rock compositions are grouped into two sets: pre-/syn-caldera and post-caldera. Both sets range from trachyte to phonolite, but are distinguished by the amount of SiO 2 . The pre-/syn-caldera rocks have 60% to 62% SiO 2 , while post-caldera rocks have 57% to 59% SiO 2 . Each set shows a trachyte to phonolite trend that results from increasing Na 2 O, accompanied by the increase of a number of trace elements (Be, Cs, Hf, Nb, Rb, Ta, Th, Y, Zn, Zr, and REE, except Eu). I use whole rock data, mineral chemistry and glass analyses to evaluate magmatic processes, such as magma mixing, Na-F complexing, magma recharge, fractional crystallization and feldspar accumulation. Alkali feldspar compositions support magma mixing process. High fluorine contents (0.01 - 2.0%) in matrix and melt inclusion glass, and the presence of fluorite in matrix and F-apatite (in groundmass, and as daughter minerals in melt inclusions) provide key evidence to sustain Na-F complexing process. Positive correlations between fluorine and Na 2 O in matrix glass imply complexing between F and Na. Since fluorine forms stable complexes with several elements, including REE, we attribute the trachyte-phonolite trends in the Suswa rocks to be the result of Na-F complexing. In addition to F-Na complexing, three other possible processes (not necessarily mutually exclusive) could have produced Suswa post-caldera rocks. They include: (1) a liquid line of descent where the post-caldera rocks are less evolved than the pre-/syn-caldera trachytes; (2) magma mixing where post-caldera magmas are a well-mixed hybrid of Elmenteita/Tandamara type and pre-/syn-caldera magmas; and (3) alkali feldspar fractionation of pre-/syn-caldera magma. The mineralogy in the Suswa rocks is the key evidence to argue against the liquid line of descent process. Instead, the mineralogy supports magma mixing. For example, the pre-caldera unit has Ca-poor anorthoclase (An 0-5 ), while syn-caldera units contain similar anorthoclase, xenocrystic plagioclase with resorbed textures. This suggests that the syn-caldera plagioclase belonged to a mafic magma similar to Tandamara/Elmenteita. In addition, the syn-caldera units contain alkali feldspar with higher anorthite contents (15 to 20%) that resembles post-caldera feldspars. Post-caldera rocks have feldspars with resorbed/sieve textures, and those from the youngest lavas (the Ring Trench Group) are zoned with euhedral overgrowths. Alkali feldspar fractionation is also potentially important because of the abundance of large anorthoclase phenocrysts in post-caldera rocks. If alkali feldspar fractionation were the case, post-caldera lavas (Early Post-caldera Lava Group) are derivative liquids from pre-/syn-caldera magma, via precipitation of stable (equilibrium) alkali feldspar compositions. A key aspect of arguing the importance of mixing is that the observed chemical trends can only be produced by alkali feldspars with higher anorthite contents (An 10-15 ), such as those precipitated in the mixed magma chambers. Therefore, a mixing process existed prior to feldspar fractionation.

A history of the absence (and emergent presence) of independent public universities in Mombasa, Kenya.

Author: Brennan, Kevin

Awarding University: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Mombasa, Kenya ; Colleges and universities ; Higher education ; Independence ; Public schools ;

Abstract:

While there is a great deal of literature available about schooling in Kenya and a good deal of writing about the establishment of Kenya's public university system there is a significant gap in the literature when it comes to describing and analyzing why certain areas of the country had long been removed from any on-site development of independent university opportunities. This study is an attempt to offer a history of an educational institution - an independent public university at the coast in Kenya - that does not yet exist. This longstanding absence took several significant steps toward transforming to a presence in 2007, when several university colleges were created at the coast. This transformation from absence to presence is a central theme in this work. The research for this project, broadly defined, took place over a seventeen year period and is rooted in both the author's professional experience as an educator working in Kenya in the early 1990s as well as his academic interests in comparative and international higher education. More narrowly, core data for the study was gathered in a series of open-ended interviews conducted during a series of trips to Kenya made between 2005 and 2007. Additional data were collected from newspaper sources and other published materials available in Kenya. The data were analyzed using a blend of grounded theory, dialectical and discourse analysis frameworks, in which the author's long, pre-doctoral study, professional engagement with Kenya fed the symbiosis of data collection and the theory development that is a central element of grounded theory. Dialectics provided a framework of major chord discourses (marginalization; a responsive discourse of alternatives; and 'a university of our own') within each of which a Fairclough-ian understanding of discourse is used to reveal the minor chord complexities of each major chord discourse.

The role of human recognition in economic development : theory, measurement, and evidence [Kenya].

Author: Castleman, Joshua

Awarding University: George Washington University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Economic development ; Attitudes ;

Abstract:

This dissertation introduces the concept of human recognition and examines its role in economic development. The dissertation defines human recognition and describes and illustrates its relevance to economic development; develops a theoretical model of human recognition; develops a method for measuring human recognition; and applies the measurement method to three datasets to empirically test hypotheses predicted by the theoretical model. Human recognition is defined as the acknowledgement provided to an individual by other individuals, groups, or organizations that he is of inherent value with intrinsic qualities in common with the recognizer, i.e. recognition as a fellow human being. Following a description of the characteristics, sources, and impacts of human recognition, chapter 1 presents a detailed example to help concretize the concept in the context of development programs. A review of literature on related concepts that are relevant and instructive to the study of human recognition finds that the concept of human recognition has not been directly addressed in existing work, and that it can contribute to understanding key issues and situations raised in the current literature. Chapter 2 formalizes the concept of human recognition in an economic model that describes provision and receipt of human recognition, its contribution to utility, its effects on health and labor supply, and the role it plays in development programs. The model provides a theoretical basis for understanding human recognition transactions and offers an example of how intangible components of development can be formally modeled. Key predictions that emerge from the model are that human recognition levels have a positive, causal relationship with utility; that multiple equilibria for human recognition can exist, leading groups to be stuck at a low-level equilibrium; and that only accounting for human recognition's instrumental effects on material program outcomes while ignoring recognition's direct effects on utility leads to suboptimal programs. In order to empirically test these predictions and in order to effectively incorporate human recognition considerations into programming, a method for reliably measuring human recognition is required. As a foundation for measurement, chapter 3 presents a framework that organizes the sources of human recognition into three domains of an individual's life: household, community, and organizations and institutions. The framework is used to develop an index of indicators that combines measures of human recognition received in each of the domains into a single measure of total human recognition received. Within each domain, factor analysis is used to generate a single measure of human recognition out of multiple observed measures. Across domains, weighted sums are used to combine domain scores into a single measure. To demonstrate empirical application of the index and to carry out initial tests of the hypotheses predicted by the model, the index is initially applied to two cross-sectional survey datasets from India and Kenya, illustrating how human recognition can be measured using existing survey data. Results of multivariate regression estimations using these data offer initial evidence that human recognition is a significant, independent, positive determinant of nutritional status. To demonstrate how measurement of human recognition can be incorporated into programs and research studies and to empirically test the model's hypotheses in greater depth, questions specially designed to measure human recognition are included in a randomized, controlled study of malnourished, HIV-infected adults in Kenya. Chapter 4 uses these data to examine the impacts that food supplementation and medical treatment have on human recognition, to identify determinants of human recognition receipt, and to assess whether changes in human recognition are determinants of changes in nutritional status and subjective well-being. Results in

Harvesting health : fertilizer, nutrition and AIDS treatment in Kenya.

Author: Chakravarty, Shubha

Awarding University: Columbia University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Fertilizers ; Nutrition ; AIDS (Disease) ; Reproductive health ; Disease management ;

Abstract:

This thesis explores various policy options for mitigating food insecurity among patients receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS. The first chapter examines the impact of a fertilizer provision program that targets farming households in which one or more members is currently receiving treatment for AIDS. The study enrolled 540 patients, of which half were selected to receive free fertilizer for the 2007 planting season. I find that treated households planted a larger acreage and produced 350 more kilograms of maize than control households, an increase of 40% worth about 88 USD. Treated households used the increased income from crop sales to invest in livestock and purchase 80% more fertilizer than the control group in the subsequent planting season. The second chapter extends the analysis of the impact of the fertilizer program to examine health outcomes of program participants. Fertilizer recipients, who concurrently received free anti-retroviral therapy (ART), experienced significant health improvements. Fertilizer provision improved the health status of treated individuals, as measured by both body mass index (BMI) and CD4 cell count. In the third chapter, I examine the impact of direct food distribution on the clinical outcomes of patients receiving ART at one clinic within the USAID-AMPATH partnership in western Kenya. The nutrition supplementation program began in 2004 and targeted patients with low Body Mass Index (BMI) and severe immunological suppression, as measured by CD4 cell count. Of the 1977 patients who initiated ART at this clinic, 548 participated in the food supplementation program. Results indicate that while both groups respond equally well to ART, the addition of food does not appear to significantly improve the outcomes of food recipients over the first 18 months of treatment. However, these results must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size of CD4 and BMI measurements beyond the first 6 months of treatment. More rigorous evaluation, preferably with experimental design, of the impact of nutrition programs on the health outcomes of ART patients is needed.

Pro-poor risk management : essays on the economics of index-based risk transfer products [Kenya].

Author: Chantarat, Sommarat

Awarding University: Cornell University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Essays ; Risk assessment ; Risk management ;

Abstract:

This dissertation explores innovations in index-based risk transfer products (IBRTPs) as a means to address an important insurance market failure that leaves many poor and vulnerable populations exposed to considerable uninsured risk. IBRTPs can address problems of covariate risk, asymmetric information and high transaction costs that have precluded the emergence of formal insurance market in low-income areas, where uninsured risk remains a leading cause of persistent poverty. A brief introductory chapter situates this dissertation in the broader, emergent literature on IBRTPs. The second chapter explains how the strong relation between widespread human suffering and weather shocks creates an opportunity to develop famine indexed weather derivatives to finance improved emergency response to humanitarian crises. The third chapter explains how these instruments might be designed and used by operational agencies for famine prevention in response to slow-onset disasters. It uses household data to develop a famine index based on child anthropometric data that is strongly related to rainfall variability and other exogenous measures that are reliably available at low cost; that index can be used to trigger payments to improve the timeliness and cost-effectiveness of humanitarian response. The fourth chapter develops commercially viable index based livestock insurance (IBLI) to protect livestock assets for northern Kenyan pastoralists. The underlying herd mortality index is constructed off a statistical model that relates longitudinal household-level herd mortality data to remotely sensed vegetation index data. The resulting index performs well out of sample. Pricing and risk exposure analysis also demonstrate the commercial potential of the product, which has been taken up by financial institutions in Kenya for marketing in early 2010. The fifth chapter explores the household-level performance of IBLI. It uses simulations parameterized based on household panel data, risk preference estimates elicited in field experiments and remote sensing vegetation data to explore how well IBLI performs in preserving household wealth in this setting characterized by bifurcated livestock growth dynamics characteristic of poverty traps. Willingness to pay and aggregate demand for the contract are also estimated. This analysis shows that bifurcation in livestock herd dynamics leads to nonlinear insurance valuation regardless of risk preferences.