142 Records out of 22207 Records

The Ogiek indigenous healer as a purveyor of indigenous knowledge : the implications for sustainable development in Kenya

Author: Mwangi, M

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Okiek (African people) ; Medicinal plants ; Health care ; Sustainable development ;

Abstract:

This thesis seeks to determine the effectual relationship, if any, between the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of the Ogiek Indigenous Medical Practitioner (IMP) regarding Ogiek Indigenous Medicine (IM) and Ogiek Indigenous Forest Related Knowledge (IFRK). This relationship is examined through the lens of sustainable development in Kenya. Specifically, this research explores issues pertaining to affordable, effective and locally-based health care regarding two opportunistic infections of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and Ogiek IFRK regarding the management of the natural resources of the Mau forest. This research further analyses the relationship between the Ogiek communities connection to their ancestral land and mental health, with the aim of postulating the potential applicability of the findings in today?s world. This dissertation explores such a relationship, where the Ogiek IMP plays a vital role in the Ogiek community not only as a health-care provider but also as a facilitator of sustainable forest and biodiversity conservation. As land-based economy, Kenya?s management of natural resources is crucial in planning future development strategies. As a developing economy, inadequate healthcare provisions can potentially create a developmental challenge. It is within context of self-determination that the utility of IFRK and IM from the Ogiek IMP is positioned to play a pivotal role in facilitating the process of sustainable development in the fields of healthcare and natural resource management in Kenya.

Evaluation of dairy cattle rearing practices and feeding management strategies on selected commercial dairy farms in Nakuru District, Kenya.

Author: Issak, I H

Awarding University: University of Aberdeen, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture/Cattle/Dairy industry/Feeds/Nakuru District/Management/ ;

Abstract:

The objectives of this study in the Nakuru District of the Kenyan Highlands, the major milk sources for the Nairobi milk market, were to evaluate current dairy cattle rearing and feeding practices, and suggest efficient feeding management strategies on large and small-scale commercial dairy farms. 139 small-scale farms with 738 dairy cows were surveyed and 6 large-scale dairy farms with 4379 dairy cattle. On the small farms, high mortality rates, cost of AI, and disease were the major causes of poor reproduction leading to a lack of replacement stock. Feeding systems used were: 24% free grazing system, 33% semi-zero grazing, 40% zero grazing, and 3% rotational grazing, but limited feeds were available ? crops and feed crop residues, cut grass on the roadside, neighbouring farms with some purchased hay and straws in the dry season. After weaning, feed supplements were rarely given to calves, priority being given to milking cows, explaining the few replacement stock kept and their high mortality. The six large scale farms were from 200 to 3500 acres with milk production, cereal crops, fodder crops, the scale of replacement dairy stock and hay to other dairy farms the main activities with land allocated 65% to livestock, 20% to cash crops (Barley and Wheat), 10% to fodder crops and 5% to other land-uses. Replacement heifers for sale were insufficient to meet demands from small-scale farms. Grazing systems were mainly extensive with supplements fed at milking. All the farms depended on planted forage grasses, mainly: Rhodes grass, Star grass, Sudan grass and Kikuyu grass. Calf mortality rate (10-18 %) was high caused mostly by respiratory diseases and East Coast Fever. Extended age at first calving (>31.8 ? 4.5 months), long calving intervals (> 406 days) and low average milk yields (6.81/day ? 3.9) for all breeds, occurred. Production and reproductive performances needs to be addressed by proper nutrition. Suitable pasture grasses, legumes and fodder crops not currently being used have been identified as potential options to complement the existing pasture. Among these are: Guinea grass (panicum maximum), Cynodon dactylon, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Naivasha star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus) and Rhodesian star grass (Setaria sphacelata). Other studies examining supplementation of animals on low quality pastures with the above feeds resulted in increased body weights and milk yields. The greatest potential seems to be supplementing with home-grown proteinaceous feedstuffs such as Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra, Sesbania or food crop residues like groundnut, cassava, sweet potato vines or pigeon-pea leaves and stems. Farmers could increase their pasture land productivity by establishing fodder grass, fodder shrubs and food crops as intercropping, hedgerows and along contour bands.

The political economy of foreign direct investment in Africa : the case of the Kenyan clothing and textile sector.

Author: Wanjiru, R

Awarding University: University of Leeds, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Geography/Political economy/Foreign investment/Textile industry/ ;

Abstract:

New possibilities appear to be associated with the participation of developing countries in increasingly complex global divisions of labour which are orchestrated by multinational companies across borders. In this context, attention has turned to analysing the role of multinational enterprises in orchestrating global commodity chains in which developing countries can participate. There has been a growth of clusters and some instances of successful upgrading associated with participation in global commodity chains, mainly in East Asia and Latin America. The economic successes of Asian newly industrialised economies are held out as models on how poor developing countries can leverage the benefits of foreign direct investment to transform their economies and bring about wider development. What has been less well recorded is the existence of instances where foreign investment has not resulted in the expected benefits, despite participation in global commodity chains. Some of these cases are in Sub-Saharan Africa. This thesis builds upon existing research which analyses the nature of Sub-Saharan African economies? participation in global commodity chains. It provides further evidence of the lack of industrial upgrading, by examining the re-growth of the Kenyan clothing and textile industry and explores the broader economic development impacts of its participation in this particular global economy chain. Drawing upon survey and interview research, this thesis provides evidence of the characteristics of manufacturing establishments in the industry and examines the constraints on growth for the industry. Additionally, the research considers the extent and nature of upstream and downstream linkages, and provides evidence of multiple and inter-connected failures on the part of Government, parent companies and the end customers in promoting the long-term viability of the sector

Energy system development in Africa : the case of grid and off-grid power in Kenya

Author: Steel, Katherine Deaton

Awarding University: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Energy management/Energy resources/ ;

Abstract:

This research used a combination of a grounded theory approach and system dynamics to study the electric power system in Kenya and to model the feedback at work in the development of the system. The ethnographic study revealed the challenges faced by consumers in choosing between grid and off-grid power options. Examination of this challenge leads to the hypothesis that competition between the grid and off-grid markets is contributing to the low growth in power consumption and that there is the potential for off-grid to become the dominant option in the future. This theory guided the construction of a system dynamics model focusing on consumers' decision-making and their interaction with the operation of the system. I then used the model to explore the dynamics of the system through scenario testing. There were two key outcomes from the model. The first showed that given the parameters chosen in most cases there is a clearly dominant option, although it changes over time. This finding points to the second key outcome the model, which is that there are realistic scenarios under which off-grid generation will become the dominant supply source. This shift could be induced by either reduced overhead on photovoltaic panels or high fuel prices. The outcomes from this research have implications for future electricity planning in Kenya and elsewhere in Africa. In particular, there is a need to decouple the system from external prices or account for the extreme uncertainty in fuel prices. Given the potential shift to large-scale off grid power generation, energy planners also need to look at options for managing a decentralized power system architecture and consider how to build in options for future reintegration if a large-scale centralized generation source comes online. This research has both academic and applied contributions. On the academic side, it extends the range of engineering systems modeling to include qualitative factors found in an African environment. These factors include the addition of reliability and availability of the electric power grid and the biases in decision-making, which differ from those in industrialized countries. While the model clearly has direct application in Kenya, it was designed with flexibility to be expanded to include other countries and regions and could be a useful tool for understanding policy trade-offs in African electrification planning. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Development and implementation of household level intermittent slow sand filters for rural areas to mitigate water-related diseases [Kenya].

Author: Tiwari, Sangya-Sangam Kumari

Awarding University: University of California, Davis, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Water treatment/Disease/Disease control/Filters ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Neurocognitive impairment following central nervous system infections in Kenyan children as detected by event related potentials

Author: Kihara, M

Awarding University: Open University, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences/Neurological disorders/Children and youth/Epidemiology/Nervous system/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Immune responses to polymorphic antigens and protection against severe malaria in Kenyan children

Author: Osier, F.H.A

Awarding University: Open University, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; Immunology ; Malaria ; Medical immunity ; Immune system ; Children and youth ;

Abstract:

I hypothesised that the breadth (number of important targets to which antibodies were made) and magnitude (antibody level measured in a random serum sample) of the antibody response were important predictors of protection from clinical malaria. I also investigated whether allele-specific antibodies protected children from developing clinical episodes of malaria associated with parasites bearing homologous alleles. I analyzed naturally-acquired antibodies to five leading P. falciparum merozoite stage vaccine candidate antigens, and schizont extract, in Kenyan children monitored longitudinally for mild and severe malaria. I also genotyped parasites from clinical episodes to investigate allele-specific antibody-mediated immunity. Serum antibody levels to apical membrane antigen 1(AMA1), and merozoite surface protein antigens (MSP-1 block 2, MSP-2, MSP-3) were inversely related to the probability of developing malaria, but levels to MSP-119 and erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA-175) were not. The risk of mild malaria was also inversely associated with increasing breadth of antibody specificities, with none of the children who simultaneously had high antibody levels to five or more antigens experiencing a clinical episode, (17/119, 15%) P=0.0006. Particular combinations of antibodies (AMA1, MSP-2, MSP-3) were more strongly predictive of protection than others. The results were validated in a larger, separate case-control study whose end-point was malaria severe enough to warrant hospital admission (n=38). I found little evidence that allele-specific antibodies conferred protection against clinical episodes associated with parasites bearing homologous alleles. These findings suggest that under natural exposure, immunity to malaria may result from high titre antibodies to multiple antigenic targets and support the idea of testing combination blood stage vaccines optimized to induce similar antibody profiles.

HIV/AIDS and older people : a case of Nairobi city slums, Kenya

Author: Langat, G.C

Awarding University: University of Southampton, England

Level :

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; HIV infection ; AIDS (Disease) ; Older people ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Microcosms of democracy : Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and their impact on political attitudes and behaviour in Kenya.

Author: Liston, V

Awarding University: Trinity College Dublin, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Political science ; Democracy ; Nongovernmental organizations ; Political behavior ;

Abstract:

This study contributes to the general question of whether the democratic functioning of civil society organisations is a necessary condition for building a democratic political culture. Specifically, it empirically tests the effect of internal governance structures of non-governmental organisations in Kenya on employees? political attitudes and behaviour. Current literature is characterised by a debate on the contribution of civil society to democratisation (Diamond, 1999; Bratton & de Walle, 1997; Dicklitch, 1998; Nzomo, 2003; Chabal and Daloz, 1999; Orvis, 2001; Murunga, 2000; Kinyanga, 2003) as well as the role of democracy ?all the way down; in achieving democratic consolidation (Rosenblum, 2002; Shapiro, 1999). Whereas the pluralist school holds that a proliferation of associational organisations is necessary for a democratic society other authors argue that these organisations will only contribute to democratisation if they themselves practice internal democracy. This dissertation empirically tests two questions. Firstly, do experiences of democracy result in internalisation of democratic values and behaviours and secondly, do these values and behaviours transmit to networks and other organisations? The study is conducted among 159 employees of 36 international and pan-African NGOs in Kenya. It finds that, contrary to the assumptions of the development paradigm, democratic values do not transmit as a result of democratic experiences. It finds that higher levels of political behaviour are attributed to ethnic sentiment and resistance to political discussion within the family. There is no evidence, however, that this political behaviour is targeted towards democratic goals. In summary, findings suggest that experiences of micro-level democracy do not contribute to the acquisition of democratic attitudes or transmission behaviour as postulated by civic culture theory.

Pragmatic theory applied to Christian mission in Africa : with special reference to Luo responses to Bad in Gem, Kenya.

Author: Harries, J.O

Awarding University: University of Birmingham, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Theology/Missionaries/Luo (African people)/Christianity/Gem, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE