635 Records out of 22207 Records

The politics and administration of agricultural development in Kenya : the Kenya Tea Development Authority

Author: Steeves, Jeffrey Sayre

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 19975

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Politics/Agricultural economics/Kenya Tea Development Authority/ ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Tea Development Authority is one of the most successful agricultural development programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike re-settlement schemes such as the Gezira in the Sudan or the ujaama villages in Tanzania, the Authority has introduced a new cash crop among widely scattered small farmers within the former African Reserves of Kenya. Its achievement seems even more remarkable in that it has introduced a technically demanding estate crop as a viable smallholder enterprise. Utilizing an integrated approach to agricultural development, that is, the provision of a wide range of services for the farmer within one institutional framework, the Authority has staked a leading position within the world tea industry. The central reason for this success has been the institution's early ability to generate local enthusiasm for tea-growing and a system of tight central control. The first can be traced to a credit system which offered credit in kind and on terms sufficient to allow all strata within the farming community to participate in the programme. The second is due to a system of close field supervision with strong links to the central offices. Over time, however, for financial reasons the K.T.D.A. found it necessary to restrict and then eliminate credit; this led to a fundamental challenge to the Authority's structured system of control. It was found that the ability of the institution to plan, direct and implement its policies depended directly on the participation of all strata of the farming community. This study identifies the strata which were relevant to the tea programme and their significance for central goals. The research was undertaken in Kenya during 1970 and 19]1 a particularly interesting period for it was during this time that the full effects of the elimination of credit were being felt. The author spent six months studying the central offices of the Authority and in addition lived in each of Nyeri, Meru, Murang'a, Kericho, Kisii and Kakamega Districts for a minimum period of one month conducting interviews and analyzing documentary materials. Documents pertaining to the other t ea-gr-owfng districts were also analyzed in combination with follow .?.. up interviews in the core districts. The research findings reveal the complexi~y of the agricultural community, The credit revisions of the 1960's and the field reaction illustrate the importance of the strata divisions within the farming community. The full effects of the exclusion of lower strata farmers from formal and legal participation led to aq alliance between lower strata farmers and lower field staff. This alliance directly threatened central control. The study has, therefore, direct relevance to public policy formation and development efforts related to rural Kenya. The major conclusions can be stated as follows: A.Implementation of integrated agricultural development programmes requires control. B. Control depends on an organization establishing its legitimacy within the total farming community. C. The legitimacy of the organization is directly tied to the participation of all strata levels on a continuing basis in the programme of development. Thus, implementation can only be realized by the inclusion of all strata at terms and on conditions which they can meet,

Shadow education system demand private supplementary tuition in public secondary school in municipality Division, Kakamega south District

Author: Jumba, Walter Lugano

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Kakamega south District/Public schools/Secondary schools/Tuition/Privatization/ ;

Abstract:

This study investigated the factors that influence demand and practice of private supplementary tuition in public secondary schools in Municipality Division, Kakamega South District. The descriptive survey design was used and data collected using questionnaires and an interview schedule. The population consisted of 4 public secondary schools. Sample used in this study comprised of 4 principals, 170 students and 32 teachers making a total of 206 respondents. Data analysis was based on the research questions and hypotheses and responses in the questionnaire tabulated, coded, processed and analysed using of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme and presented in tables, graphs and pie charts. The raw data obtained from the questionnaires was coded and scored appropriately. The means, standard deviations, Skewness and kurtosis were computed for all scores and the z-test at 0.05 level of significance used to test the hypotheses on the study. The Chi-Square, test for goodness of fit for one way classification was used to test the null hypothesis (HoS) involving teachers job satisfaction at 0.01 level of significance in the likert scale The responses on open-ended questions and interview were reported by descriptive narrative. The findings indicate that there is high demand and practice of private supplementary tuition in Municipality Division of Kakamega South District. The study revealed that there was significant relationship between household factors, school-based factors, private rates of returns to education, students' attributes, teachers' job satisfaction and economic factors and demand for private supplementary tuition in the study area. The study revealed that provision of extra tuition is faced by problems such as poor payment extra tuition fees, absenteeism among students during extra tuition, lack of knowledge and understanding by stakeholders, shoddy job by teachers and students during these sessions, difficulty in motivating teachers, principals not being empowered to supervise teachers during extra tuition sessions and principals lacking powers to plan and direct teachers to work In light of the findings of the study, the study recommends that parents and teachers should ensure that all students attend extra tuition sessions thus curbing absenteeism, extra tuition should be provided free and if possible be subsidised by the government, parents should be sensitised on the need to help students study on their own and that teachers should be properly rewarded during normal school teaching as well as be reprimanded in case they deliberately did not perform to the required standards. The study also recommends that extra tuition fees should be detached from the normal school fees payment as way of ensuring equal participation, the government should not have imposed a blanket ban in extra tuition in schools since not all schools are well endowed in terms of infrastructure, personnel and facilities, the topic scopes of subjects in the curriculum should be reduced as they were very wide and that sciences and mathematics should be given more lessons and balance the number of lessons for humanities. The study finally suggests a similar research to be conducted using a larger population of public secondary schools in the whole of Kakamega South District as well as countrywide in order to elicit a more accurate and representative perspective on factors influencing demand and practice of private supplementary tuition and a similar study be carried out incorporating private schools so that comprehensive issues of private supplementary tuition can be identified.

Socio-economic influence on KCPE performance : a case of Westlands Division, 2003-2007, Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Barreh, Marieanne Akoth

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Socioeconomic factors ; Kenya Certificate of Primary Education ; Westlands Division ; Academic achievement ;

Abstract:

Education is fundamental to enhance the quality of human life and ensuring social and economic progress. Despite the free primary education in Kenya children arc seldom able to proceed beyond the first few years of schooling. Their relatively poor school performance may have nothing to do with a lack of cognitive abilities. The researcher therefore sought to investigate the socio- economic factors influencing their performance in KCPE in Westlands Division ( Nairobi) The Purpose of the study was to determine the socio-economic factors influencing K.C.P.E performance in Westlands Division in Nairobi specifically soughting to achieve the following objectives (i) To determine KCPE performance in Westlands from 2003-2007. (ii) To determine socio-economic factors influencing KCPE performance. (iii) To determine strategies for improving KCPE performance in Westlands Division. Literature was reviewed to the study under areas such as:- global stratification characteristics of low socio-economic individuals, low economic status, child labour, gender gap, disease burden, crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenyan situation, westlands situation, importance of education and nature of family background. This revealed the need to conduct this study as the KCrE performance in the division has been wanting. The study covered Westlands Division which has twenty five schools. Data was collected from five schools which represented twenty percent of the population. Instruments used in data collection included questionnaires for both teachers and students. The study used descriptive research design. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study was carried out in Westlands Divisions Nairobi focusing on the pupils, teachers and headteachers serving in the district. A sample of 25 pupils, 30 teachers and 5 headteachers were selected to take part in the study. The study employed a questionnaire for data collection, descriptive statistics, frequency means and percentage were used to analyze the data. The study established that socio-economic factors influence KCPE performance in Westlands Division. Though teachers work so hard to support students, parents failure to buy extra materials, support tuition, both parents and pupils are considered to have negative attitude. This is all due tosocioeconomic status of parents which impacts negatively on performance. The study recommends that there is need for the stakeholder, the Government, Ministry of Education and the community (parents and teachers) to address the socio-economic factor and its impact on K.C.P.E performance.

Sheng : the mixed language of Nairobi

Author: Rudd, Philip W

Awarding University: Ball State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Sheng language/Nairobi, Kenya/Language policy ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this dissertation is to determine whether Sheng, a language spoken in the Eastlands area of Nairobi, Kenya, is a mixed language (incorporating Swahili, English and local vernaculars). The study focuses on the lexicon and morphosyntax, but social factors are examined as well. Three broad research questions are addressed: (1) Does Sheng have a core vocabulary separate from that of Swahili? (2) How do the system morphemes of Sheng compare with those of Swahili? And (3) in what manner does Sheng provide its speakers a new identity? With respect to question one, the core lexicon, like Russenorsk's, Trio-Ndjuka's and Michif's, manifests a nearly fifty-fifty split in Sheng (52% Swahili; 48% other), making it a mixed language lexically. As for question two, the analysis reveals that Sheng has a composite morphosyntax. No object or relative affixes are marked on the verb. Predicate-argument structure from English has provided a null relativizer. The aerial feature imperfective suffix -a(n)g- is preferred 68% of the time. Noun classes show convergence leveling. The marker ma- serves as the generic plural. The diminutive markers, (ka-, tu-), constitute a complete non-Swahili subsystem. Consequently, Sheng is also a mixed language morpho syntactically. In reference to question three, a negative correlation exists between competence in Sheng and income and housing. Though the affluent display a negative attitude toward Sheng, they agree with the lower socio-economic groups that Sheng has a communicative utility in metropolitan Kenya. A comparison of the usage in the different residential areas establishes that community-wide grammatical norms (i.e., stability) exist in Sheng. Over two decades without institutional support for Swahili provided a niche in which Sheng, a non-standard language variety, flourished and a new urban identity emerged. Eastlanders walk a linguistic tightrope, balancing between the labels mshamba ('rube') and Mswahili (,slick talker'). However, Sheng provides a sociolinguistic embodiment symbolizing what nuances their existence. Over time, speakers formed a new identity group, whose language was initially 'off target' (1899-1963) but subsequently became deliberate postcolonially. Finally, the name of the language itself (Sheng < LiSheng < lish-eng < English) results from and is symbolic of this social transformation.

Investigation into school related factors influencing girls' Mathematics performance in mixed secondary schools in Kobujoi Division, Nandi South District, Kenya

Author: Rotich, Paul Kiplagat

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Girls/Educational evaluation/Mathematics education/Secondary schools/Kobujoi Division, Nandi South District ;

Abstract:

The critical problem in this study was that despite the crucial role mathematics education plays in promoting scientific and technological development, girls' performance in the subject as compared to boys (especially in mixed schools) had been quite dismal. It is for this reason that the purpose of the study was to investigate the school related factors influencing girl's performance in mathematics in mixed secondary schools in Kobujoi Division, Nandi South District. To achieve the objectives of the study, the study examined factors such as attitudes held by teachers and students in Mathematics, teaching - learning resources, KCPE performance, role models, and teachers' qualifications. The study targeted all the ten mixed secondary schools in the Division; ten head teachers, twenty mathematics teachers, all girls in forms three and four totaling 360. Stratified sampling technique was used to pick four mixed secondary schools basing on their boarding status (boarding, day & boarding, day). Within the sampled schools, purposive sampling technique was used to pick head teachers, forms three and four mathematics teachers and students (girls). Simple random sampling technique (balloting) was used to pick girls from forms three and four making 10 per class. Thus, the sample selection was made up of 80 students, 8 teachers, and 4 head teachers, all totaling 92 respondents. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Data were collected using Mathematics' Performance questionnaires for head teachers, teachers and students. Pilot study was done to test the reliability of the instruments using test - retest method. Content Validity was determined by a panel of professionals because it is a non-statistical method used to determine the degree to which the sample of the test represents the content the test is designed to measure. Content validity was used because the method is simple since it does not involve use of calculations, thus the evaluator appraises of what the content of the test measures. Data were analyzed using SPSS and results presented in the form of tables, frequencies, charts and graphs. Among the main fmdings obtained were that the girls' negative attitude towards mathematics as a subject was a major factor contributing to the girls' poor performance in the subject. Majority of the students indicated that they had access to mathematics textbooks which they mainly used to answer questions. The head teachers acknowledged that the students lacked a wide variety of resources to facilitate more effective teaching/learning of Mathematics. The results of the study however showed that availability of such resources was not specific to impacting negatively on the girls' performance in mathematics. Also noted was the lack of role models within these schools from which the girls could emulate and thus strive for better grades in the subject. The study recommended that, to address negative attitude towards mathematics, the schools needed to strengthen guidance and counseling among the girls. In addition, female professionals from fields such as engineering. architecture. medicine etc ought to be invited more frequently to talk to the girls. Also schools needed to pool resources to make available good quality and adequate learning materials for mathematics teaching and learning. The study concluded that schools track the girls' performance right from the time they join form one so as to provide specific and timely interventions to prevent the poor performance experienced in mathematics.

A case of study of the indirect costs of free primary education and its impact to the achievement of universal free primary education in Matungulu Division, Machakos District

Author: Wambua, Julia Mwelu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: School finance/Primary education/Free primary education/Qualified tuition programmes/Matungulu Division, Machakos District ;

Abstract:

The thrust of this T~::;eMch p1:~)ect. wal:'. an investigation into the hidden costs embedded in the current Free Primary Education and their implication in the implementation process of this programme in public primary schools; a case study of Matungulu Division in Machakos District. In the reviewed literature, it has been that education is a human right; therefore elementary education should be free and compulsory. However, in the developing countries, it has been a hurdle to meet these basic requirements. In the Kenya, Free Primary Education Policy was enacted in January 2003 and its implementation was a landmark policy decision by the government of the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC). The country's budget increased by 17.4 % to a soaring 79.4 billion with 5.6 billion being allocated to the Free Primary (FPE). Despite this budgetary allocation to FPE programme, there still exists financial loophole, which the parents of the primary school going children have to seal for efficient and effective educational system. The objectives of the study were to:- 1. To establish the indirect costs embedded in the FPE programme to parents. 2. To investigate the availability and adequacy of physical facilities in the face of increased enrolment. 3. To find out the hidden costs parents incurred in the FPE Programme. 4. Examine the effect of the hidden costs on pupils' performance. 5. Investigate whether the rate of pupil attendance to school can be attributed to the effect of the hidden costs ofFPE. The study used the descriptive survey research design. To find out the hidden costs ofFPE and their implication in the implementation of the FPE, a guided questionnaire for head teachers was used. An interview schedule for the parents was used to complement and compare data solicited through the questionnaire and to probe for in-depth information from those directly affected by the hidden costs of Free Primary Education; the parents. The observation schedule was used to check the physical infrastructure and the amenities in the school. Out of the seventy five public primary schools in Matungulu Division, fifteen of them were sampled out using the simple random sampling technique. This is well above the ten percent minimum that constitutes a sample in a descriptive study (Gay, 1987). The same technique was used to select sixty parents from the fifteen school, two parents of standard eight and two parents of standard one of every school who are members of P. T.A in each of the selected schools. All these sixty parents of the fifteen schools sampled out were interviewed. The descriptive statistics involving frequencies, percentages pie c harts and histograms were used to analyze the data. The result helped the researcher to come up with conclusions and percentages. The study established that the FPE programme has not catered for educational essentials such as school uniform, desks and school furniture, construction of additional classrooms, transport fees for the commuting pupils and has not catered fully for the feeding programme- the lunch programme. These were some of the hidden costs of FPE, which the parents had to cater for financially. The study established that there was inadequate teaching and learning facilities such as exercise books, textbooks, stationery(writing material sO and thus there is an overwhelming need for physical facilities, learning resources and land for extension of additional classrooms since enrolment is a continuous phenomena. The study concluded and recommended that:- i) More money should be disbursed by the government to enhance free primary education ii) The government should ensure that the funds are disbursed to cater for all pupils' educational needs. iii) The spirit of Harambee should be revived with the politicians being in the steering committee in mobilizing the school community in raising funds to supplement the already inadequate FPE funds. The study also identified the following areas for f

Adolescence behavioural problems faced by school administrators in public boys' boarding secondary schools in Kirinyaga District, Kenya

Author: Wang'ombe, Ann Njeri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Behavior/Adolescents USE Teenagers/Teenagers/School administration/Public Schools/Secondary schools/ Kirinyaga District ;

Abstract:

As a transition stage of human development, adolescence is the period in which a child matures into adulthood. It is a time when great physical, educational and social changes take place in a person. Students fall victims of indiscipline as they go through this stage. The study elicits information on adolescence behavioural problems amongst students in public boys boarding secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate adolescence behavioural problems faced by school administrators in public boys' secondary schools in Kirinyaga District. The choice of Kirinyaga District was intrigued by the rising indiscipline cases found in the district as well as easy access to the schools which reduces impediments associated with distance coverage. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. Literature review dealt with the concept of the term adolescence, types of adolescence behavioural problems, causes of these problems in public boys boarding secondary schools and methods used by the school administrators in handling them The study employed a descriptive survey. The sample consisted of 7 deputy headteachers and 96 teachers. The study used validated questionnaires from deputy headteachers and teachers. Data was analyzed using SPSS software for Microsoft Windows from which percentages and frequencies were used to answer the research questions. Data was presented in form of tables. The findings revealed that schools encountered adolescence behavioural problems which included boy/girl relationship, drug abuse, and time management problems, recurrent problems in completing assignments, domestic problems, pornographic literature, excessive worry and frequent nervousness. The adolescence behavioural problems encountered were rated as moderately alarming by the teachers. It was also revealed that the major causes of these problems were peer influence, large students' population, lack of enough parental involvement in the students' affairs in school, family background, and the students' stage of adolescence, parents siding with their children even when they were on the wrong, lack of sufficient training among the school administrators and some teachers not cooperating with the school administrators in handling behavioural problems. Inadequate personnel in the school was also rated as a cause of adolescence behavioural problems. The study also found out that the school administrators used various methods in handling the adolescence behavioural problems. These included guidance and counseling, punishment, involving parents in the matters of disciplining the students, withdrawal of privileges and expulsion. The study also found out that the school administrators namely the deputy headteachers were not all adequately prepared in handling adolescence behavioural problems. It was found out that there was need for training on the area of handling adolescence behavioural problems in public secondary schools. From the fmdings of the study, it was concluded that schools encountered adolescence behavioural problems. It was also concluded that these adolescence problems were caused by factors such as peer influence, school related factors also be a national study which should look at adolescence problems in educational management.

Constraints encountered by headteachers in inplementing free primary education (FPE) in Kiambaa Division of Kiambu east District, Kenya

Author: Stephen, Rachel Njoki

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Head teachers/Primary education/Free primary education/Qualified tuition programmes/Kiambaa Division, Kiambu East District ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate constraints encountered by headteachers in implementing Free Primary Education in Kiambaa Division of Kiambu East District, Kenya. Five research questions were formulated to guide the study. The literature reviewed on the background of FPE and factors that affect implementation of FPE which include; pupil-teacher ratio, provision of adequate physical facilities, adequate preparation and support for teachers through in-service training and provision of teaching and learning materials. The study employed descriptive survey design employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Data was collected from 23 headteachers by use of questionnaires and observation schedule. Findings revealed that schools had high enrollment of pupils. This had resulted to straining of physical facilities, increase in teacher pupil ratio which led to high workload, enrollment of underage and overage pupils leading to indiscipline and poor teacher pupil interaction. It was also revealed that all schools had high teacher pupil ratio. High teacher pupil ratio led to poor class control hence indiscipline, overworking the teachers which ultimately contributed to decline in standards of education. The findings showed that schools did not have adequate physical resources such as classrooms, desks, playgrounds and toilets to cater for the high number of pupils in the schools. Findings on the effect of teaching and learning resources showed that most schools did not have teaching and learning resources for proper implementation of FPE. It was also revealed that headteachers rated the implementation as not effective and there was a lot to be done. The study concluded that pupil enrollment; lack of physical facilities, teacher pupil ratio had hindered effective implementation of FPE. Based on the findings, it was recommended that headteachers as school administrators should be empowered by being . provided with the required facilities to effecti~y implement FPE. It was also recommended that the government should come up and assist in providing the necessary conditions such as providing teachers, providing the required facilities which will enhance effective implementation of Free Primary Education. Taking the limitations and delimitations of the study, it was suggested that a study on the effect of Government policy on proper implementation of Free Primary education should be conducted and a study on the role of parents in effective implementation of Free Primary education should also be conducted. Lastly, since the study was conducted in one division which is a rural set up, there is need to conduct a similar study in all the divisions in the country to establish the state of affairs in the implementation of free education.

Factors influencing access to secondary school education in Usigu Division Bondo District, Kenya

Author: Wanyonyi, Gladys

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Secondary education/Secondary schools/Usigu Division ,Bondo District ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing access to secondary school education. From a population of 7 secondary schools in Usigu Division, 4 schools were sampled ysing both stratified and simple random sampling to ensure that single sex schools as well as mixed boarding and day schools were equally represented. In the mixed boarding and day schools both stratified and simple random sampling was used to ensure that both boys and girls got equal representation. Using descriptive survey design, the study utilized two research instruments to collect data. A students' questionnaire was used to assess the students' household income, economic status, sex preferred for secondary education, family size by gender, family type and level of parents' / guardians' education. The headteachers' interview schedule was used to determine the level of student's enrolment by gender between 2004 and 2007. It was also used to identify the percentage of both total and partial orphansamong students enrolled in 2007. The headteachers' interview schedule was further used to find out some reasons given by parents I guardians who had difficulties in payment of school fees. Effort was made to identify any external strategies put in place to aid the needy students. The data collected was coded and entered in the special programme for social sciences package. Chi-square was utilized to explore relationships between variables of interest. Data was summarized using line graphs and simple tables. From the findings, household income has a direct bearing on accessibility to secondary school education. Households with sufficient income of the household heads enroll their children for secondary education with ease. Equally, the family background has effects on which gender accesses secondary education. In case of insufficient funds, household heads who have attained secondary and higher levels of education, prefer to have a girl child access secondary education as compared to a household head with basic level of education who prefers the boy child to access secondary education. On the other hand, the family size is not a major factor that influences access to secondary education. Families who had a relatively large number of children in the secondary school going age bracket of 14-18 years, had all of them enrolled for secondary school education at the time of the study. Some students in the vulnerable group access secondary education through the assistance from constituency development funds and non-governmental sponsorship. The researcher recommends that, in addition to the current policy where day secondary schools are targeted for expansion, the government and school managers should consider setting up education insurance for the vulnerable group for their upkeep once they are enrol1ed in either boarding schools or day schools.

The prevalence and preventive measures of drug and substance abuse among secondary school adolescents within Ruiru Division of Thika District

Author: Kiiru, Rose

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Drug abuse/Teenagers/Secondary school students/Ruiru Division, Thika District/ ;

Abstract:

Drug and substance abuse is one of the most risk-taking behaviours during the adolescence period. The media has been replete with stories of adolescents caught with alcohol and drugs either in the school compounds or in towns during education activities like sports and drama. It is the role of all concerned to seek ways of dealing with the problem of alcohol and drug use in our secondary schools. This study sought to find out the extent to which adolescents in Thika District abuse drugs, and find out the personality characteristics that predict drug-/substance abuse. The study determined the influence of locus of control on drug and substance abuse among secondary school adolescents. The specific objectives of the study were to: 1) determine the prevalence of drug and substance abuse among secondary school adolescents in Thika District, 2) identify the types of drugs and substances abused by adolescents within Thika District secondary school. 3) establish the locus of control of secondary school adolescents in Thika District, 4 ) establish the relationship between adolescents' locus of control and drug and substance abuse, and 5) find out whether there are gender differences in drug and substance abuse. The study employed cross sectional study design, targeting 200 adolescents selected from 10 secondary schools in Ruiru division of Thika District. However, 10 adolescents did not return their questionnaires, and therefore data analysis was based on responses from 190 adolescents, which is a questionnaire return rate of 95%. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequency counts and percentages. The study established that 112 out of 190 adolescents were abusing various drugs. Majority (59.5%) of the adolescents had internal locus of control. Those adolescents who confessed to have abused drugs had experimented on a number of d:rugsI~ including alcohol (56.3%), cigarettes (46.8%), miraa (23.2%), kuber (13.2%), bhang (38.~;O), tap tap (8.4%), cocaine (3.7%) and heroine. All the 190 adolescents agreed that there were adolescents in their schools who abused drugs. The most commonly abused drugs were alcohol (91.1%), cigarettes (60%), bhang (64.2%), miraa (34.2%) and kuber-tobacco (26.8%). The adolescents who abused drugs accessed them from adolescents who peddle drugs (14.2%), buying from neighbouring community (37.9%), sneaking them to school when reopening (45.8%), buying them during school outings (8.4%), and buying from subordinate staff (1.1 %). Those adolescents who abused drugs were influenced by various factors, including peer pressure (54.2%), family members (9.5%), and stress (16.3%), the need to feel high (12.6%), liking the habit (13.2%), and gaining courage to approach girls (1.6%). More boys than girls abused drugs, and adolescents with an external locus of control tended to abuse drugs more than internals. It emerges from these study findings that drug /substance abuse is quite rampant in secondary schools, with boys being the most affected. Efforts need to be put by all concerned to curb drug and substance abuse among adolescents. It is important for counsellors to devise ways to deal with the problem of drug and substance abuse. Preventive counselling programs need to be designed targeting secondary school adolescents, as well as those out of school. The study found out that majority of those who abused drugs had external locus of control This finding can be used by counsellors in designing preventive progranmes. For instance, progrannnes could be designed to offer assertiveness training to adolescents, and to equip them with necessary knowledge to enable them make rational decisions in life.