311 Records out of 22207 Records

Analysis of market performance : case of integration among selected tea trade centres

Author: Kamau, E M

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ;

Subject Terms: Tea trade/Kenya Tea Development Agency/Mombasa auction/Prices/ ;

Abstract:

Smallholder tea production in Kenya under Kenya Tea Development agency (KTDA) is a source of livelihood for many people throughout the production chain. Over 85% of the produce is exported and price determined through the Mombasa Auction. Mombasa Auction is one of the three major black tea auction centres in the world. The livelihoods of many Kenyans are dependent on the tea prices at the Mombasa auctions. This study was carried out on temporal price relationships for the different primary tea grades at Mombasa black tea auction from 1998 to 2006. It also analysed integration among Mombasa, Colombo and Calcutta black tea auctions so as to establish the causal relationships which are useful for price forecast that can reduce the level of uncertainty that faces the smallholder tea producers as far as proceeds from tea are concerned. Temporal price analysis was done for the Mombasa market followed by spatial integration tests for all the markets to estimate price forecasting models for the Mombasa market. The study shows that the prices for all the tea grades are on decline, though at varying rates. The findings of the study indicate that the grade BPI exhibit the most consistent cycles lasting between six months and one year. Spatial integration analyses indicate that Mombasa and Colombo exhibit long-run market integration. From the findings of this study, farmers should not be encouraged to expand area under tea, as this will further depress prices. The stakeholders in the smallholder tea sector in Kenya should put in place strategies to boost Mombasa auction prices through either reducing the supply to the auction, or increasing the demand. This will entail strategies like value addition, and exploring non-traditional tea markets.

The influence of community based participatory monitoring and evaluation in environmental conservation : the case of Homa Bay District, Kenya

Author: Oduwo, Alsen Otieno

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Environment ; Conservation ; Homa Bay District ; Community action ;

Abstract:

Environmental degradation arising from deforestation and the resultant problems have become issues of global concern. In Kenya, environmental degradation problems have persisted, leading to food insecurity amongst many communities. Community-Based Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (CB-PM&E) is a process of collaborative problem solving through the generation and use of local and external knowledge that leads to corrective action by involving all levels of stakeholders in shared decision-making. This process is being incorporated in environmental and agricultural research on the premise that it leads to adoption of new practices by farmers, researchers and extension workers. However, there is no empirical evidence to show that CB-PM&E has benefits to farmers, researchers and extension workers. The broad objective of this study was to determine the influence of CB-PM&E in environmental conservation by farmers in Homa Bay district Kenya. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The target population was 220 farmers involved in farmer participatory research in Homa Bay district. A purposive sample of 120 was drawn proportionately from 6 groups, 3 of which were involved in CB~PM&E while the other 3 were not involved. Data was collected using focus group discussions and structured interview schedules. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and frequencies as well as inferential statistics using Chi-square at 0.05 level of significance to compare the two categories of farmers studied. The results showed that CBPM&E had significant influence on farmers' empowerment; that CB-PM&E enhance accountability of research and extension workers to farmers and that CB-PM&E had significant influence on farmers' perceptions of benefits of CB-PM&E to be more than its costs., The results, however, showed that CB-PM&E did not influence farmers' knowledge and practise of soil and water conservation measures. The study recommends that CB-PM&E should be incorporated in all projects dealing with soil and water conservation and tree planting, more famers should be trained in CB-PM&E and the training should be long enough to allow the farmers to internalize the concepts, and that adequate resources should be allocated to make it possible for R&D institutions to implement the CB-PM&E process to the required standards. Recommendations of this study are of significance to farmers, extension agents, researchers and policy makers in influencing policies and practices that can contribute to improvement of environmental management in Kenya.

Influence of classroom interactions and environment on students' motivation to learn Physics among secondary school students in Kisumu city, Kenya

Author: Otieno, Noah O

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Motivation ; Students ; Physics ; Secondary school students ; Kisumu, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Physics is an essential part of the educational curriculum of any country that seeks technological advancement. For African countries to advance economically and technologically, the African nations need to develop a culture and supporting infrastructure of physics. During the official release of 2004 KCSE ,pxamination results in February 2005, the Kenyan minister of education pointed out that students were shunning physics, a subject that is critical for such courses as engineering at post high school institutions. The minister noted that in the same examination, there was a much lower enrolment for physics compared to biology and chemistry. Factors determining the students' motivation to learn mathematics had been previously studied with classroom-learning environment identified as significant among these factors. This study seeks to establish the influence of the physics classroom interactions and environment on students' motivation to learn physics in secondary schools in Kisumu City. The classroom interactions will be observed by the researcher during an on-going physics lesson with observations recorded .in the physics teacher observation schedule (PTOS) as table of frequency of occurrences of various levels of classroom interactions. The students' motivation to learn physics will be determined by the use of two other research instruments namely the physics students' questionnaire (STQ) and the physics teacher questionnaire (PTQ); both of which were validated by the science education specialists from the Department of Curriculum and Instruction of Egerton University, and piloted in the neighbouring Siaya District for reliability. The research design will be cross sectional survey. A sample of 324 students and 10 teachers will be drawn by simple random sampling from 1701 form two students and 41 teachers from Kisumu City's 18 secondary schools. The data will be analysed mainly by simple regression and by chi square (X2) at alpha = 0.05 level of significance. It is expected that the results of this study will provide necessary information on the measures that can be put in place in order to improve the students' motivation to learn physics within Kisumu City secondary schools and beyond. This would in tum improve the performance and enrolment in high school physics and physics related careers at post secondary institutions.

Economic analysis of indigenous small ruminant breeds in the pastoral system : a case of sheep and goats in Marsabit District, Kenya

Author: Omondi, Immaculate Akinyi

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; International Livestock Research Institute Library ;

Subject Terms: Sheep ; Goats ; Marsabit District ; Economics ; Pastoral systems ; Pastoralists ;

Abstract:

Small ruminants provide very important genetic resources that can be exploited for continued improvements of the livelihoods of poor livestock keepers in the pastoral production system, particularly in the developing country situation, Kenya being one of them. Though important, the motivation of livestock keepers to hold and maintain particular AnGR in conditions of decreasing animal genetic resource base is imperfectly understood. Consequently, in an endeavour to improve the livelihoods of resource-poor small ruminant livestock keepers, it is important to understand the underlying drive that motivates livestock keepers to keep and maintain particular AnGR. This can be achieved if producer responses in production that lead to either loss or conservation of these resources are sufficiently known. This study contributes to the existing knowledge gap by analysing the status of small ruminant breeds in the pastoral production system in Marsabit district of Kenya. Primary data, collected from livestock keepers using structured questionnaires, revealed that small ruminants contribute enormously towards livestock keepers' livelihoods, especially the poor, and subsequently, to conservation of the resource. The results obtained from multinomial logit models derived from stated choice data collected from 314 respondents in the semi-arid Marsabit district of Kenya reveal that disease resistance is the most highly valued trait whose resultant augmentation is a welfare improvement of up to KShs.3082 and 1480 for goats and sheep, respectively. In goats, drought tolerance and milk traits were found to be implicitly valued for up to KShs.2695 and 1163 respectively, while in sheep, drought tolerance and fat deposition traits were found to be implicitly valued at KShs.973 and 748 respectively. The study further revealed that improvement in milk trait in does, body size and disease resistance traits in bucks, and drought tolerance trait in both does and bucks will collectively improve the producers' welfare hence should be given priority. However, improvement in the reproduction and production ('overall body condition! meatiness' trait) potential of goats will be worthwhile only if issues concerning access to pasture and water resources are addressed prior and simultaneously. The results further point out that for livestock stakeholders to effectively improve the livelihoods of poor livestock-keepers, development strategies for improving the management and! or utilisation of small ruminant genetic resources in terms of drought tolerance in sheep, should not only be tailor made to target regions that are frequently devastated by drought but should also precede other strategies or efforts that would first lead to the improvement of producers' economic status.

Analysis of total HLA-G levels and its isoforms in placental malaria

Author: Muriira, Geoffrey Karau

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ;

Subject Terms: Plasmodium falciparum ; Malaria ; Immunology ;

Abstract:

The present study examined the total, membrane bound and soluble HLA-G in infected and uninfected placentas using quantitative real time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. The total HLA-G transcripts differed significantly (p = 0.009) between infected and uninfected primigravidae. The membrane bound HLA-G transcripts were significantly more abundant than the soluble HLA-G in infected placentas (p = 0.04) in all mothers. At the protein level infected placentas had higher mean levels of soluble HLA-G than uninfected and naive sera. Soluble HLA-G concentration differed significantly between infected and uninfected primigravidae with a p of 0.001. Immunohistochemistry study demonstrated intense staining 'of HLA-G in infected placentas, with localization of membrane bound HLA-G protein in the syncytiotrophoblasts and near immune cells, when compared to uninfected placentas. Soluble HLA-G localized in the intervillous spaces and in the lumen of the stroma of forming fetal blood vessels. Soluble HLAG concentrations m infected primigravidae and secundagravidae were negatively correlated to birth weight. Conversely, the concentration in infected multigravidae was positively correlated to birth weight and maternal age. Maternal age and the concentration of so rub le HLA-G correlated negatively in all parities in a physiological pregnancy. However, in infected primigravidae and multigravidae the maternal age and soluble HLA-G correlated positively. The findings of this study indicate that there are high levels of HLA-G in infected placentas from all parities compared to the uninfected placentas. However, the levels of HLA-G m infected primigravidae are significantly higher than in uninfected with p value of 0.001. These results shows that HLAG is involved in mediating anti-inflammatory response in P. falciparum infected placentas. The study findings suggest that interventions during pregnancy malaria should promote expression of HLA-G in the placenta to check down the effects of the inflammatory infiltrates in the P. falciparum infected placenta.

An analysis of labour turnover : causes and effects, a case study of Ministry of Labour and Human Resource Development, Kenya

Author: ii, Leonard K

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour relations/Employee turnover/Job satisfaction/Ministry of Labour amd Human Resource Development, Nairobi, Kenya/Job satisfaction/ ;

Abstract:

Labour turnover in nearly all organizations worldwide have raised great concerns. Rapid exit and entry of employees into an_ organization presents serious obstacles to organizations in achieving their organizational goals. Labour turnover should be analyzed in order to forecast future losses and to identify various reasons for people leaving the organization. Thus, the study sought to analyze labour turnover in the Ministry of Labour and Human Resource Development and to establish its causes and effects. The study adopted ex-post factor research design. It utilized the existing records of the employees who had left the organization to establish causes of their exit. The Ministry comprised of 1221 employees categorized into departments which they belonged and were randomly selected by sampling 10% of the total population in each department/Work station (field offices). Human resource officers were purposely included in the sampled population (They were custodian of personnel records). The instrument used in the study was pilot - tested to ascertain its reliability and was validated by educational experts. The study provided information for the managers of the Ministry, to be used in the curbing the high rate of labour turnover and re - engineering the working environment, enhancing level of job satisfaction of employees and to retain them in the organization. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires for Primary data, and document analysis for secondary data. Data was analyzed descriptively. Descriptive statistics involved the use of mean and percentages.

An analysis of the factors that influence investment choice at the Nairobi Stock Exchange : a case study of NSE stock brokers and dealers

Author: Gichana, J D

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi Stock Exchange ; Investment policy ; Investments ; Stock brokers ;

Abstract:

This study concentrated on investments in securities by NSE dealers and brokers. The main objective of this study was to identify and analyze the factors considered by dealers and stock brokers in making investments in securities at the NSE. Several scholars had identified different factors that determine the investment choices and stock prices. Ayieye (2004) identified profitability, risk, liquidity, dividends, returns, monetary and physical policies, industry factors and management and staff composition as the factors considered by individual investors when buying shares. Mugo (1999) also identified the factors considered by institutional investors as economic, industry and company related. These factors influence the supply and demand of investments and' thus their prices. The dealers and brokers mainly determine investments in stock. There is need therefore to determine what influences brokers and dealers in making investment choices thus the motivation of this study. The population of the study comprised of all the 10 registered and active stockbrokers and 11 NSE registered dealers. To facilitate and achieve the objectives of this study census was used to collect data from both dealers and brokers. The sample size comprised all 10 stockbrokers and all 11 registered dealers. Both primary and secondary data was used in the study. Primary data was collected by use of a semi-structured questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed and the findings of the study discussed. Discussions the findings from the categories of determinants or factors considered by stock brokers and investment dealers prior to making decisions on investing in securities centered on the following categories economic factors, company specific factors, government policy related factors, political and timing factors. The findings of the study indicated that the stock market's main intermediaries considered all variables investigated, but at varied preferences.

Economic analysis of smallholder agricultural production under conditions of risk : the case of Vihiga and Kilifi Districts in Kenya

Author: Kuyiah, J W

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; International Livestock Research Institute Library ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Vihiga District/Kilifi District/Socioeconomic factors/Agricultural economics/Risk/ ;

Abstract:

This study investigates how risk affects production decisions of smallholder farmers in Vihiga and Kilifi districts. t further explores the possibilities of raising farm production and income under existing conditions in the study sites. Knowledge of how these farmers make production decision under conditions of risk and uncertainly are important in the development of appropriate strategies necessary to drive agricultural intensification and development in the smallholder sector to match raising aggregate food demand. Gross margin analysis is done to establish the relative competitiveness of key enterprises and efficiency of resources use on the enterprises and efficiency of resource use on the surveyed farms. Coefficients of variation of yields, price and gross margins of the various enterprises are estimated to give an indication of the risks associated with the production of these enterprises. Linear programming analysis is used to identify optimal farm plans feasible with the given set of farm resources endowments and constraints. MOTAD analysis is done to generate a feasible set of risk-efficient farm plans that can be used as a guide to minimize production risks at farm level. Results indicate that the presence of yield and price risks, coupled with the desire for food self-sufficiency lead to sub-optimal resource allocation at farm level. The findings also show that there is scope to increase farm income and reduce risks through investing in high-value crop and livestock enterprises. In the absence of credit and insurance, livestock and non-farm income may offer a viable alternative in risk mitigation and overall farm development. Cash constraints and small land sizes are the two most important factors that inhibit realization of higher farm incomes and optimal production at farm level. There is need for policies that spur investment in public infrastructure, rural financial markets, private investment, and support institutions to address the problems of high transaction costs to investors, and reduce risks faced by farmers.

Analysis of resource use in smallholder food crop production at River Njoro watershed, Kenya

Author: Murithi, Anthony Gikandi

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics ; Crops ; Prices ; Seeds ; Fertilizers ; Labour force ; Maize ; Beans ; Land use ; Njoro River, Kenya ; Farmers ; Nessuit, Kenya ; Ngata, Kenya ; Baruti, Kenya ; Kaptembwa, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This research explores how small-scale farmers in River Njoro Watershed in Kenya allocate resources to production of the main food crops in order to understand the underlying causes of enterprise productivity differentials. The River Njoro watershed stretches from the Mau forest to Lake Nakuru; it is part of the on-going research under the Sustainable Management of Watersheds (SUMAWA), Collaborative Research Support Programme (CRSP). The study was done in the five locations that fall within the watershed, namely: Nessuit, Njoro, Ngata, Baruti and Kaptembwa. A representative sample of 120 small scale farmers was studied. It was only possible to collect cross-sectional data during the study. The study basically used primary data, collected using a Schedule, which was administered to the sampled farmers using face-to-face interviews. A translog specification of production function and linear programming procedures were used to analyse the data. SAS and GAMS software's were used for the analysis. Results indicate that farmers in the study area allocated the biggest portion of their farms to Maize-bean intercrop and that Potatoes were not included in the optimal programme. The Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution among pairs of inputs and price elasticities of factor demands were computed. The results indicate that all the three enterprises are substitutes except in the Maize-bean intercrop, which are in the inelastic range. In the three enterprises seeds are very sensitive to their own price changes while land in maize-bean intercrop and labour in potato and wheat enterprises are sensitive to the changes in the prices of other inputs but least sensitive to their own prices. The results further indicate that the increase in prices of seeds, labour and fertilizers used in the Maize-bean intercrop is not favourable since it will trigger more land use. Policies should thus dwell on the increment of output without the expansion of land under cultivation.

Relationship between students' self-esteem and parental marital status among secondary school students in Gichugu Division, Kirinyaga District, Kenya

Author: Gitumu, Margeret Wanjiru

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; National Coiuncil for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Gichugu Division ; Kirinyaga District ; Secondary school students ; Parents and parenting ; Marriage ; Self esteem USE Self image ; Self image ;

Abstract:

In any society, the type of family is determined by parental marital status. This parental marital status determines the family environment in which the child is born and brought up. Thus, the family environment is likely to influence a child's self esteem. This is because a network of forces that include parental influence has been known to determine the level of self - esteem of children. In effect, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' self-esteem and parental marital status among secondary school students in Gichugu division. The study was a survey, which utilized causalcomparative research design. The total number of schools in the division was 21 and the form three students were the target population. In the 21 schools in the division, there was a total population of 1382 form three students. Out of this population, 306 students constituted the sample of this study. In order to get a representative number per school, proportional sampling was done. In selecting the required proportion per school, purposive, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire was pilot tested to establish its validity and reliability before being administered to the respondents. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to estimate the reliability. Reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained and this was considered acceptable for this study. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5 was used to aid in the data analysis. One major finding was that the students from two parent families had a higher level of self-esteem than students from single parent families. Following this major finding, it was recommended that guidance and counselling in secondary schools be enhanced to cater for the needs of such students. It was also recommended that the teacher training colleges equip the teachers on ways to enhance the students' self-esteem in an attempt to reach the students with low self-esteem in general and particularly those from single parent families.