175 Records out of 22207 Records

Bee diversity and some aspects of their ecological interactions with plants in a successional tropical community.

Author: Gikungu, Mary Wanjiku

Awarding University: Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn, Germany

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Bees ; Ecology ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Studies on Eastern African aloes : aspects of taxonomy, conservation and ethnobotany

Author: Wabuyele, Emily N

Awarding University: University of Oslo, Norway

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Flowers and plants/Aloes/Botany/ ;

Abstract:

This work had its main goal to promote the conservation and sustainable utilization of the genus Aloe in Eastern Africa in general and in Kenya in particular. Papers 11, IV and V concentrate on the more taxonomic aspects, with a focus on the maculate Aloe complex, the Aloe archeri complex and the Aloe secundiJlora complex, respectively. In all the three complexes, morphometric analyses were performed in addition to i) isozyme and phytochemical analyses (Paper 11) and ii) leaf surface micro-sculpture and AFLP analyses (Paper IV, Paper V).The assessment of taxonomic units in the maculate Aloe complex was based on morphological, phytochemical and isozyme data. Based on these analyses, the present delimitation of eight taxa recognized in Eastern Africa is not supported. It is concluded that Aloe macrocarpa Todaro and Aloe lateritia Engl. (including A. lateritia var. lateritia and A.lateritia var. graminicola (Reynolds) S. Carter) are conspecific, with the name A. macrocarpa having priority. Aloe wollastonii Rendle generally clusters together with the larger 'A.macrocarpa group'. However this taxon has a distinct distribution and ecology in the region and, accordingly, is recognized at the subspecies level, as A. macrocarpa Todora ssp. wollastonii (Rendle) Wabuyele. Aloe amudatensis and Aloe ellenbecki are also conspecific, the latter name having priority. The previous circumscription of Aloe duckeri Christian as presented by Carter (1 994) is upheld. The A. archeri complex consists of five taxa, namely A. archeri Lavranos emend. L.E. Newton, Aloe tugenensis L. E. Newton & Lavranos, A. rugosifolia M. G. Gilbert & Sebsebe, A. pustuligemma L. E. Newton and A.fLancombei L. E. Newton. Except for A. rugosifolia that occurs in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia, all taxa in this complex are endemic to Kenya. Given their restricted geographical distribution and morphological similarities,particularly the combination of a rough leaf surface the large imbricate bracts, it is postulated that these taxa form a natural group with close relationships amongst the taxa. On the basis of morphometry, leaf surface microsculpture and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) investigated in this study, the evidence endorses the recognition of A. rugosifolia, A. francombei and A. pustuligemma at species level. Aloe archeri and A. tugenensis are highly associated, befitting designation as subspecies of a single taxon. A new combination, Aloe archeri ssp. tugenensis (L. E. Newton & Lavranos) Wabuyele is proposed. The A. secundzjlora complex consists of taxa that are generally more widespread, occumng in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and Tanzania. These taxa are Aloe secundijlora Engl. var. secundzjlora, A.secundijlora var. sobolifera S. Carter, A. tweediae Christian, A.leachii Reynolds and A. brandhamii S. Carter. The taxonomic complex is defined on the basis of the distinctive secund habit of the flowers, a trait that has been observed in about twenty taxa, mainly found in Tropical Africa and none in Madagascar. Other affinities within the taxonomic complex include the possession of similar barbaloin-related compounds in the leaf sap. The evidence from morphometry, leaf micro-sculpture and AFLPs analysed in this study support close association within this complex. The recognition of A. brandhamii at species level is upheld; A. secundzjlora var. sobolifera is elevated to the rank of species, as A. sobolgera (S. Carter) Wabuyele stat. nov. The recognition of A. tweediea as a variety of A. secundzjlora is proposed and an initially unidentified population from Morogoro District of Tanzania, is recognised as a distinct entity, now described as a new species Aloe nordaliae Wabuyele sp. nov. Aloe leachii, so far recorded only in Tanzania, was not located in the field.In papers I, 111, and VI, conservation-focused aspects of the genus Aloe have been presented. Paper I presents an overview of the distribution and diversity patterns of the gen

East African middle stone age technology and the emergence of modern human behaviour

Author: Onjala, Isaya Oduor

Awarding University: University of Alberta, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Archaeology ; Paleontology ; Behavior ;

Abstract:

This dissertation is based on the philosophy that technology entrenches itself in the social and geographic landscape, and can be studied in order to shed light on past Behavior. Also, Middle Stone Age assemblages, dating between 300,000 and 30,000 years ago in sub-Saharan Africa, represent a well-preserved technological system containing behavioral patterns that can be used to answer questions on the emergence of modern human behavior. Literature on the origin and timing of modem human behavior does not always include the evidence h r n East Africa, due to limited research and information. Lithic technology reflects past behavior, and helps to understand when early humans became culturally modem. The objectives of this work were to identify technological patterns during the Middle Stone Age period; to find out whether or not there is variation between and within the Middle Stone Age assemblages studied; and to propose answers about the causes of this variation, and what they represent in behavioral terms. Data were collected from cores, flakes, and selected tools from five previously excavated Kenyan Middle Stone Age sites. Morphological and metrical data were collected from each artifact using a number of variables. Lastly, the data gathered were analyzed and interpreted in light of current debates and anthropological theories on the beginnings of modem behaviour. There was marked variation in Middle Stone Age assemblages, which could have been caused by a number of factors including environmental conditions, resource type and availability and choice of different reduction techniques and strategies of tool manufacture- Topological patterns reflect early stages of modern human behavior, with little standardization within the assemblages. These Middle Stone Age assemblages contain significant evidence of modem human behaviour which is reflected in raw material procurement, exchange patterns, adaptive behaviour, and mastery of craftsmanship. From these results, it seems that modem human behaviour evolved over time, and is manifest in developmental stages during the Middle Stone Age in several sites and assemblages from East Africa. This knowledge, built from the technological assessment, helps to explore aspects of the emergence of modem human behaviour in East Africa.

Late iron age economies of Mount Kenya region : a case study of Kiburu, Kangai and Kanyua archaeological sites.

Author: M'Mbogori, Freda Nkirote

Awarding University: University of Bergen, Norway

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ; British Institute in Eastern Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Iron Age ; Mount Kenya ; Archaeology ;

Abstract:

Earlier Iron Age investigations in Kenya concentrated on the Lake Victoria Basin and thecoast of Kenya, mainly focusing on origins and technological aspects of iron, with brief statements on economies. The pioneering work on Iron Age in the Mt. Kenya region was part of the British Institute of East Africa 'Bantu Studies Project' which was primarily established to conduct research related to Bantu speakers culture. During this project, both Kwale ware (a Bantu speakers pottery) and Gatung'ang'af'aore pottery (makers unknown) were found in the same archaeological contexts in both Mt. Kenya region and North eastern Tanzania. Although it could not be ascertained that the same cultural groups made Gatung'ang'a and Kwale ware,it was generally assumed that Gatung'ang'a ware is a pottery of Bantu speakers. This interpretation does not only have consequences on pottery chronology, and inhabitants of the region but also it has effectively obscured studies related to Iron Age economies of Mt. Kenya region since the economy of Bantu speakers is generally accepted as cultivation. I have demonstrated that, Gatung'ang'a pottery might not be a product of Bantu speakers using excavated archaeological materials from Kiburu, Kangai and Kanyua sites in Mt. Kenya region, and other Iron Age materials excavated earlier. In addition, I have used historical, oral and linguistic sources as complementary sources to indicate that Mt. Kenya region was occupied by communities that practiced both hunting and herding economies, and engaged in trade with the coast.I recommend that, in order to make more informed choices about the pottery and the economies of the Mt. Kenya region, further research and chronology of Mt. Kenya pottery should be established so that Gatung'ang'a pottery can be put in its rightful place. This will provide conclusive evidence on economies and inhabitants of the region. In addition, systematic surveys and excavations covering the 500-kilometer region between Mt. Kenya area and the coast would be an important contribution towards our understanding of early trade connection between the two regions.

Environment, chronology and resource exploitation of the pastoral neolithic in Tsavo, Kenya

Author: Wright, David K

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Chicago, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ; British Institute in Eastern Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Environment/Pastoralists/Tsavo, Kenya/Paleontology/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Systematics and ecology of Dracaena L. (Ruscaceae) in Central, East and Southern Africa.

Author: Mwachala, Geoffrey

Awarding University: University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Botany ; Ecology ; Flowers and plants ; Dracaena ; East Africa ;

Abstract:

Dracaena L. (Ruscaceae) is a predominantly African genus with a smaller centre of diversity in south-east Asia. The taxonomy of the 29 species occurring in Central, East and Southern Africa was revised through phenetic and phylogenetic analyses of the morphology as well as through herbarium, literature and field studies. An infrageneric classification is proposed, in which four sub-genera are recognised for the first time. A taxonomic account for the study area incorporating an identification key, distribution maps and an IUCN Red List assessment is presented. Analysis of Dracaena phytogeography reveals that the Guineo-Congolian centre of endemism is the richest with 21 species while the Maputaland-Pondoland regional mosaic and the Guinea-CongoliaISudania regional transition zone are the poorest, having only one species each. Investigation of the ecology of Dracaena in the Kakamega Forest,Kenya, shows that it plays an important role in the forest ecology and is an indicator of forest quality.

Analysis of the status of a mixed semi-arid woodland in response to charcoal production in Elangata Wuas, Kajiado District, Kenya.

Author: Oguna, Meshack Malo

Awarding University:

Level : MSc

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Ecology ; Trees ; Wood products ; Fuels ; Elangata Wuas, Kajiado District ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

An ecological study with special emphasis on invasive alien plants in Meru National Park, Kenya.

Author: Lusweti, Agnes Mukaba

Awarding University: Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

Level : MSc

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Ecology ; Flowers and plants ; Weeds ; Meru National Park, Kenya ;

Abstract:

In this study, the vegetation of Meru National Park, disturbances and Invasive Alien Plants were assessed. 383 species belonging to 65 families were recorded. Using classification and clustering techniques, at 0 9 dissimilarity ratio, four stable vegetation communities were delimited as; Acacia and ('omhretz~m wooded grasslands, Riverine vegetation, and Acacia-Commiphora bushland. After the rain season, a fifth community type, the Ground water forest,segregated from the C'ombretz~m wooded grassland community. Environmental characteristicsand soil chemical and physical factors were evaluated to explain vegetation variation.ANOVA, (P<0.05) indicated that all soil properties assessed were significantly different for all vegetation communities in both seasons Using Duncan's multiple range tests, it was established that TOC % and soil texture were the main segregating factors. Herbivory was the most prevalent form of disturbance. Levels of disturbance were higher in the dry season, and percentage bare area estimated was above 50%, compared to the wet season. Thirty-six (36)IAPs were recorded in the park, mostly near water bodies and in low densities. To determine vulnerability of the vegetation communities to invasion, Spearman's correlation coefficient r ,(rho) was calculated for the number and coverlabundance of I N S and diversity and coverlabundance of native species, disturbance level, bare area and altitude. Although favorable growing conditions seemed to play an important role, each community responded differently in both seasons. For MNP, an invasion is not imminent given the limited diversity and density of IAPs, unfavorable growing conditions most of the year and selection through herbivory Still, it is recommended to study the vegetation of Meru National park, effects of herbivores and outline the management of IAPs in the park's management plan.

Gazetting in Kenya : a comparison to American preservation strategies.

Author: Hart, Thomas G

Awarding University: Goucher College, USA

Level : MA

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Gazetting/Preservation/Historic artifacts/ ;

Abstract:

The pruclin of historic places in Kenya is called 'guetting' from the practice of publishing protected sites in the official Gazette(This thesis examines gazetting and compares this Kenyan rnodcl of historic preservation to that of the United States. The thesis hypothesis is stated as 'Current gazetting procedures are inadequate for the conservation of Kenya's heritage and would benefit From rnodifications using American models.' These chapters cover the Kenyan legislative, the bureaucratic process, the sites rand trends of actual dedications of' protection, objectives by owners, the American historic preservation model, analysis and recommendations. 'The methods used for asscnbfing this material including jews under taken with twenty-four Kenyan participants in the gazetting process. Newspaper archives, Gazetted records and legal texts, and the office sites of the National museums of Kenya were examined. Sites of problematic gazettementts were visited and photographed. Kenya's system is shown to be centralized and national, run by conservation professionals, and dependent on criminal penalties to protect heritage sites. The system is comprehensive in the African context and has done an excellent job with archeological sites and objects. Challenges facing the protection of Kenyan historic sites include lack of resources, bureaucratic inefficiency, corruption, lack of public awareness, weak involvement of local communities, and absence of economic incentives. In the last decade, however, The Kenyan system has shown itself less well adapted to the current trend to protect the historic built environment, particularly privately owned properties. Since American preservation is oriented toward such more recent and privately owned heritage, the thesis hypothesis has proven particularly true in dealing with current Kenyan concerns. Comparison to the U.S. shows the mericail'histori decentralized and local rather than centralized and national, based on incentives rather than penalties, and driven by economic realities rather than curatorial decisions. A series of recommendations urges greater local participation and economic incentives to make Kenyan historic preservation more appealing and widespread. With a new reform administration just elected, the time is righno revitalize Kenya's heritage protection regime with proven strategies from the U.S.

Review and development of environmental interpretation resources to foster environmental learning in two Kenyan schools.

Author: Atiti, Abel Barasa

Awarding University: Rhodes University, South Africa

Level : MA

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: National Museums of Kenya Library ;

Subject Terms: Environment ; Environmental education ; School administration ;

Abstract:

This participatory action research study involved a group of teachers in transforming school grounds into interpretation resources.Appraoced from a critical perspective; it challenged the conventional top down approaches to interpretation resources and materials development. Through a teacher centred approach, a school based ?botanic garden? and ?arboretum ?were developed at samaj and Kenya high respectively. Teachers were further actively engaged in developing a variety of interpretive materials that might engage learners in socially critical environmental education processes at the transformed sites. A process in which educators from five non-formal education organisations shared their skills and knowledge on environmental interpretation with teachers preceded the development of interpretation resources and materials. Drawing on labour (1999), I have applied the notion of mobilising interpretive capital when describing this process. Interpretive capital within the non-formal education sector was mobilised and made available through social interactions between teachers and non-formal educators. This occurred during workshops, organizational visits and critical reviews of a sample of interpretive materials. I provide insights into how the interpretive capital was mobilised and later drawn on by teachers during the development processes in their schools. This study argues that mobilising interpretive capital with teachers through partnerships can enhance transformation of school grounds to foster environmental learning. It shows how attempts to find solutions with teachers were made in response to pedagogical and curriculum tensions that arise around the implementation of environmental education processes in their schools. To provide orientation in environmental education process in schools, analyses of socially critical environmental education process are presented. I have viewed interpretation and environmental literacy and action competence. To explain this view, the notion of environmental interpretation and education processes has been applied and presented in this study. Finally, practical outcomes of the study on transformation of school grounds, improved education practice, enhanced professional competences amongst teachers, new interpretive materials in schools and the establishment of partnerships are examined