631 Records out of 22207 Records

Institutions for the production and marketing of African coffee growing in central Kenya, 1930s to 1960s

Author: Jung, Chan Do

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Coffee/Marketing/Industrial production/Central Kenya ;

Abstract:

Keywords: Coffee industry

Intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Gouvras, Anouk N

Awarding University: University of London, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, UK

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Schistosomiasis ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Regulation of urban water supply : the case of small-scale and independent providers in Ethiopia and Kenya

Author: Ayalew, M M

Awarding University: University of Surrey, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Kisumu ; Addis Ababa ; Water supply ; Water quality ;

Abstract:

As much as 50% of residents in urban centres across the developing world rely on what are referreed to in this research as small-scale and independent providers (SIPs). However, these providers are not accorded the protection and support which is given to official providers. They charge higher prices and the quality of water is very poor. No legal framework exists for regulating competition, price and quality of water provided by SIPs. This research investigates how legal frameworks for the regulation of SIPs can be established in the context of two case studies: Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), and Kisumu (Kenya). First, it examines whether there is a need to regulate the price and safety of water provided by the SIPs. It analyses this question within the normative framework of the public interest theory of regulation. It argues that there is a need for regulating the safety of water and for adopting regulatory and non-regulatory instruments to increase affordability of SIPs. This need is transformed into an obligation to regulate because of the right to water. The research also addresses the issue of how to effectively and appropriately regulate the safety of water provided by SIPs. SIPs are the micro enterprises of the water sector. Therefore, the propriety of regulating them might be questioned considering that regulation generally imposes heavier burden on small enterprises. However, instead of exempting SIPs from water safety regulations, the research argues for a ?differentiated regulation?. In addition, the sheer number of SIPs and their largely informal nature implies that a different model of regulation is needed, one that relies largely on collaboration and voluntary compliance.

Who cares for orphans? Challenges to kinship and morality in a Luo village in western Kenya.

Author: Cooper, E

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Orphans ; Luo (African people) ; Kinship ; Morality ; Western Kenya ; HIV (infection) ; AIDS (disease) ;

Abstract:

This dissertation analyses an ethnographic study of how people in a peri-urban, agricultural village in western Kenya have responded to the questions of who will care for children, and how, when those children?s parents, or other primary caregivers, have died. It examines the practical and ideological implications of wide-scale orphaning among a population that has experienced increased numbers and proportions of orphaned children mainly due to HIV/AIDS, as well as the gradual depletion of resources in terms of both the availability of middle-aged adults and the security of economic livelihoods. The research explores how specific caring relationships, as well as general sociality, have been challenged, adapted, and affirmed or rejected normatively and practically in this context. The research revealed a high degree of questioning in people?s efforts to forge responses to children?s orphaned situations. Rarely was there unambiguous consensus in the study context concerning what should be done in response to children?s orphanhood in light of families? diminished livelihood capacities. More broadly, there was a distinctive concern with how such situations might be appraised in moral terms. The analysis therefore focuses on three main concerns, including: how to understand uncertainty as a condition of life, and the implications of this; how a shared perspective of uncertainty has spurred a concern with morality in the study context, and specifically galvanised a moral economy of kinship; and how the concern with morality affected what was deemed at stake in people?s lives.

Partnerships for learning and innovation in agri-export industries : a case study of ?farmer-exporter? partnerships in Kenya?s flower industry

Author: Bolo, M. O

Awarding University: Open University, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Farmers ; Marketing ; Exports ; Flowers ; Partnerships ;

Abstract:

This study examines the role of partnerships, institutions and governance arrangements in building cut flower farmers? innovation capabilities. It interrogates whether partnerships between farmers (both small scale and large scale) with exporters contribute to building the farmers? capabilities; how the institutional (contractual versus non-contractual) and governance patterns (captive versus relational) influence the ability of such partnerships to enhance farmers? capabilities; and the role of other actors (research institutes, universities, regulatory agencies, input suppliers and NGOs) in supporting these partnership and contributing to building farmer capabilities. This focus was motivated by the declining performance of small scale farmers in Kenya and the fact that small scale farmers appear to be excluded from high value cut flower export business. Whereas this exclusion is often explained in terms of limited access to capital, infrastructure and stringent market standards and regulations, this thesis takes the view that (besides these factors) exclusion of small scale farmers results from choices that different actors make about enhancing farmers? capabilities to innovate, as well as the policy and institutional environment that underpins and reinforces such choices. The study follows largely a case study approach and employs different methods including structured surveys, in-depth interviews and ethnography. Our findings show that even though farmers? production capabilities have benefited from their partnerships with exporters, value addition capabilities have only improved modestly and remain a key challenge to small scale farmers. Similarly, marketing is dependent on knowledge and information passed on by the exporters. Secondly, the findings further show that interactions between farmers and R&D actors are undermined largely by the structural, cultural and operational procedures of the R&D institutes and universities.

Ethical challenges in collecting, using and sharing ethnicity-related data in genomics research in Africa : the case of the MalariaGEN Consortium

Author: de Vries, J

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Ethics ; Ethnicity ; Genomics ; Malaria ;

Abstract:

The objective of this thesis is to critically examine ethical challenges in the use of ethnic data in genomics research in Africa, with a particular focus on ethnic stigmatisation. This thesis aims to develop a more informed understanding of the nature and implications of ethnic stigmatisation for genomics research in Africa, through the lens of a current genomics research project in Africa, the MalariaGEN Consortium. I conducted a qualitative empirical study investigating the perspectives of a variety of stakeholders in MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted in The Gambia, Kenya, and the UK with members of research ethics committees, primarily investigators, fieldworkers and members of funding bodies. An analysis of MalariaGEN project documents was conducted to investigate the emergence of ethical concerns about the use of ethnicity in that project. I analysed data qualitatively using specialist software. Drawing on the data, I propose that ?harm? rather than ?stigma? may be a more accurate way of describing the challenge. Second, I propose that concerns about ethnic stigmatisation may at least in part be a response to the problematic history of using population categories in research. Third, I discuss the importance of clarifying how ethnicity is defined and why it is used in genomics research. Fourth, I argue that the potential for harm is accommodated in MalariaGEN in multiple implicit and explicit mechanisms that are not recognised when sharing project data. Fifth I argue that the potential for stigmatisation in genomics research may not be the result of intentional stigmatisation by malevolent actors, but rather the consequence of unintentional processes.

A socio-economic history of the Shifta conflict in Kenya, c. 1963-8

Author: Whittaker, Hannah Alice

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Minority and ethnic groups/Autonomy USE Sovereignty/Sovereignty/Independence movements/Shifta conflict ;

Abstract:

Conventionally regarded as a movement of militant Somali nationalism, this study makes an investigation of the underlying socio-economic dynamics of the 1963-8 shifta conflict in Kenya. Addressing root causes of violence at the local level, the work re-evaluates the significant of the Somali nation-building project to the course of the conflict in two important respects. First, we see how social and economic pressures at the local level, including location, occupation, and clan affiliation, determined support and opposition to secessionism. Individual recourse to violence is therefore placed within the context of a historical struggle for territory and space between various communities living on the periphery of the Kenyan state. As such, the shifta conflict is best conceptualised as a helix, where strands of a nationalist insurgency are intertwined with local level conflict over access to scarce water and pasture resources. Second, a detailed analysis of the Kenyan government?s counter-insurgency strategy reveals the significance of an internal Kenyan dispute between a newly independent state in the process of nation-building, and a group of frontier communities that were seen to defy the new order. The involvement of insurgents in organised livestock stealing as a social and economic necessity resulted in an official conflation between secessionism and pastoralism. Through this a crisis of legitimacy was created in northern Kenya, which was used by the state to criminalise pastoral practices based upon social and economic values that were deemed ?un-Kenyan?. This has contributed to a broader process of pastoral decline across the Horn of Africa.

Analyzing the sources and impact of segmentation in the banking sector : a case study of Kenya

Author: Upadhyaya, Radha

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Banks/Banking industry ;

Abstract:

This thesis seeks to make a contribution to the debate concerning the adoption of the language of empowerment and participation into Post-Washington Consensus development policy. Whilst it is acknowledged that the de-politicisation approach makes some valid contributions, it is argued that it suffers from a tendency to focus on the construction of development discourse. This has rather one-sidedly led to the conclusion that the concept of empowerment has been used as an instrument of subjection. It is argued that the transformation approach offers a more nuanced analysis of participatory development practices that seeks to identify the opportunities that exist for their re-politicisation. Accordingly, the concept of empowerment should instead be examined as part of an ongoing political struggle to construct meaning and to harness action towards progressive political goals. This thesis makes a theoretical contribution to this debate by extending and consolidating the transformation approach through neo-Gramscian theory. Through its analysis of Fair Trade in the Kenyan coffee industry, it provides further empirical substantiation for the transformation approach. Whilst acknowledging the limitations of the World Bank?s approach to empowerment, this research identifies the opportunities and possibilities that exist for reasserting an alternative approach to producer empowerment based on the more radical notions of critical consciousness and collective social action. Given the highly unequal power relations that characterise the global coffee industry, this supports the argument put forward by the transformation approach that participatory development needs to explicitly engage with the wider power structures and institutions that perpetuate exclusion and inequality.

Decaf empowerment? Post-Washington consensus development policy, Fair Trade and Kenya's coffee industry

Author: Pflaeger, Zoe A

Awarding University: University of Birmingham, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Coffee industry/Economic development/Employee empowerment ;

Abstract:

This thesis seeks to make a contribution to the debate concerning the adoption of the language of empowerment and participation into Post-Washington Consensus development policy. Whilst it is acknowledged that the de-politicisation approach makes some valid contributions, it is argued that it suffers from a tendency to focus on the construction of development discourse. This has rather one-sidedly led to the conclusion that the concept of empowerment has been used as an instrument of subjection. It is argued that the transformation approach offers a more nuanced analysis of participatory development practices that seeks to identify the opportunities that exist for their re-politicisation. Accordingly, the concept of empowerment should instead be examined as part of an ongoing political struggle to construct meaning and to harness action towards progressive political goals. This thesis makes a theoretical contribution to this debate by extending and consolidating the transformation approach through neo-Gramscian theory. Through its analysis of Fair Trade in the Kenyan coffee industry, it provides further empirical substantiation for the transformation approach. Whilst acknowledging the limitations of the World Bank?s approach to empowerment, this research identifies the opportunities and possibilities that exist for reasserting an alternative approach to producer empowerment based on the more radical notions of critical consciousness and collective social action. Given the highly unequal power relations that characterise the global coffee industry, this supports the argument put forward by the transformation approach that participatory development needs to explicitly engage with the wider power structures and institutions that perpetuate exclusion and inequality.

Seasonal prediction of African rainfall with a focus on Kenya

Author: Rourke, J M A

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Rain/Weather/Meteorology/Models/ ;

Abstract:

Africa's climate is prone to extended rainfall deficits. In extreme cases these may lead to droughts and humanitarian disasters. Skilful prediction of seasonal rainfall would bring sound humanitarian and economic benefit to the many African countries that depend on rain-fed agriculture. Seasonal rainfall hindcast skill from the DEMETER multi-model ensemble system is examined across Africa. Skill at 0-month lead is found to be weak over much of Africa, except for the August-October (ASO) season in the Sahel and the November-January (NDJ) season in equatorial East Africa, Nigeria and South Africa. For the ASO season, correlation values of 0.3-0.8 (p-values < 0.1) are found across the sub-Sahara belt. For the NDJ season, correlation values of 0.5-0.6 (p-values < 0.1) occur in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Innovative statistical seasonal rainfall hindcast models are developed for six homogeneous rainfall regions in Kenya, using linear regression techniques. Kenya has experienced seven severe droughts over the period 1991-2008 affecting over 35 million people. Lagged sea surface temperature and atmospheric wind predictors are selected based on having a significant and temporally stable correlation with regional rainfall indices, and a clear physical-linking mechanism. Moderate-to-high rainfall hindcast skill is found for most regions at 0- and 1-month leads for the October-December rainy season. In contrast, no robust predictors are found for the March-May rainy season. In 2009 an improved version of DEMETER, called EUROSIP, was released. This study is the first to assess the skill of the EUROSIP rainfall hindcasts for the Kenyan October-December rainy season and to compare this with the statistical model skill. For the most heavily populated and cultivated West and Southwest regions of Kenya, which are home to 68% of the Kenyan population, the statistical models outperform the EUROSIP model with correlation values = 0.42 (p-values = 0.06) over the common verification period 1987-2005.