631 Records out of 22207 Records

Socio-economic and livelihood impacts of environmentally supportive bio-enterprise development for the agro-pastoral communities in Samburu heartland, Kenya.

Author: Wren, S A

Awarding University: University of Plymouth, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Samburu, Kenya/Business enterprises/Agriculture/Pastoralism/Arid and semi-arid regions/Entrepreneurship/ ;

Abstract:

The question of agro/pastoral livelihoods adaptation is gaining attention in the rural development arena but little empirical evidence exists that has examined the performance and impact of diversified enterprises on agro/pastoral livelihood and the environment in the ASAL., and on how to effectively support such initiatives. Additionally, there has been little evaluation of the type of behavioural patterns that agro/pastoral communities need to evolve in order to engage in such initiatives. This research study endeavours to bridge this knowledge-gap and assist the ASAL communities, NGOs, CBOs and government departments to understand the skills and resources required to develop climate-resilient, environmentally and economically sustainable bio-enterprises. This study examines the roles of bio-enterprise initiatives in enabling agro/pastoralists to develop more resilient livelihoods and incentivising positive community-led natural resource management and draws on different bio-enterprise initiatives located across the drylands of Kenya. Data was collected through interviews, focus group discussions and from secondary data. The analysis of four agro/pastoral bio-enterprise initiatives compares the level of success of specifically orientated development-funded support schemes. A more in-depth study was made of one of the initiatives, the BDP. Two surveys were made one year apart and secondary data was collected of the BDP impact. This highlighted the probable factors that influence the communities? up-take of these bio-enterprises. Results show this diversification requires stakeholders and support-actors to gain a greater understanding of business development approaches. Other factors such as capacity development to ensure production meets market standards, strong linkages with ethical commercial operators, access to trade-finance and ongoing mentoring proved to be the main drivers of success in these initiatives. Results show the outputs of the BDP service-providing activities and the ethnical trade facilities have been a major factor in the level of success achieved by the BDP.

Spatial modelling, phytogeography and conservation in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya

Author: Platts, Philip

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Forests/Eastern Arc Mountains/Ecosystems/Climate change/Trees/ ;

Abstract:

Forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains are amongst the oldest and most biodiverse on Earth. They are a global priority for conservation and provide ecosystem services to millions of people. This thesis explores how spatial modelling can provide direction for conservation and botanical survey, and contribute to understanding of phytogeographical relationships. The ecoregion is rigorously defined by terrain complexity, vegetation distribution and established geoclimatic divisions, providing a coherent platform upon which to collate and monitor biological and socioeconomic information. Accordingly, 570 vascular plant taxa (species, subspecies and varieties) are found to be strictly endemic. The human population exceeds two million, with median density more than double the Tanzania average. Population pressure (accrued across the landscape) is shown to be greatest adjacent to the most floristically unique forests. Current knowledge on species distributions is subject to sampling bias, but could be systematically improved by iterative application of the bioclimatic models presented here, combined with targeted fieldwork. Tree data account for 80% of botanical records, but only 18% of endemic plant species; since conservation priorities differ by plant growth form, future fieldwork should aim to redress the balance. Concentrations of rare species correlate most strongly with moisture availability, whilst overall richness is better predicted by temperature gradients. Climate change impacts are projected to be highly variable, both across space and between species. Concordant with the theory that past climatic stability facilitated the accumulation of rare species, contemporary climates at sites of known endemic richness are least likely to be lost from dispersal-limiting mountain blocs during the 21st century. Faced with rapid population growth and the uncertainty of climate change, priorities for governance are to facilitate sustainable forest use and to maintain/restore habitat connectivity wherever possible. Overall, the thesis demonstrates that decision makers concerned with biodiversity conservation, particularly in mountain and coastal regions, should be wary of inferring local patterns of change from broad-scale models. The current study is a step toward spatially refined understanding of conservation priorities in the Eastern Arc Mountains, whilst novel methodologies have wider application in the fields of species distribution modelling and mountain analysis.

Biography of an English language textbook in Kenya : a journey from conceptualization to the classroom

Author: Kiai, Alice Wanjira

Awarding University: University of Warwick, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: English language/English teaching/Textbooks/English as a second language/ ;

Abstract:

This biography tells the life story of a secondary school English coursebook in Kenya following market liberalization (1998) and curriculum review (2002). In ELT, Gray (2007, 2010) first applied the ?circuit of culture? model to global English coursebooks; in contrast, I examine the case of a single local publication. The textbook has been described as a politico-economic, socio-cultural, and curriculum product. I focus on it primarily as a curriculum product and delink the circuit of culture from its original application in textbook studies in the service of a sociocultural perspective. I posit that the model has the explanatory power to capture the various research focuses that textbook studies may take. The circuit of culture has five processes or ?moments?: representation, identity, regulation, production and consumption. Following preliminary work, my ?journey? begins in the representation moment, using Littlejohn?s (1992, 1998) framework for materials analysis. In the regulation moment, I interview three participants linked to the curriculum development body (KIE). In the production moment, I interview four authors, the editor and the publishing manager of the selected coursebook. In the consumption moment, I interview sixteen teachers who are or have been users of the materials. Four of the teachers participate in classroom observation and their learners respond to a questionnaire. Finally, I build a key identity statement about the coursebook, pooled from the findings in each moment. I reposition the identity moment and posit its centrality at the core of the circuit. Spurred by insights on innovation in English language education, I support the strengthening of ?feedback loops? across moments, and the recognition of the consumption moment as the zone for promoting dynamism and synergy in textbook development. This can (ideally) result in curriculum products and practices capable of overcoming challenges of interpretation and transition, while promoting good practices across moments.

Women in national liberation wars in the settler colonies of Kenya and Zimbabwe : pathways to political empowerment

Author: Kombo, Eudora Ebitimi

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : MA (Res)

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Women/Colonialism/Liberation/Womens studies/Womens rights movement/ ;

Abstract:

Throughout the 20th century African women have challenged their subordinate status both under European colonial rule and under their post-independence governments. Women have used protest action, membership in nationalist political parties, participation in national liberation wars, and the use of autonomous women?s organizations to advance their political status. During anti-colonial liberation wars in Algeria, Kenya, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa, women were combatants, civilian activists and supporters providing non-combat services with the expectation of advancing their interests and acquiring new political rights after independence (Becker, 1995). Yet after playing such vital roles in the liberation of their countries women are still politically underrepresented in most post- liberation countries. Using case studies of Kenya and Zimbabwe this research will evaluate whether or not women?s military and non-combat roles during national liberation wars empowered them politically in their post-independence nations. I will use the empowerment framework to argue that during the wars of liberation in Kenya and Zimbabwe the nationalist parties did not articulate a clear ideology of women?s liberation or empowerment, but that instead they incorporated ideologies which regenerated traditional culture and which negatively impacted women?s political empowerment. I will show that due to colonial oppression women?s political consciousness progressively deepened and motivated them to participate in the liberation wars. I will investigate what roles women?s organizations have played both during the wars and in the post-liberation era in women?s continued struggles for political advancement in their independent states. This research is a text-based analysis of the ideas advanced above, using available scholarly materials from books, journal articles, and data from the Inter Parliamentary Union and from United Nations Women documents. I also use online material from specific women?s organizations from Kenya and Zimbabwe

Teaching deaf learners in Kenyan classrooms

Author: Kimani, Cecilia W

Awarding University: University of Sussex, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Kenya Sign Language/Deafness/Hearing impairment/Sign language/ ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines the teaching and learning of deaf primary-school learners in Kenya in order to explain their poor examination performance and to find ways of better supporting their learning. While language and communication are perceived as the main problems encountered by deaf children, it is assumed that if teachers and learners are able to communicate through sign language, deaf learners can learn. The main argument of this thesis is that although proficiency in sign language among teachers does play a great role in the education of deaf learners, it is not sufficient in offering quality education in this context. Other needs of deaf learners should be addressed during the teaching and learning process through appropriate teaching and learning materials and teaching and assessment approaches. The thesis reviews literature looking at the relationship between language, thought and learning in the education of deaf learners. The study was partly informed by Vygotsky?s theory of social learning and language which recognises that children learn through their interaction with the social environment. A discussion on the difference between the concepts: ?special education?, ?integration?, and ?inclusive education? is raised in the review of literature leading to the discussion of whether deaf learners require ?special? pedagogy. Different views have been held regarding the type of pedagogical approach used in the teaching and learning of deaf learners in Kenya who learn in specialist units attached to mainstream schools: whether this is ?special?, integrated or inclusive education. The research took an exploratory approach and focused on the teaching and learning of Social Studies in specialist units in urban and remote rural areas in Kenya. Data were collected mainly through lesson observations and semi-structured interviews with deaf and hearing education stakeholders including learners, teachers, education officials and representatives of deaf people?s organisations. Kenyan Sign Language and English were the main languages used in data collection. The study found that although textbooks were mostly available for learners in the units, they did not benefit from them due to their design which did not respond to their learning needs. However, some textbook design features that would benefit the learners were identified by the deaf teachers and learners. In addition, while deaf teachers did not generally encounter communication problems in teaching, most hearing teachers lacked sufficient proficiency in Kenyan Sign Language (the language of instruction), a phenomenon that affected dialogue in teaching,. Assessment practices seemed not to be suitable for deaf learners to express what they knew. Although teaching and learning took place in sign language, assessment was through reading and writing in English. A combination of a general quality improvement of educational resources which would be relevant for all learners and some deaf-specific interventions for deaf learners is an approach that would support deaf learners to achieve more in their learning. Recognising the expert knowledge of deaf teachers gained from their experiences as teachers and formerly as deaf learners, and their proficiency in sign language would contribute towards providing the learners with opportunities to learn more.

Assessment of physical activity in children and adolescents

Author: Ojiambo, Robert Mang'eni

Awarding University: University of Glasgow, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth ; Child development ; Teenagers ; Physical growth ; Physical fitness ; Health ;

Abstract:

The objectives of The Identification and Prevention of Dietary and Lifestyle Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants study (child sample) and the Kenya Adolescent Physical Activity study (adolescent sample) conducted in this thesis was firstly, to assess the impact of methodological and practical decisions such as the appropriate epoch length and cutpoints to use in accelerometry studies involving children and adolescents across the physical activity continuum and the reliability of these accelerometer outcomes in predicting habitual physical activity. Secondly, the performance of uniaxial ActiTrainer accelerometry with heart rate (HR) monitoring was compared to triaxial GT3X accelerometry against indirect calorimetry during structured activities in the predominantly active Kenyan adolescent cohort. Similarly, the performance of uniaxial ActiTrainer accelerometry with HR monitoring vs. triaxial 3DNX accelerometry was compared against DLW under free living conditions in both children and adolescent cohorts. Finally, the validated uniaxial ActiTrainer was used to assess the impact of physical activity and the environment on energy expenditure and indices of adiposity in the two cohorts. The main findings of the thesis were: (a) that 15 s epoch reports significantly higher engagement in physical activity compared to a 60 s epoch in both the children and adolescents cohorts (b) choice of cutpoints significantly affected classification of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in both cohorts (c) a minimum of 6 h for 7 - 9 days in the cohort involving children and a minimum of 6 h for 4 - 5 days in the adolescents were required to reliably measure physical activity (d) triaxial accelerometry reported better predictive validity compared to uniaxial accelerometry during structured activities. In addition, HR monitoring did not improve the predictive validity of either accelerometer during structured activities (e) during free living activities, however, uniaxial and triaxial accelerometry reported comparable predictive validity. The addition of HR monitoring improved the predictive validity of uniaxial accelerometry by approximately 4% in both cohorts (f) in both cohorts, total volume of physical activity and patterns (time engaged in light and moderate to vigorous physical activity) were significantly associated with energy expenditure (g) physical activity and sedentary behaviour were significantly related to indices of adiposity in both cohorts (h) the environment was a significant predictor of physical activity and indices of adiposity in the adolescents but not children. The findings of this thesis have important implications on strategies to standardise accelerometry field protocols and future studies on the validation of accelerometers and the association between physical activity, the environment and health.

Globalization and communications policy : the role of the media in communications policy development in Kenya between 2002 and 2009

Author: Malila, Vanessa

Awarding University: University of Leeds, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Media ; Information and communication technology ; Kenya Communications Amendment Act ; Press ; Policy ; Policy making ;

Abstract:

This thesis is a case study analysis of the role of the media in communications policy development in Kenya. The aim of the research was to investigate whether the press in particular could play a role in policy-making as policy stakeholders, moving beyond the traditional role of the media in policy as agenda setting agents. This was done through a case study analysis of two policy-making processes, namely the process of developing the National ICT Policy and the process which resulted in the Kenya Communications Amendment Act. While traditional studies of the media?s role in policy have examined the manner in which media coverage has influenced policy-makers and the public, this thesis aims to investigate whether the media can play a more direct role in policy processes as stakeholders in policy discussions and debates. The media?s role in communications policy in Kenya was examined within the context of globalization and the potential of multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) to create an enabling environment for the participation of diverse stakeholders, including the media, in the policy-making process. The findings have shed light on the political, social and economic context within which policy is made in Kenya and within which the press in Kenya operate and the obstacles that this has posed to their participation in policy-making processes. What has emerged from this thesis is that although there is some engagement by policy stakeholders other than the government, it is of a superficial nature and fails to ensure real diversity and participation by a range of different stakeholders from different sectors. Furthermore, the press failed to take advantage of avenues for debate and discussion to engage in policy discussions, and instead in the case of the KCAA used their agenda setting power to influence the policy negatively. Through biased, subjective and misleading reporting, the press were able to influence policy-makers to the point where the passed Act (KCAA) was returned to parliament for further amendments.

Sharing findings on sickle cell disorder in international collaborative biomedical research : an empirical ethics study in coastal Kenya

Author: Marsh, Victoria Mary Chuck

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Sickle cell anemia ; Kilifi District ; Ethics ; Genomics ; Counseling ;

Abstract:

Against the background of a dilemma experienced by researchers during a genomics study at an established biomedical research centre in Kenya, the broad aims of this thesis are to develop appropriate responses to important ethical questions on sharing information on a common and serious genetic condition, sickle cell disorder, and assess the responsibilities of researchers in this regard. Using an empirical approach to normative reflection across two phases of qualitative research, I explore the nature of important moral concerns related to sharing sickle cell disease information from researchers? and community members? points of view; and develop a bottom-up normative analysis around the questions generated. This analysis interweaves community experiences, processes of community reasoning and ex situ normative reflection; placing community views and values centrally while referencing these to wider ethical debates, commentaries and guidelines in the literature. Two main outputs of this thesis are to provide recommendations for information sharing on SCD findings in the genomics study in Kilifi; and to propose a set of key issues to consider for this type of information in other studies and geographic settings. I conclude that researchers have a strong responsibility to share SCD information on affected children with families as a form of ancillary service (validating tests, counselling and care); but less responsibility to actively share carrier information. Concurrent responsibilities are working collaboratively with the Ministry of Health/District General Hospital to plan and implement services for SCD; ensuring counselling services support family stability as far as reasonably possible; and to build forms of community engagement and informed consent that counter risks of diagnostic interpretations of research.

Hip-hop in Nairobi : interrogating popular culture and its socio-political intersections in urban Africa.

Author: Mose, C B

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Hip-hop culture ; Hip-hop music ; Dance ; Nairobi, Kenya ; Politics ; Culture ; Sociocultural factors ; Gender ;

Abstract:

My thesis is a research on popular urban culture in Nairobi, specifically, hip-hop culture. My interest in this topic was motivated by the observation, in Kenya at least, that since the late 1990s to the present, popular cultural forms practiced by mostly youth have become prominent in the public, social as well as political spheres, meaning that they have featured prominently in political and social discourses and events. Prominent Kenyan scholars Joyce Nyairo and James Ogude have, for instance, written on the impact of the Gidi Gidi Maji Maji song ?Unbwogable? (Unshakeable) in shaping Kenya?s political landscape, where the song became a successful rallying cry for a coalition of politicians that used it to urge voters to end the 24 year hold on power of former president Daniel Moi. A similar trend has been noted in Cote D?Ivoire, Mali, and Ghana, where hip-hop culture and music, together with other forms of popular music, have impacted various political and social events. My research therefore investigates these various points of convergence between hip-hop culture and music on the one hand, and public life in Kenya on the other, including an analysis of the city as the major site within which hip-hop develops, and which shapes the very nature of the culture. In this analysis I discuss the main issues of ?field? and symbolic capital (Bourdieu) and the idea that hip-hop culture can offer a counter-discourse that challenges (or reinforces) political and social stereotypes in Kenyan urban society. I also problematize some existing canons of hip-hop culture, explore the language of gender in hip-hop, and analyse the emerging aspect(s) of hip-hop and intellectual property discourse.

Using statistical modelling to link disparate sources of available information to study factors that influence bird distributions

Author: Mammides, Christos

Awarding University: Imperial College, London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Birds ; Biological diversity ; Kakamega Forest, Kenya ; Habitats ; Models ;

Abstract:

The aim of this project is to develop a method to successfully link together various sources of disparate information and data in order to study and understand which factors influence bird communities in different areas. For many areas, especially those of high conservation priority, an enormous amount of information and data may already be available. By using the right tools they could potentially be linked to provide improved understanding of the mechanisms that influence the biodiversity in a region of interest. To test this hypothesis I used structural equation modelling (SEM) to link data from Kakamega Forest in order to study the effects of various socio-ecological factors on the bird species richness in twenty-two different parts of the forest. Kakamega Forest is Kenya?s only rainforest and despite its rich biodiversity, and especially avian diversity, the forest is highly threatened with less than half of its area containing indigenous vegetation. A similar modelling approach is used to study the factors that influence migratory birds found in thirty-eight Natura 2000 sites in Cyprus, designated under the EU?s Habitats Directive (officially known as the Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora). Using GIS analysis and available data on land use, vegetation cover, habitat diversities, human population densities, and road densities, I developed a path model explaining the observed bird species richness in those areas. Through this type of analysis I identified and quantified the impact of various habitat variables on bird species richness, which is one of the many measures of species diversity. Compared to other diversity indices, species richness is not influenced by species abundance and therefore it is an appropriate measure for studying the distribution of the species. This type of analysis however, does not allow us to indentify which species in particular are impacted by the variables identified so I used generalized linear mixed modelling to study interactions between habitat variables and certain species specific behavioural, morphological, and life history characteristics (including food choice, body length and clutch size), to examine how abundances and presence/absence are influenced by those variables in each site. The results are of significant conservation importance as they give us valuable insight on: a) which factors are most important in determining species richness and b) what species characteristics make birds more vulnerable to change in these factors. Moreover, the results demonstrate that by using an appropriate statistical method there is potential to successfully utilize the enormous amount of available information to derive important conservation conclusions.