631 Records out of 22207 Records

Conceptualisation and operationalisation of the right to a fair trial in criminal justice in Kenya

Author: Ouma, Jack Busalile Mwimali

Awarding University: University of Birmingham, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2013

Holding Libraries: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Criminal justice ; Trials ; Constitutions ; Criminal law ; Judicial process ;

Abstract:

This thesis explores issues concerning the conceptualisation and operationalisation of the right to a fair trial in the Kenyan criminal justice system. In particular, it looks at how and why there have been many difficulties with the implementation of this universal set of values that have been recognised since the adoption of the formal legal system in Kenya, and which have been enshrined in the Constitution since independence. It addresses a number of overarching questions. First, it identifies the factors that hindered the full realisation of the right to a fair trial. Secondly, it enquires into whether the shortcomings of the recently repealed Constitution in that regard have been fully addressed by the new Constitution adopted in 2010. Thirdly, it identifies and analyse the impact of factors outside the formal law which may have affected the practical operation of certain core elements of the right to a fair trial. Finally, in light of the above, it explores a number of approaches that might be used to address these other factors so as to help achieve at least a better, enforcement of fair trial rights in the country.

Potential role of biochar in water management in rainfed agriculture

Author: Flavia, Namagembe

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Biochar ; Sugarcane ; Saccharum officinarum ; Bamboo ; Arundinaria alpina ; Soils ;

Abstract:

The economies of the three East African region (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania), which is the region of interest in this study still rely largely on rainfed agriculture accounting to approximately 80% of the total agricultural production. With the increasing threats from climate variability, the region is prone to extreme conditions of drought and floods. Inadequate soil moisture and low soil fertility have been the challenges facing rainfed agriculture in the region and several approaches have been employed to help manage agricultural water sustainably. Previous studies indicate that incorporation of biochar into sandy soil improves its water retention capacity. This study demonstrates how addition of biochar produced from different feedstock biomass of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn) trash and bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) leaves and branches, all obtained from the region using both the laboratory controlled equipment at 350 oC, 450 oC and 550 oC and a traditional stove, to sandy soil has the potential improve the soil?s water holding capacity. This way, biochar can thus play a significant role in water management in agriculture in the East African region with the aim of reducing agricultural input and maximizing crop yields. For the traditional stove, it was difficult to control the temperature while producing the biochar but the highest steady temperature reached during production was recorded. The hydrologic properties including water holding capacity and hydrophobicity of sandy soil, biochars and soil-biochar mixtures were measured using the gravimetric method and the molarity of ethanol drop test respectively. Additionally, porosity was determined using the mercury porosimetry method in order to compare the pore size distribution of the biochars with their hydrologic properties. Biochars produced from different feedstock biomass under different production conditions varied in their hydrologic behavior and influenced soil?s hydrologic properties differently when added to it. The study demonstrates water retention increases in a sandy soil after addition of 2, 5 and 7 weight % biochar (20, 50, and 70 t ha-1 respectively).

Health information systems reform in Kenya : an institutionalist perspective

Author: Bernardi, Roberta

Awarding University: University of Warwick, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Information and Communication Technology ; Health ; Health information ; Donors ;

Abstract:

The development outcome of ICT and information systems in developing countries is often influenced by international development policies and the action of international actors such as donor agencies. In particular, ICT adoptions and implementations in developing countries may be influenced by the contradictions arising mainly from the tension between international managerialist development policies and the main rationalities of actors in the local implementation context. Based on the case study of health information systems in Kenya, the objective of this thesis is to increase the understanding of how these contradictions may affect the development and change potential of health information systems and ICTs in developing countries in relation to international development policies. Drawing on a dialectical perspective on institutional work, the thesis argues that the change and development trajectories arising from the implementation and usage of health information systems depend on how actors involved in the restructuring of health information systems i.e. donor partners, national decision makers and local health information systems managers and users respond to the ongoing dialectic between global and local pressures of institutional change and stability. The main findings of the research presented in this thesis point to the importance of analysing political donor relations and the institutional entrepreneurship of local actors in order to understand the change and development outcomes of health information systems and ICT in developing countries.

African literature in the digital age : class and sexual politics in new writing from Nigeria and Kenya

Author: Adenekan, Olorunshola

Awarding University: University of Birmingham, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: African literature ; Nigeria ; Sexual politics ; Digital libraries ;

Abstract:

Using wide-ranging literature and theoretical concepts published digitally and in print, this thesis will build the emerging picture of African literature in English that is being published in the digital space. The study will analyse the technological production of classed and sexualised bodies in new African writing in cyberspace by some of the young writers from Nigeria and Kenya, as well as writing from a few of their contemporaries from other African countries. This thesis will also analyse the differences between the agenda of the previous generation including representation and perspectives - and that of a new generation in cyberspace. In the process, I hope to show how literature in cyberspace is asking questions as much of psychic landscapes as of the material world. To my knowledge, there is no substantive literary study done so far that contextualizes this digital experience.

The potential of biochar produced from Eichhornia crassipes and Prosopis juliflora to enhance soil water holding capacity of drylands soils

Author: Aller, Deborah

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Biochar ; Evironmental degradation ; Soils ; Eichhornia crassipes ; Prosopis juliflora ; Northern Kenya ;

Abstract:

Environmental degradation, agricultural productivity, food security, fresh water scarcity, and the adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are all significant concerns of the 21st century. Biochar is a highly porous, carbon rich material which is a natural soil amendment being investigated to address these current issues. Expanding agricultural production into dryland environments where sandy soils dominate is highly likely to be of great importance for ensuring future global food security, as population and food demands continue to increase. Sandy soils have little ability to store water, making food production difficult and crop yields an unreliable source of food and income for inhabitants living in these environments. This study looked at the water holding capacity (WHC) and hydrophobicity of Eichhornia crassipes and Prosopis juliflora for use as biochar, to potentially enhance soil moisture storage and thus agricultural productivity, with a particular focus on arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and northern Kenya. Both are invasive species found in Kenya which was the reason for their selection for use in this study. Biochar was produced at 350?C, 450?C, and 550?C in a Carbolite furnace and also in a Sampada gasification stove, to mimic traditional kiln char production. Biochar WHC was examined at mixtures of 2%, 5%, and 7%, corresponding to a field application rate of roughly 20 t ha-1, 50 t ha-1, and 70 t ha-1, respectively. Results demonstrated that both biochars increase soil WHC the greatest at a 7% application rate. The greatest hydrophobicity values were apparent at 350?C, with E. crassipes the more hydrophobic of the two. Mercury porosimetry analysis, which compares various characteristics of the pore space in relation to physical properties of the biochar, is consistent with the WHC data, revealing that as the total intruded volume increases the water holding capacity increases. Overall E. crassipes and P. juliflora show potential for use as biochar, but P. juliflora with its greater lignin content, is likely the better choice.

An analysis of livelihood improvement and smallholder beekeeping in Kenya.

Author: Carroll, T

Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Beekeeping ; Farmers ; Honey ;

Abstract:

The majority of Kenya?s poor live on small scale farms and agriculture is the country?s main economic activity. Recent years have seen rapidly increasing population, land fragmentation and as a result increasingly smaller farms in Kenya. There is therefore a need to diversify livelihoods on small scale farms to tackle rural poverty. Beekeeping is a potential livelihood diversification option with ready local and international markets for honey and other bee products and has been widely promoted in the country by government and development agencies. Beekeeping offers many potential benefits including income, health and environmental. Beekeeping has traditionally been considered an activity of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands in Kenya. However, with increasing population there has been increasing environmental degradation and reducing forest cover and an increasing need to adapt beekeeping to small scale farms. As a result there has been a move away from more extensive beekeeping systems to intensive beekeeping. This study examined beekeeping as part of smallholder mixed farming systems in mid-high altitude areas of Kenya. The potential of beekeeping, as an appropriate livelihood strategy for smallholder farm households was examined using the sustainable livelihoods framework. The study was undertaken over a 6-year (2004-9) with over 300 small-scale farmers in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province. Secondary data on Kenyan and African bees and beekeeping was analysed including a number of research studies of significance on Kenya beekeeping. In addition farmer beekeepers were interviewed using a survey questionnaire while case studies were conducted with beekeeping groups and data was collected from research apiaries in combination with an action research process carried out with beekeepers over a two year period. Beekeeping was found to be a valuable and largely unexploited livelihood diversification option for small scale farmers. Important benefits from beekeeping in the study area were income, food, medicine, an improved sense of well-being and enhancement of the natural environment. Honey, the main bee product traded by beekeepers, obtained good local prices and there was a strong local demand for honey. Compared to maize, the staple crop of most Kenyan farmers, it was found that a typical 10-hive enterprise generated earnings equivalent to the average local production from 0.86 ha of maize. While markets exist, honey yields and returns remained low compared with their potential. Beekeepers had many challenges to contend with such as defensive bees, pests, absconding by bees, low hive occupation and low yields. The defensive nature of the bees with potential livelihood risk was found to be a likely deterrent to more small scale farmers keeping bees.

Slum upgrading in India and Kenya : investigating the sustainability

Author: Cronin, V

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Slums ; Informal settlements ; Housing ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This research follows a qualitative methodology to investigate the sustainability of differing slum upgrading interventions. Four case studies have been examined; two in Kenya and two in India, demonstrating a range of physical upgrading approaches. Alternative slum upgrading delivery models have been selected covering housing rehabilitation and in-situ water and sanitation upgrading and demonstrating top-down and bottom-up approaches. The case studies are of varying ages and were implemented via partnership with differing agents including government, NGO, CBO, private developer and donors. The influence and design of the delivery model upon the upgrading sustainability has been assessed via stakeholder perception during extensive fieldwork. The data gathered has been analysed according to four key themes: status of life for slum-dwellers today, perception of upgrading success, institutional reform from external factors and development aspirations. Data was gathered via semi-structured interviews with slum-dwellers and project stakeholders using a ground-level methodology that enabled the capture of personal and honest accounts. Analysis of the data has found that there are many misconceptions around slums which can affect the sustainability of measures to upgrade informal settlements. The way that international development organisations and westerners view slums is often very particular and not always resonant with the way that slum-dwellers view their living situations. Priorities for development are not always consistent across stakeholders. For sustainability, any slum upgrading activity must be sensitive to the situation of an individual community and culture, and not assume that the residents are unhappy living in desperate poverty, as it has been shown, many choose to reside in a slum. Slums may be dirty, poorly serviced, and overcrowded but are also places of great human energy, community spirit, kindness, hardworking creative and happy places that many consider home.

Understanding resistance in inter-specific rice cultivars to the parasitic witchweed Striga

Author: Cissoko, Mamadou

Awarding University: University of Sheffield, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: DA. H1c 62-11517 ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Striga ; Rice ; Oryza sativa ; Oryza glaberrima ; Striga hermonthica ; Striga asiatica ; Genetics ; Weeds ;

Abstract:

Both cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa (L.) and Oryza glaberrima (Steud.), are grown in Africa. To take advantage of superior traits from each species, AfricaRice Center and partners developed inter-specific rice cultivars called NERICA (NEw RICe for Africa) for rain-fed upland ecosystems. NERICA rice cultivars showed different susceptibilities to both S. hermonthica and S. asiatica species under controlled environment conditions. Some cultivars showed good broad-spectrum resistance against several Striga ecotypes and species whilst others showed intermediate resistance or were very susceptible. In addition, some cultivars showed resistance to a particular ecotype of Striga but were susceptible to others. The phenotype of a resistant interaction was often characterized by necrosis at the host parasite interface and an inability of the parasite to penetrate the host root endodermis. In general, the most resistant NERICA cultivars grew better than the very susceptible cultivars although even a small number of parasites caused a reduction in above ground host biomass. There was however, genetic variation for tolerance to Striga (the ability to grow and yield well in the presence of Striga) amongst the NERICA cultivars. The NERICA cultivars were also grown in field trials at Kyela in Tanzania (under S. asiatica infestation) and at Mbita Point in Kenya (under S. hermonthica infestation) in 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of environment on the expression of resistance. The resistance of the NERICA cultivars against S. hermonthica and S. asiatica, in the field, was broadly similar to that observed in the laboratory although there were some exceptions. These results allow us to recommend particular cultivars for Striga-infested regions but they also illustrate the necessity of understanding the genetic basis of resistance to different ecotypes of Striga for breeding of durable resistance (and pyramiding of appropriate resistance genes) in host cultivars adapted to different rice agro-ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa. Sixty four lines of an inter-specific CSSL population and the parent cultivars O. glaberrima MG12 and O. sativa Caiapo were phenotyped for resistance to S. hermonthica. MG12 showed good resistance to S. hermonthica whilst Caiapo was very susceptible. The CSSLs showed a range of susceptibility to the parasite, however, only two CSSLs showed the same strong resistance phenotype as MG12. Graphical genotyping and a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis revealed a large QTL on chromosome 12 (designated STR12.1) which explained at least 80 % of the variation for resistance in the population and suggests that resistance to S. hermonthica (in MG12) is due to one (or a few genes) of major effect. This finding opens the way for the identification of candidate Striga resistance genes (through fine mapping approaches) and their transfer to farmer-preferred cultivars via marker assisted breeding.

Private equity in Kenya : an analysis of emerging legal and institutional issues

Author: Tuimising, Nathan R

Awarding University: University of Warwick, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Equity/Equity financing/Equity capital/Capital markets/Finance/Investments/ ;

Abstract:

In Kenya, like in many other countries around the world, private equity?s emergence as a creative method for financing companies, is attracting attention as the government seeks new ways of financing its private sector which it now recognises as the engine for Kenya?s economic development. This policy outlook is undermined by the reality of a yet extensively under-capitalised private sector, and the lack of a coherent body of knowledge and experience on Kenyan private equity. This study, for the first time, brings together that dispersed body of knowledge to facilitate coherent analysis of the emerging legal and institutional issues that private equity introduces. Using case law and statutory analysis, documentary reviews, interviews and surveys to construct the complete picture of Kenyan private equity, this empirical legal inquiry finds that the law on private equity in Kenya is incomplete: it is patchy and dispersed, and is not uniformly applied among and across all private equity market intermediaries. Secondly, the institutions charged with supervising the implementation of the law are under-capacitated, with the result that regulatory supervision within the private equity industry remains weak and largely unfelt. Thirdly, the legal institutions supporting private equity practice in Kenya (security of property rights, security of financial contracts and integrity in financial reporting) are in a nascent state of development. Fourthly, there is no clear policy on alternative investments generally, and private equity particularly, in Kenya, undermining precision in regulatory objectives. These realities combine to blunt the impact of private equity in driving creative entrepreneurship. These realities support the need for structured national capacity enhancement across all spheres of private equity practice, such as would strengthen regulatory supervision, the emergence of a ?home brand? to private equity, the increased visibility of structured government engagement in channelling private equity into economically productive sectors linked to the nation?s development strategy. These findings mirror earlier research investigating the under-performance of private equity in emerging markets, with the upshot that a law and institutional growth model for private equity in Kenya is the necessary catalyst that will trigger the rapid expansion of the Kenyan private equity industry in aid of national development.

Delivery models for decentralised rural electrification : case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

Author: Yadoo, A L

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Electricity/Poverty/Rural electricification/Rural development/ ;

Abstract:

Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy services is fundamental to poverty reduction and sustainable development. Over 1.4 billion people currently lack access to electricity and use lower quality (and often higher cost) traditional fuels to meet their basis lighting and power needs. This doctoral research focuses on the delivery of decentralised community level mini-grids in Nepal, Peru and Kenya, considering how their implementation can generate greater and more sustainable welfare benefits for the rural poor. The author undertook three main case studies and a number of satellite studies of community-level mini-grids in Nepal, Peru and Kenya, as well as 67 practitioner interviews. A series of Sustainability Indicators were created against which the main case studies were evaluated. These findings were combined with analysis from the interviews to produce a decision support tree and a series of recommendations for rural electrification practitioners. While all of a delivery model?s pre-identified variables (ownership, governance and management models, productive uses, the implementing agency?s approach, training, local job creation, financing, dissemination strategies and the enabling environment) were found to affect the ability to achieve sustainable welfare benefits, the three most salient themes were those of Responsibility, Impetus and Scope. During a project?s planning and implementation states overriding focus should be placed on generating a sense of local responsibility for the electricity system and its upkeep across all key stakeholders, growing local desire for the electricity services provided and stimulating providers to expand their business, and extending the scope of the project across different development arenas to create maximum welfare impact. Moreover, practitioners should attempt to influence and build the institutional framework and environment in which a project takes place. Engaging with the private sector through more innovative partnerships and hybrid business models should help accelerate the ability to scale-up and replicate successful projects.