763 Records out of 22207 Records

Effect of conflict management in performance of public secondary schools in Machakos County, Kenya

Author: Iravo, Mike Amuhaya

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflict management/Secondary schools/Machakos County/ ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of conflict management in performance of organizations with a view to solving the current phenomenon of conflicts being experienced in public secondary school organizations and make them more effective, efficient and conducive for the development of human resources. The specific objectives of the study were to: assess the effect of conflict in performance of public secondary schools, determine whether management being aware of conflict in the school organization help towards conflict resolution and management, establish management approaches used by the educational institutions managers in Kenya in conflict management and resolution, evaluate the role of environment in conflict resolutions and suggest recommendations for solving conflict in public secondary school organizations. Both qualitative and quantitative research was used. The research design used in this study was descriptive survey. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The target population was 140 secondary school principals. Using stratified probability sampling based on different categories of schools and non- probability sampling, an optimum proportion of 30% was drawn from each category of the target population of schools to satisfy these requirements of optimality and representativeness. From each of the selected school, the principal that is the CEO was selected. Therefore, 43 principals were selected as the chief executive officers in-charge of management of the school organizations. Since the study was concerned with the relationships between identified dependent, intervening and independent variables, structural equation modeling and other multivariate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. The regression and ANOV A analysis were used to analyze the relationship between conflict management and performance in educational institutions. The correlation coefficients indicated a fairly positive strong relationship, r = 0.69.This indicates that the relationship is not weak and can be used to explain and predict the rate of performance. On the ANOV A, the beta coefficient of the resulting regression model t=2.822 indicates that the beta coefficient is significantly greater than 0, P =0.07 which is less than P =0.05 the test statistic. This further confirms that essentially there is a strong relationship between conflict resolution and performance in an educational institution. All the four null hypotheses of the study, which were analyzed using Chi and T-test, were rejected. Stepwise regression analysis showed zero significance between the role of environment in conflict management and performance of school organizations. These results were consistent with earlier empirical research on conflict management and organizational performance in organizations. In conclusion therefore, relationship between conflict management and the performance of school organizations seems to be clear. When the management is knowledgeable in conflict management and at the same time putting this knowledge into practice, the schools will experience less conflict and do well in all activities and areas. The researcher recommends that conflict management systems should be integrated within the system of the organization and the integration should be at a higher level of the organization hierarchy rather than mere interconnection; conflict management is a human sub-system which is achieved trough typical development process.

Response of tissue cultured giant cavendish banana to inoculation with Kenyan isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Author: Juma, Robinson Jalang'o

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Bananas/Mycorrhizas/Musa spp/Glomus etunicatum/Inoculation/ ;

Abstract:

Mycorrhization of tissue cultured bananas is known to improve their growth and establishment under field conditions. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of inoculating tissue cultured Giant Cavendish banana with Kenyan isolates and Glomus etunicatum. Performance of inoculated plants in conventional nursery medium and sterile sand was also evaluated. A crude inoculum comprising of about 400 spores in 20 g soil was put into each tray cell during the weaning phase of tissue cultured banana plantlets. The content of each cell was emptied into a polythene sleeve containing 800 g of the respective medium eight weeks after inoculation. The experiment was laid out in Split-plot Design in the screenhouse. Plant growth parameters including height, number of leaves, leaf length and width were measured on a weekly basis for four months. Four destructive samples were taken at monthly intervals beginning at eight weeks after inoculation. Shoot and root fresh and dry weights, leaf surface area, number of spores per 100 g of medium and plant tissue nutrient analysis was assessed at each sampling stage. Results showed that indigenous isolates enhanced growth and nutrient uptake more uniformly in both media. Glomus etunicatum enhanced growth and nutrient uptake better than the indigenous isolates for plants established in conventional nursery medium. However, the isolate was less effective in sterile sand medium than indigenous isolates. Root colonisation had a direct impact on uptake of the three primary elements (N, P, and K) analysed. It is therefore evident that Glomus etunicatum is more preferable for inoculating tissue cultured bananas in conventional medium whereas the indigenous isolates can perform satisfactorily in both media.

A fuzzy model based on software quality metrics which estimates software maintability

Author: Gichuru, Joan Njeri

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Software ; Software industry ; Software upgrading ;

Abstract:

Software maintainability continues to be of great essence to the software development industry. When software products with poor maintainability are released, rigorous maintenance activities that scale up the overall cost of development often results. The functional duration of such applications is also greatly reduced. In order to continually improve the quality of software applications, a means to quantitatively measure maintainability is necessary . The existing measure of software maintainability is Maintainability Index (MI) which faces criticism arising from the parameters that have been used to compose it. Research in the area of quantifying software maintainability has focused on the development of prediction models to provide estimations of software maintainability. One such model was developed to predict the lines of code that will be changed during maintenance phase (Wake & Henry, 1998). Another model which estimates time taken in carrying out maintenance activities has also been developed (Aggarwal et al., 2(05). This research proposes a prediction model that estimates the maintainability of a software program whereby maintainability is understood as a component that can be described in terms of a hierarchy. This hierarchy consists of factors, attributes and metrics. The proposed model is on the factors that determine maintainability at source code level. These factors have been captured using metrics that quantify them. Three metrics are considered. They become the input parameters to the model and fuzzy logic is used to weigh them against each other and combine them into one output value which is the estimated maintainability. The proposed model is then presented with input values obtained from real program source-code and has been found to reliably produce estimations of maintainability .

Population dynamics of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L) Lepidoptera: Plutellidae and competitive interactions of its native and exotic parasitoids in Kenya

Author: Gatama, Joseph Gichini

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Plutella xylostella ; Pest control ; Cotesia plutellae ; Diadegma semiclausum ; Parasites ; Cruciferae ; Plutella xylostella ;

Abstract:

Two parasitoids that exploit the same resource (DBM) (Diadegma semiclausum Hellen (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Taiwan and Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from South Africa were released in cool high altitude and in semi-arid crucifer growing areas of Kenya respectively. Diadegma semiclausum, released earlier in the cool high altitude, became established and naturally spread to a warmer mid-altitude region where C. plutellae was released. This resulted in intense interspecific competition between the two exotics and among native parasitoids. This study determined the population dynamics of diamondback moth and competitive interactions of its native and introduced parasitoids. Field studies were conducted for 18 months at Athi and Yatta to determine the interspecific competition among the exotic and native parasitoids. Parasitism rates by D. semiclausum increased tremendously resulting in interspecific competition with the native parasitoids and C. plutellae. Semi field and laboratory experiments were designed to evaluate the extrinsic intra and inter specific competition strategies between C. plutellae and D. semiclausum. The simulated experimental set in macro and micro cages showed that presence of C. plutellae makes D. semiclausum more successful as a biocontrol agent of diamondback moth. Presence of either D. semiclausum or C. plutellae in the same cages reduced their success as biocontrol agents of diamondback moth. The influence of temperature on inter-specific competition between C. plutellae and D. semiclausum was studied under laboratory conditions at five constant temperatures. The two parasitoids co-existed at different temperatures with disparity temperature optima in terms of parazitation parazitation rates and survival. Overall, D. Semiclausum was the most competitive with significantly higher parazitation rates and progeny :production at all the temperatures tested. Investigation of the effects of parasitation ,time intervals and sequence interspecific competition between C. plutellae and D. semiclausum was conducted; the two parasitoids were subjected to five different parazitation time intervals and sequence. The mean number of D. semiclausum and C. plutellae that emerged was similar and dissimilar in various time intervals and sequence. Overall, D. semiclausum was the most competitive compared to C. plutellae. The findings generated by this study will help in strategizing future biological control programmes of DBM under field and green house conditions in East Africa and other similar Crucifer growing areas in sub-Sahara Africa.

Factors influencing utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among women attending antenatal clinic at Nyeri Provincial Hospital Kenya

Author: Gathigi, Lucy Nyandia

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Iron ; Anemia ; Nutrition ; Pregnancy ; Women ; Health care ; Nyeri Provincial General Hospital ;

Abstract:

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional cause of anaemia and has been associated with poor pregnancy outcome. On the other hand, lack of adequate folate intake prior to conception and during the early weeks of pregnancy increases the risk of the development of neural tube defects. In Kenya all pregnant women are targeted for free folic acid and iron supplementation. However, information about whether folic acid and iron supplements are actually used by the 'women is not available, and there is concern that women would not take them because of perceived side effects, particularly of iron supplements. This study aimed at determining factors associated with utilization of iron. and folic acid supplementation services and the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Nyeri Provincial General Hospital. A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women selected through systematic random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on receipt and use of supplements where high compliance to supplementation was defined as using each of the supplements for more than four days in a week. After administration of the questionnaire, haemoglobin level was determined directly from capillary blood via finger pricks and measured using a portable HemoCue B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, 51.2% and 69.3% reported being given iron and folic acid supplements respectively. Less than half 44.6 % and 58% reported receiving information on iron and folic acid respectively. Of the women who received supplements, 67.7% reported being initiated on iron supplements after 16 weeks gestation while 80.7% reported being initiated on folic acid supplements after 12 weeks. The most frequently cited reason by the women for not taking the supplements was not receiving supplies of iron (89.4%) and folic acid (81.3%) supplements during ANC visits. Among those who reported receiving iron and folic acid supplements, 80.5% and 82.2% reported high compliance respectively.The prevalence of anaemia was 7.8%. The mean haemoglobin level was l2.6?1.2 gldl. In multivariate analysis the only factor that was significantly associated with compliance to iron supplements (p=0.05) was to protect oneself from anaemia (OR=12.20). While factors significantly associated with compliance to folic acid supplementation (P=0.05) were: in order to improve general health (OR=20.82), because the health worker advised to take folic acid supplements (OR=56.02) and to protect oneself from anaemia (OR=14.10). Improvement in supplies of the supplements, sensitization and training of health workers to give information while delivering supplementation s~rvices and sensitization of community members on the importance of early supplementation during pregnancy is required.

Development of road maintenance management system for unpaved roads in Kenya

Author: Chebon, Christopher Chepkuto

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Roads and highways ; Repair and maintenance ;

Abstract:

Road maintenance management is a big challenge in most countries in the world today. Technology however has been effectively used to solve some of these problems in some countries. The aim of this study was to identify problems and shortcomings of current road maintenance practise and develop a computerised road maintenance management system .for unpaved roads in Kenya. A questionnaire was used to elicit data on the current unpaved road maintenance practices in the country. Stratified and proportionate sampling techniques were used to select the respondents who participated in the study. Data collected was analysed, summarised and described using qualitative statistical techniques. The results showed that road maintenance works are not properly and efficiently planned, prioritised and tendered. The current methods of monitoring and reporting on time, physical and financial progress of road works are not standard and inefficient since they take more time and involve a lot of paperwork. As a solution to the current practise shortcomings, a computer based road maintenance management system was developed which incorporates all the stages of a maintenance cycle i.e. road inventory survey, road condition survey, road prioritisation, road plan, tender evaluation, contracts time schedules and progress, and certification, work and financial progress reporting. Raw and collected data were used to validate the system and it showed that it is able to produce road inventory survey and road condition survey reports, prioritise roads and evaluate tenders, monitor time, physical work and financial progress of contracts among others. The developed system was found to be efficient, flexible for use since it can be used with any contract document specifications and can also be customised for use in any part of Kenya with different needs, requires less labour, reduces the amount of paperwork, is less prone to errors and requires less time to carry out various road maintenance management tasks. It can also minimise corruption and increase openness. It is hoped that adoption of the management system will lead to improvement in unpaved road maintenance in the country.

Determination of heavy metals in scalp hair of selected Kenyan urban and rural population

Author: Abuor, Philip Otieno

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Metals ; Pollution ; Metals ;

Abstract:

Pollution by heavy metals contamination and the resulting health effects present challenges currently facing both developed and developing countries. Metal poisoning is not only expensive but also difficult to diagnose, particularly in developing countries where resources are limited. Hair samples (N = 240) were obtained with assistance of barbers and hair dressers located in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu. Concentrations of Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Manganese, Zinc and Mercury were determined in scalp hair of male and female of children and adults of ages (5 - 14, 15 - 20, 21 - 40, > 40 years). Concentrations of the elements in the samples investigated were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), applying both flame and flame less techniques in determination of the stated elements, As a control, samples were taken from non-industrialized agricultural rural areas in North Rift, Msambweni and Western Kenya. The generated data was analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software System (SAS) focusing on Analysis of Variance by One- Way (ANOV A), Correlation Analysis, Bar Charts and Line Graphs, Significance tests and Confidence Intervals set at 95 % level of confidence. One-Way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of urban and age on heavy metal concentration (p value of 0.0001 and 0.002 respectively at p < 0.05). Linear Correlation between paired metals indicated strong positive correlations. The results revealed that the hair samples of Kenyan urban inhabitants had significantly higher concentrations of all metals Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn and Hg than those from the rural counterparts at 95% confidence level. The concentration of the studied metals were in the increasing order of Hg < Cd < Pb < Cu < Mn < Zn. It was found out that age and geographical location had great influence on metal hair concentration among the Kenyan inhabitants. Comparing the obtained results in this study with the literature data, Kenyan Scalp hair heavy metal concentration emerged the highest among the other regions of the world, particularly with respect to Cd (1.59 mg/kg) and Mn (27.19 mg/kg). Also, with exception of Nigeria, Libya and Pakistan, Kenya had higher hair Pb (13.52 mg/kg) concentration than the selected countries of the World.

Probing the trans-sialidase activity of the Neuraminidase derived from Human Influenza A (H3N2) virus

Author: Aluvaala, Eva Kalemera

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Influenza ; Vaccines ; Viruses ; Enzymes ; Deoxyribonucleic acid ;

Abstract:

Sialo-oligosaccharides are found on the distal ends of glycans present on mammalian cell surfaces. They play major roles in cell growth, function, and are determinants of many disease states. Due to the important physiological role of glycoconjugates, there has been increased focus towards the development of drugs and vaccines that are carbohydrate based. Sialo-oligosaccharides can be synthesized through chemical means or by use of enzymes. Enzymes are preferred in the synthesis process as they are cheaper, faster and capable of catalyzing the synthesis of molecules with the correct specificity. These being the case . enzymes with activities capable of synthesizing glycoconjugates are being sought. Like other glycosidases, neuraminidases, also referred to as sialidases, hydrolyse glycosidic linkages. Glycosidases are also known to catalyze the synthesis of oligosaccharides through trans-glycosylation, but the trans-sialidation potential of Influenza neuraminidases has not been investigated. This aim of this study sought was to determine whether the influenza A H3N2 neuraminidase has trans-sialidase activity. The influenza A H3N2 virus was amplified by inoculating in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Total viral RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. The cDNA was used in the amplification of neuraminidase Type 2 (NA2) followed by cloning, sequencing and expression of the neuraminidase (NA2). The recombinant enzyme was used in desialylation of guinea pig red blood cells to establish the presence of sialidase activity. The trans-sialidase activity was assayed using sialic acid from RBC as donor and PNP P-D galactose as the acceptor molecule. Products of trans-glycosylation reaction were analysed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plate and by capillary electrophoresis. Hemagglutination Inhibition of guinea pig RBC occurred after treatment with the recombinant influenza A type 2 neuraminidase. This showed that desialylation had taken place and hence the sialidase activity of the recombinant neuraminidase was present. The resolution of transglycosylation reaction on TLC and by capillary electrophoresis did not reveal any products. This observation suggests that there was no transfer of sialic acid residues from donor RBC to acceptor molecule PNP-Gal. These findings suggest that the trans-sialidase activity of neuraminidase derived from, influenza AlNairobil204112006(H3N2) is not significant. The search for enzymes that can be used for synthesis sialo-oligosaccharides continues. In future studies on the neuraminidase (NA2) trans-sialidase activity, the purification method should be improved by incorporating a Histag on the expression vector. The analysis of the trans-glycosylation products should be carried out using approaches such as mass spectroscopy as it is highly sensitive and able to detect compounds in trace quantities that are not detectable by Thin Layer Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis. Since the use of chemicals in the synthesis of carbohydrates remains expensive and full of challenges in reference to regiospecificity, it would be worthwhile to carryout molecular evolution to transform AlNairobil204112006(H3N2) neuraminidase to a trans-sialidase.

An investigation into the utilization, perception and sources of knowledge on VCT services among the youth in selected public diploma colleges in Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Asuke, Joyce Oloo - New

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Voluntary Counseling and Testing ; Young adults ; HIV (infection) ; AIDS (disease) ; Nairobi, Kenya ; Students ; University students ;

Abstract:

Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) services have become one of the most common means of preventing, detecting and improving access to care and support to HIV I AIDS. However, the extent to which these services are utilized by the youth remains a big question. This study attempted to examine the utilization of these services by the youth in selected public diploma colleges in Nairobi. Further the study sought to find out the following: utilization of VCT services among youth, the perceptions youth have on VCT services, the sources of information and knowledge about VCT Services, and the measures that can be taken to improve on the use ofVCT services among youth in public diploma colleges in Nairobi. The study employed descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample size of 200 students in the five major public diploma colleges. The tools used for this study were questionnaires and data emanating from the study was analyzed. Most of the students (89%) were generally aware of the existence of VCT services in their respective regions with majority of them 150(75%) being in fear of utilizing the services offered. However, majority of the students 149 (74.5%) found VCT services friendly. Further, 150 (75%) of the students indicated that they were prompted to utilize VCT services and one of the key lesson learnt according to a majority students 148 (74%) was that 'HIV/AIDS is real'. Other lessons learnt by some, 20 (10%) of students is that life can be prolonged using A.R.Vs when one is infected. The study found out that utilization ofVCT services in selected public diploma colleges had a positive influence on students' attitude, perception and moral behavior and most of the students got their information and knowledge from media 142 (71 %). Further, very few students indicated that they had positive perception concerning utilization of Voluntary Counseling and Testing services in fulfilling their personal social needs, knowing their status and future career advancement prospects. The study found out that utilization of Voluntary Counseling and Testing services in most public diploma colleges in Nairobi District has been hindered by a number challenges such as attitudes and perception towards going for test, stigmatization, lack of parental guidance on issues pertaining HIV / AIDS and support and lack of understanding of risks. To overcome this hindrance, respondents suggested increased awareness, availability and accessibility ofVCT services. These findings have deep implications in contributing towards implementation of sound policies guiding voluntary HIV and AIDS counseling and testing among college and university students in Kenya.

Determination of naturally occuring radioactive elements and radiation exposure levels in the soapstone quarries of Tabaka region of Kisii District, Kenya

Author: Atambo, Vincent Otwori

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Radiology ; Tabaka, Kisii District ; Kisii District ; Soapstone ; Radiation ;

Abstract:

A radiological study was carried out in the soapstone quarries of Tabaka region of Kisii district in the Southern Nyanza province, Kenya, where soapstone is mined and used as a carving medium. In this study, 14 soil and rock samples collected from five quarries were analyzed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The absorbed dose rates were measured 1 metre above the ground at each quarry using a model 2000 Canberra radiagem. Various radionuc1ides were .identified in the samples. The activity concentrations of radionuc1ides 232Th, 40K and 226Ra in the samples as well as other radiological parameters were determined. The activity concentrations for 232Th ranged from 38.60 to 271.70 Bqkg-I, 226Ra ranged from 43.10 to 360.00 Bqkg-I and 40K ranged from 245.00 to 1780.00 Bqkg-I. The average absorbed dose rate for the five quarries measured 1metre above the ground was 541.40 nGyh-l. The calculated absorbed dose rates were found to be in the range of 87.49 to 356.77 nGyh-l, with an overall average value of 183.79 nGyh-1 which was 4 times higher than the world average (43 nGyh-I). The corresponding annual effective dose rates due to the radionuc1ides 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in the quarries ranged from 0.22 to 0.88 msvy', with a mean of 0.44 mSvil, assuming a 40% occupancy factor. Both the internal and external hazard indices were found to be more than unity (1.02 and 1.28 respectively), hence exceeding the permissible limits set by International Commission on Radiological Protection, 2000. The annual effective dose in the quarries was less than 1 mSvil, the limit acceptable for the public.