86 Records out of 22207 Records

Influence of credit requirements on accessing constituency women enterprise fund among women self-help groups in Thika West District

Author: Githinji, Nicholas Ndiritu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Thika West District ; Women's Enterprise Development Fund ; Women owned businesses ; Loans ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to research on the influence of credit requirements on accessing constituency women enterprise fund among women self-help groups. The study was necessitated by the fact that despite the government effort to realize the 3rd millennium development goal of ensuring gender equality and women empowerment through women enterprise development fund programme as one of the flagship project under the social pillar of Vision 2030, women still remain stuck at micro-enterprise level because of the hurdles they face in accessing credit either through the government agencies or the financial lenders. The research objectives of the study highlighted are; generating viable business idea; the process vetting of loan applicants; the business experience of beneficiary groups and the cost of funds. The study is significant in that it addresses the hurdles that self-help women groups' face in accessing the women enterprise funds such as it provides the right intervention to improve utilization of the funds. The research methodology that this study employed was qualitative approach and in particular descriptive survey. The study adopted probability sampling and specifically random sampling in order to sample the target population. The study employed the administered questionnaires as data collection instruments where piloting was done to test reliability of the research instruments. The key findings of this study were that motivations of women in their informal groups are often tied to necessity and lack of other employment opportunities which drive them to initiate groups' project activities. Secondly, women groups rated the process of accessing fund as one the greatest hurdle because of the many stringent conditions to borrow. Thirdly, women in the informal sector reported that lack of skills and training in handling finances and also generating viable but sustainable business idea was also an obstacle to them. Last but not the least, where fund was accessible the cost of credit was found to be very expensive for most women groups which made the enterprises almost uneconomical to operate the financed projects.

Influence of women entrepreneurs' management skills on the performance of micro and small enterprises in municipality Division of Kakamega County, Kenya

Author: Awuor, Jacqueline

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kakamega, Kenya ; Small business ; Women owned businesses ; Entrepreneurs ; Management ; Women's Enterprise Development Fund ;

Abstract:

This study discusses the influence of women entrepreneurs' management skills on the performance of micro and small enterprises in municipality division of Kakamega County. The background of the study discussed women in the micro and small enterprises around the world, in Africa, in Kenya and narrowed down to municipality division of Kakamega County. This study addressed reasons why very few businesses owned by women grow both vertically and horizontally despite the government's intention to empower women economically as per the statement of the problem. The purpose ofthis study was to establish the influence of women entrepreneurs' management skills on the performance of micro and small enterprises in municipality division of Kakamega County. Objectives of the study were to examine how women entrepreneurs' financial management skills, explore how women entrepreneurs' technical skills, establish how women entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial skills, determine whether women entrepreneurs' networking skills and assess how women entrepreneurs' marketing skills influenced the performance of micro and small enterprises in municipality division, Kakamega County. This study adopted descriptive survey design with both qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches. A sample size of 132 respondents was drawn from a target population of 3000 women entrepreneurs within the municipality Division. Questionnaires were used to collect data. On validity of the instruments, the study used content validity while the test re-test method was used to test reliability which yielded a Reliability coefficient of 0.8. Out of the 132 respondents sampled, 119 questionnaires were returned and this was 90.2% return rate that was acceptable. The findings of the study was that women entrepreneurs' financial management skills, technical skills, entrepreneurial skills, networking skills and marketing skills have to be taken into consideration for women entrepreneurs to realize growth in their businesses. The study further found out that awareness on the relevant sources of finance is still low especially the Women Enterprise Fund. Most ofthe women entrepreneurs were quite skeptical about group-based loans as they felt it was quite punitive especially if a member defaults. On the contrary, the financial intermediaries given the responsibility to disburse individual loans had not created enough awareness on the Women Enterprise Fund loans. The study concluded that performance of women owned micro and small enterprises could only be achieved effectively through the government's intervention by devising other means of disbursing the loans. A countrywide monitoring and evaluation team to be organized at grassroots levels to ensure access to these funds. Based on the findings, the study recommended that seminars and workshops to be organized through churches and village barazas in order to sensitize women entrepreneurs on the required management skills. The government through the ministry of gender to work in partnership with the local organizations in planning for trainings. Trainings to be organized in a flexible manner to cater for all. This will help reduce poverty levels by improving their living standards and encourage growth. A comparative study should be done on the women entrepreneurs' uptake of Women Enterprise Fund loans. Entrepreneurship as an area of study to be incorporated in the school curriculum so that schoolleavers acquire the necessary skills in managing a business while still in school. This will help them venture into successful businesses and thus reduce unemployment rates.

Factors influencing rural women entrepreneurs to access micro credit services in Sirisia Division, Kenya

Author: Silikhani, Regina Nafula

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Rural areas/Women owned businesses/Entrepreneurs/Microfinance/Sirisia Division, Bungoma District ;

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate factors influencing rural women entrepreneurs to access micro credit services in Sirisia Division. The study aimed at finding out how infrastructure, education, traditions, collateral requirements and technology influenced rural women entrepreneurs to access micro credit services even in the advent of affordable rates. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of women entrepreneurs under the study. The instruments of data collection were reliable having been tested through the Test Rest approach. Concerning the validity of the instruments, content validity was applied to ensure that the instruments represented what they were designed to measure. The target population was 488 women entrepreneurs according to locations. A sample of 220 women entrepreneurs was selected through systematic random sampling. Collected data was then analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages. Previous studies had shown that microfinance institutions played a vital role in the economic development of many developing countries through the provision of a wide range of financial products and services to the rural poor, low-income households and micro and small enterprise. The study revealed that access to credit facilities by rural women entrepreneurs was greatly influenced by poor infrastructure, low level of education, inadequate collateral requirements and inappropriate technology. It then concluded that women entrepreneurs needed education and sensitization on business and financial management as well as embracing technology so as to minimize defaulting and exits. The study recommended that the policy makers put into consideration rural road network development and rural electrification so that rural women entrepreneurs enjoy doing businesses in the remote areas where their businesses operate and this will benefit even those outside the division and the society at large. Sensitization on the rights of women on property ownership should be reinforced for them to use valuable assets as security for loans. Rural women entrepreneurs also need technological enlightenment to enable them carry out activities concerning their businesses without relying on those with the knowhow. This will help them save on time and resources.

The role of micro and small enterprises on women empowerment in Muthurwa Market in Nairobi

Author: Wachira, Neophitus Nancy

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Small business/Women owned businesses/Entrepreneurs/Economic impact/Muthurwa Market, Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Women entrepreneurship in particular is attracting the attention of policy makers and researchers because it has been recognized during the last decade as an important and untapped source of economic growth. However, we still lack a reliable and detailed picture of the economic impact on women's entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship development among women is one activity that promises encouraging results. By motivating, training and assisting women towards independent business ventures, it may be possible to bring beneficial results in the development of a region. Women's entrepreneurial activities are not only a means for economic survival but also, to empower them economically and enable them to contribute more to overall development. The main objective of the study was to establish the impact of women's entrepreneurial activities in Muthurwa Market. The specific objectives of the study were to explore the benefits of women's entrepreneurial activities and to determine the challenges that women faced as entrepreneurs. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection, which included key informants interviews and a structured questionnaire. The study randomly sampled 75 women entrepreneurs, while 10 key informants were purposively selected from government officers in local authority, women organizations within the market, financial institutions that lend money to the women entrepreneurs and City Council business licensing officers. From the study, it was evident that women entrepreneurs had benefited from their businesses and were able to meet the family food expenditure, meet the children's school fees, pay house rent, increase stock and client base. The study findings show that women entrepreneurs start their businesses with minimal start-up capital obtained through loans from merry-go-round groups and family savings. The study also shows that women entrepreneurs traded in electronics, new clothes and second hand clothes. Further, the study shows that women entrepreneurs use their income to pay school fees for their children, feed the family and whatever is left is used to expand the business. The study findings show that more than three quarters of the women entrepreneurs had secondary and post secondary school level education while slightly over half of them had some form of training after school. Only a minority had primary level education level. The study shows that women entrepreneurs faced a number of challenges such as balancing business time and family work, access to financial credit, balancing family expqnditure and business growth, the process of acquiring a license, their double roles as well as low education levels. The study recommends that the process of registering and acquiring a business license be defined and simplified so that a lot of time and resources are not wasted while trying to register a business and to also make it affordable and friendly to the women entrepreneurs. The study recommends that there is need to have appropriate data on the informal economy. Thus, there is need to have sufficient and detailed statistics on the small and micro enterprises especially those operated by women so as to inform decision making policy formulation and planning. The study further recommends training of women entrepreneurs on aspects of sound business management, customer care, Information Communication Technology (lCT) and business diversification to help them improve on their business management skills and overcome the challenges of balancing business time and resources with family time and resources. The study recommends that the process of getting a loan from the Women Enterprise Fund be redefined and shortened, so that it can be friendly to those with limited education levels and women entrepreneurs can access loans from the Fund.

Socio-economic impact of women enterprise fund on the livelihoods of women in Kenya (a case study of Thika)

Author: Riany, Etter A

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Socioeconomic factors/Women Enterprise Fund, Kenya/Families and family life/Women owned businesses/Thika, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

This research was carried out to find out the Socio-economic impact of Women Enterprise Fund on the livelihoods of women in Kenya with specific reference to Theca district. Specifically the study sought to: ascertain types of income generating activities supported by WEF; investigate the socio-economic impact of Women Enterprise Fund on the livelihoods of women in Kenya: establish whether Women Enterprise Fund has reached the target beneficiaries and to establish the challenges faced by the Women Enterprise Fund in improving the livelihoods of women in Kenya. Literature review and theoretical framework was conducted and the study was therefore anchored around Social Cognitive Theory of gender development and differentiation, Rational Choice Theory, Feminism and Empowerment theories. Survey research design was used in this study. The researcher interviewed respondents in the population by administering a standardized questionnaire to them. Survey research design was utilized because it made it possible to collect data from large or small populations (sometimes referred to as the universe of a study). A total population of 62 respondents was thus interviewed based on a list provided from the data bank of WEF office of Thika Constituency under Central regional office. From the study it is found that after starting the business women s status has been increased in the fami ly and in the society thanks to WEF. Now they can enjoy freedom in their decision making and also can contribute in family decision making due to the fact that they can also now contribute in the family econornicallv.

Socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of women entrepreneurs in Mombasa county, Kenya

Author: Karani, Purity Kairuthi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mombasa County/Small business/Women owned businesses/Entrepreneurs/Business conditions/Rural areas ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to examine on the socio-cultural factors influencing the performance of entrepreneurs in Mombasa County. Women especially those living in the rural communities the urban poor still face daunting challenges. It has been noted that women enterprises are smaller, less likely to grow, less profitable and begin less capital investment than those owned by men. Despite the absolute increase in number of women in self-employment in recent years, there still exist significant differences in the level of new firm creation across gender and the number of women involved in starting business is significantly and systematically lower than that of men. There are a large number of women in Mombasa County but they are not yet well exploiting existing entrepreneurship opportunities to contribute towards economic development. One of the reasons for this might be the education gap of women entrepreneurs in entrepreneurship. This forces entrepreneurs in entrepreneurship not to contribute a lot to the poverty reduction of the town, region and the country as a whole. A number of initiatives have been taken by Government, donors and Non-Governmental organizations both local and international to increase the start-up rates and performance of women owned entrepreneurship in Kenya. Nevertheless, women in the sector are still found predominantly in low-performance rates, earning lower revenues than their male counter parts. For many women, their involvement in business activities has yet to bring them to the point of economic sustainability and advance them in a manner that is beneficial to them and to the economy I in general. The literature reviewed showed the extent of the factors in the overall performance of women in entrepreneurship as stated in the conceptual framework. Prior literature has indicated that women possess different characteristics and thus strengths and/or weaknesses compared to men. As such, the collection of data on the profile, experience, management skill and competency, size and sector. In line with the social learning theory, the parents must be encouraged to motivate their children, particularly daughters to venture into entrepreneurship, In the past decades, many of these parents are employees and therefore, they would expect their child to become one too. However, with the strong economic growth and greater awareness on entrepreneurship, many new ventures have surfaced. A quantitative, descriptive design was used to study a sample of 200 women entrepreneurs engaged in 5 sectors was taken for the study. In the process of answering the basic questions, a questionnaire that include demographic profiles, characteristics of women entrepreneurs and their enterprises, factors that affect the performance of women entrepreneurs in entrepreneurships and supports entrepreneurship acquire. The study was carried out using a structured questionnaire for respondents and a discussion guide for key informants all administered through scheduled interviews based upon the theory of planned behavior. This study described the characteristics of certain groups, estimated the proportion of people who have certain characteristics and made predictions. Stratified sampling method was used to compare entrepreneurial practices at the same point in time. The design that was chosen for this study was due to its ability to ensure minimization of bias and maximization of reliability of evidence collected. The qualitative and quantitative data collected various sectors revealed the overall performance in the different areas of research which indicated how women entrepreneurship had been influenced in Mombasa County. In this chapter, the strengths, opportunities, challenges and threats were outlined in line with their profiles and thus informed how decision making in terms of entrepreneurship for women could get a new twist in the development area. All the aspects of women entrepreneurship including their experience, divers

The impact of microfinance services on women empowerment : a case study of Kikuyu Division

Author: Kamau, Robert Ndungu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Economic impact/Microfinance/Financial services/Women/Women owned businesses/Kikuyu Division ;

Abstract:

The focus of the study was to establish the impact of microfinance services to the empowerment of women in Kikuyu Division. Targeting women from women groups in kikuyu was purposeful for it is an upcoming region with a bit of cosmopolitan inhabitants who would be a good representative of a typical third world region and also being a predominantly a patriarchal society. An attempt was made to identify a few key indicators of women empowerment such as control of household decisions, conflict resolution, participation in social campaigns and loans and their uses. Quantifiable benefits in terms of diversification of livelihoods, income gains and acquisition of assets which are addressed satisfactorily through this instrument. Theories concerned with women empowerment and microfinance which include Women's empowerment theory, financial sustainability paradigm and poverty alleviation theory were looked at. Several empirical studies were reviewed A sample of 386 respondents, gave 250 usable questionnaires which were analyzed. Analytical tools such as maximum likelihood factor analysis; a data mining tool was used to recover the hidden factors and the corresponding sensitivities. Prior to using MLF A, scree test and proportion of variance method were used to determine the optimal number of common factors to use, where seven components were extracted. Correlation analysis was done amongst the variables which were used in this research study. The findings revealed that there was a high correlation between incomes earned, improved family relationship and leadership potential. These findings were consistent with the literature review where it was observed that empowerment had contributed to improved social and economic well being of the respondents.

A survey of the determinants of access to credit by women entrepreneurs in Toi market, Nairobi County

Author: Keke, Sailot

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Small business/Credit/Women owned businesses/Entrepreneurs/Toi Market, Nairobi County ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the determinants of access to credit by women entrepreneurs in Toi market, Nairobi County. The study was guided by the following research question: what are determinants of access to credit by women entrepreneurs in Nairobi. The research design was descriptive survey study in nature since it focused on more than one woman enterprises and it also focused on the status quo, in addition to describing the level of access by women entrepreneurs in Toi market. The target population of the study was the women entrepreneurs at TOr market. A sample of 40 stalls was selected from the Toi market traders whose stalls are located in section A and B using the random sampling technique. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected using a questionnaire that consisted of both open ended and close ended questions. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and results presented in frequency tables to show how the responses for the various questions posed to the respondents. The data was then analyzed in terms of descriptive statistics like frequencies, means and percentages. Results indicated that several factors determined the access of credit by women entrepreneurs. These factors include age of business, size of business, level of education, capital invested, financial records and risk preference. All factors had a significant effect on access to credit and hence indicated that there was a low level of access to credit. The study concludes that women had low access to credit from the banks. It was also possible to conclude that the access to credit by women and the performance of? women SMEs significantly differs from that of men because men are favored than the women. It was also possible to conclude that age of business, size of business, level of education, age and capital invested influence the level of access to credit by women from banks. The study recommended that measures such as finance training, education and ownership of resources such as land and property be emphasized and women encouraged to take the various available opportunities. This is because such measures would increase their level of credit access.

An analysis of external support on the growth of women owned micro enterprises : a survey of women enterprises in Thika Municipality

Author: Kiruthu, Catherine W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Entrepreneurs/Women owned businesses/Small business/Business conditions/Financial services/Thika, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of fi'nancial and non financial services on the quality and quantity of women owned enterprises in Thika Municipality as well as the concerns of the women entrepreneurs and providers of the services about the females. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the mix of financial and nonfinancial services women in micro enterprises receive from stakeholders, to assess the impact of external support on women owned enterprises in Thika Municipality and to find out the experiences and constraints of women entrepreneurs in seeking the services. The literature review comprised of the SME sector in Kenya, SME contribution to job creation in Kenya, characteristics and traits of entrepreneurs?, experience and entrepreneurship, risk taking, management skills, barriers and constraints women entrepreneurship. The theoretical framework was based on the feminist theory, Theory of poverty by Muhammad Yunus and David Mclleland achievement orientation model. The study adopted both descriptive and exploration survey designs. The target population comprised all the women entrepreneurs in SMEs in the following areas: textile and tailoring, retail, hospitality, services and vendorslhawkers. Questionnaires, interview schedules and observation guide were used as instruments for data collection. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the data. On the mix of financial and non financial services, the study found that 61 % of the respondents indicated that the credit services were difficult to access and that there was limited access to loans as evidenced by the fact that 65% of the respondents who indicated that they had borrowed less than 20,000ksh since they started their business. On the access to non financial services, 67% of the respondents indicated that they did not receive nonfinancial services such as financial and entrepreneurial training, capacity building on financial services, records maintenance, and business risk taking, loan management, marketing strategies and advertisement procedures. Among the external factors which affected women enterprises included the conditions for receiving loans as indicated by 99%. In terms of efforts by the Government of Kenya and other stakeholders in their attempt to empower women economically, 54% indicated that they were not aware of such efforts. Among the major constraints in seeking external services was inaccessibility to finances for business expansion as indicated by all respondents (100%) and inadequate skills and knowledge on business management as indicated 90% of the respondents. From the findings of the study, it was concluded that there was difficulty in the access to financial and non financial services among women entrepreneurs which is perceived to be a major challenge in their expansion and growth. It was also concluded that external support affected women enterprises through the conditions for access of loans. The study finally concluded that most of women having enterprises were not aware of the efforts made by the government, and other stakeholders in their attempt to empower women economically. The study recommended that government, and other stakeholders should come up with policies which will favour the growth of women enterprises. The study recommended that another study be carried out to investigate the challenges facing the management of women enterprises which was not the focus of this study.

Factors explaining female labour participation across different sectors in Kenya

Author: Kiranga, Francis Munyua

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Women owned businesses/Self employment/Female employees/Informal sector (Economics)/Economic trends ;

Abstract:

The general view of the informal sector is that it comprises of activities primarily of petty traders involved in such activities as selling second hard clothes, shoe shining, food selling and repair etc. Most of the informal sector workers operate mainly from streets of main urban centres.These activities generate income and profits though on small scale, uses simple skills and are dynamics and not tied to regulation of the activities. They have fewer employees (especially home based enterprises), they operate for a shorter period and have poor access to water and electricity (World Bank, 2006 P.32). In Kenya, married women enter into informal sector probably to help husbands in boosting the family's income. The husband provides in most cases the capital for starting the business. However, sometimes the husband may feel threatened by the success of such businesses and withdraw the financial support or bar women from operating the business. The labour market in Kenya has undergone several changes since the country's independence in 1963. For instance, owing to a rapid expansion of its education system, the supply of educated labour has increased over time. Furthermore, since the 1970s real wages have dropped steeply and the implementation of structural adjustment reforms (SAP) in 1980s has been accompanied by changes in the structure of employment, incomes and poverty. The economy has performed poorly as evident from low GDP growth and declining real earnings and standard of living. Both unemployment and informal sector employment have increased (informal sector employment has increased from 20% in 1988 to 79.1 % in 2007) while formal sector or modem wage employment has declined (from 77.5 % in 1988 to 20.2 % in 2007). This paper analysis what drives women to respond to different sectors of the labour force in Kenya in particular the informal sector especially given the renewed interest by the government and the private sector in Kenya today.