176 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors influencing women participation in political leadership : the case of Kimilili constituency of Bungoma county, Kenya

Author: Tabuka, Elizabeth Tundi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kimilili Constituency, Bungoma County/Politics/Women/Women's studies/Gender/Social life and customs/Cultural change ;

Abstract:

Politics is almost everywhere a male-oriented, male-dominated enterprise. Even though women in most countries have been in all legal respects politically equal to men for over forty years, sex differences in political participation are enormous. This study therefore sort to assess the 'factors influencing women participation in political leadership' a case of Kimilili Constituency of Bungoma County. This study highlights the deep- seated culture that define women primarily as wives and mothers, with electoral politics seen as an appropriate activity for men, but less so for women. The project has explored the ways in which c gender roles hindered the supply of, and demand for, women in the politics of Kenya moreover Kimilili constituency. It has also discussed how lack of finances, low women educational level and political factors influenced women's political participation in Kenya and moreover Kimilili. The study found out that women in Kimilili constituency are ignorant of their rights and moreover patriarchal system is still a hindrance of women participation in political leadership. Due to social-cultural, economic, education and political factors, found to influence women participation in political leadership in Kimilili Constituency the researcher recommended that changing culture to suit the political needs of women would be a very challenging option to carry forward in Kimilili. It is not an issue which is solvable overnight; hence women's participation in politics should be actively pursued by women. The Kenyan system has provided opportunities for women to show their capabilities. It is not the changing of culture; however, it is how one uses the available opportunities to be visible in eyes and ears of the chiefs, elders and heads of families. One has to use the opportunities given by culture to have an effect and inform changes to culture. The interest to carry out this research was prompted by the fact that participation in politics is a way of life for all human beings regardless of their gender, religion, class or ethnic background, however politics has predominantly been dominated by the male, despite the fact that women form a big percentage of the population and are the majority of voters in Kimilili Constituency.lt's so amazing that Kenya moreover Kimilili has potential women who can be leaders or even presidents of this country Kenya, but they aren't, the question is why? Therefore, this formed the need for this research. The research was conducted using a descriptive survey research design and the data was collected using interview guide where five women aspirants and six key informants were interviewed,questionnaires were also employed on men and women in eight wards of Kimilili constituency selected through purposive sampling and proportionate stratified sampling technique from the accessible population. It was analyzed using SPSS and presented in tables. The hypothesis was tested using Pearson Chi-square at 95% level of confidence. Pilot study was conducted using test re-test method to test the viability and reliability of the questionnaire administered.

A youthful spirit for all times : a biography of Julia Auma Ojiambo

Author: Were, Marciana Nafula

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Biographies/Ojiambo, Julia Auma/Women's studies/Politicians/ ;

Abstract:

The efforts put in place, both conscious and unconscious by women in public spaces have contributed to a large extent in the achievement of the national development goals. Be it in policy making, income generation, poverty alleviation, eliminating illitpracy or empowerment of the masses, these women have been at the forefront of various campaigns aimed at improving the well-being of their target groups, whose results can be verified by valid and verifiable statistics. Among these women are writers, educators, politicians, entrepreneurs, managers, medical personnel, entertainers, pastors and scientists, just to mention but a few. This is to say that the influence of women has and still is being felt in all domains of the social arena, which is part of a long struggle to raise the status of all people in the society. However, even with the visible changes that these women have effected in the Kenyan society, most of their efforts have not been acknowledged or well documented, thus the existing debate about the inability of women to handle matters of power as well as men. This study focuses on Julia Auma Ojiambo, whose participation in the political agenda has made her a considerably conspicuous person in the Kenyan public space. The focus of the study has been to write a biography of Julia's life so as present aspects of her life that have contributed to what and who she is today. Her journey to self-actualization, the challenges she has had to overcome, and the impact of her achievements to the development and political agendas of Kenyan society are some of the salient issues that have been captured by this study. The study was carried out in her childhood home area, her current constituency and various social arenas she navigates in. I collected data through interviews, observations and review of documents. I then wrote a biography to capture important milestones in her life.

The impact of some modes of women liberation on African Christian families in Kagio Town, Kirinyaga County

Author: Kirima, Phyllis Wangui

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Women's studies/Gender/Feminism/Social impact/Christianity/Families and family life/Kagio Town, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The study involves an examination of the impact of some modes of women liberation to the African Christian families in Kagio town, Kirinyaga County. Four objectives were addressed in order to successfully conduct the study. First an understanding of the African Christian family is examined. Second diverse types of women liberation and those common in Kagio Town are discussed. Then the emerging features in the African Christian family in view of the nature of gender relations triggered by diverse modes of women liberation are explicated. This is followed by drawing out some insights from the study in view of promoting more authentic gender relations. The conceptual perception of the research problem and the methodology are informed by three theories, namely: The mediation theory as propagated by Leonardo Boff and Clodovis Boff; Theory of Different Perception of Feminism resulting in Diverse Modes of Feminism by P. N. Wachege; and the theory of Remythologizaton and reconstruction by J. N. K. Mugambi. The mediation theory guides the method used in conducting the study- first the researcher mingled with the people in the area of study and got to learn first-hand information on the issue being researched, then a critical analysis of the assembled data is done, followed by a hermeneutic analysis, which is concerned with relating insights draw from the study to the Christian doctrines and finally coming up with practical suggestions on the way forward, in regards to the research problem. The respondents were selected through purposive random sampling. The major findings of the study are that women liberation had impacted on the family, both positively and negatively. Through the empowerment of the women, family life has been made better, through easier and better access to basic amenities. Contrary, marriage relationships have been challenged leading to family breakdown and consequential implications to the children and the society. Some of the challenges are such as; divorce, separation, domestic violence, infidelity, suicide, suicide murder of spouses and poor parenting. Some of the underlying causative factors to these challenges, which are attributed to women liberation include; culture shock, rivalry, It was suggested that pre-marital counselling be emphasized and the content and form reexamined. Marital counselling should also be emphasized and made readily 'available to people, irrespective of the backgrounds or orientations. Deeper and relevant catechism on issues confronting the family should be done, in view of the contemporary society. Church liturgy should be family centred, to help aid in spiritual growth and maturity of individuals, the family and the Church. Pastoral care, to victims of marital problems should be free of assumptions, stereotypes or unfounded proposition of the nature of the problems in the African Christian family. Parental schools for parents and house helps should be established. Parenting friendly policies such virtual office, should be adopted at the work places. Enlisting of male counterpart in the otherwise women only liberation initiative should be considered. Inter-cultural, ecumenical and interfaith approaches could be adopted in designing and implementing possible solutions to the African Christian family.

The role of community radio in promoting economic empowerment among women in Kenya : a case of Radio Mang'elete in Nthongoni location, Mtito-Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya

Author: Kivindu, Festus Mutua

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Community development/Radio broadcasting/Information dissemination/Social conditions and trends/Women's studies/Radio Mang'elete/Nthongoni Location/Kamba language ;

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to explore the potential role of community radio in promoting economic empowerment among women in developing corqmunities and more specifically where men have taken a leading role in the management of society's resources. This inquiry was undertaken through the use of a case study of Mang' elete Community Radio, popularly known as Radio Mang'elete in NthongoniLocation, MtitoAndei Division. The station which is located in a semi-arid area is recognized as the pioneer community radio station in Kenya having been started by a group of women who felt marginalized and therefore needed a tool that could enable them voice issues that were affecting them to the rest of society. It is for this reason that the study sought to inquire if the radio in question has had any significant role in empowering women in Nthongoni Location through its daily programming as attributed in its slogan 'Wasya wa Maendeeo '-Voice of Development. In addition, the study is premised on the idea that, increasing programming content relating to issues that affect women will in tum give them a voice on matters that affect them in their daily community lives. According to this study, the term empowerment will be loosely defined as the ability of one to exercise choice, control or power in his/her life in order to achieve individual equality in society. Empowerment in this case, will be premised on the women's economic power as far as challenging their status quo in the community is concerned. However, the study will also make an effort to understand how the local women define economic empowerment within the context of their location. In order to understand further the role played by the radio in question, the study will also try to gauge if the women are involved in production of information, sharing of information amongst them and their ability to act on information disseminated to themthrough the station's local programmes. The study is guided by the conviction that community participation is a key tenet in the development and existence of community radio world over. Key to this study will be to look' at the economic activities that the target groups engage in and if the station has really spurred them to that direction. To achieve this, the study will make use of both conceptual and theoretical framework in trying to understand the impact of the local station on the target audience and how the locals have used information to develop themselves. Detailed literature review will be conducted in line with the objective of the study. In addition, In-depth interviews and questionnaires will be utilized as the data collection instruments. Lastly, data collected from the field will be analyzed accordingly and a summary of the findings will be presented as a final report of the study. Given the remote setting of Radio Mang' elete, the study is guided by the assumption that the locals have access to Radio Mang' elete and that community radio have the potential of promoting economic development in society.

Gender quality and empowerment of women in poverty reduction : the case of the local links project in Kibera Division, Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Omondi, Charles Paul

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gender ; Women's studies ; Low income groups ; Local Links Project, Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The study sought to explore the situation of Kibera informal settlement in regard to promoting gender equality and empowerment of women in poverty reduction. The study took the case of the Local Links Project in Kibera which was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the President's Emergency Plan ~or AIDS Relief. The project was implemented by CARE Kenya in all the 13 villages in Kibera in partnership with 20 CBOs, 20 FBOs, 15 youth groups and 70 learning institutions. The aim was to improve . the quality of the lives of OVCs and their families in the poor and marginalized informal settlement of Kibera. The study was anchored on MDG Number Three which seeks to promote gender equality and empower women. The objectives of the study were; to examine the proportion of literacy levels between men and women within the age bracket of 15 to 24 years; to assess the role of economic empowerment in promoting gender equality in Kibera slums; to establish the influence of women leadership on promoting gender equality and empowering women and to determine the ratio of boys to girls enrolled in various levels of education in Kibera slums. Literature review focused on works of various scholars and development agencies in the areas of gender and the MDG Number Three. A critical in depth analysis of previous studies was done and the discussion divided into the following sections; progress on MDG 3, ratio of girls to boys in institutions of learning and literacy levels, women in non-agricultural wage employment, women in political leadership and decision making, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and finally the researcher's analysis of the literature review is contained in the summary. The study used cross-sectional survey research design. The target population included CBOs and youth groups under the Local Links Project in Kibera. Through the use of random stratified sample, the study ended up with a sample size of 30 respondents. 20 respondents interviewed were from CBOs and 10 were from youth groups. Data was collected using various tools such as questionnaires, key informants guides as well as focused group discussion guide. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social science and analysis involved; cross tabulation and use of measures of central tendency. The findings of the study revealed that Kibera slum is making a progress in regard to achieving MDG 3. Gender parity in school enrolment has been achieved and economic empowerment plays a big role in promoting gender equality. The influence of women leadership on promoting gender equality and empowering women is still being hindered by retrogressive cultural beliefs. Literacy level of the girl child is also low compared to that of the boy child. The study recommends gender mainstreaming in programs, introduction of gender studies in lower levels of education and incorporation of men to champion women empowerment.

Influence of socio-economic status on aspiration of women for political leadership in Kenya : a case of Kanduyi Constituency, Bungoma County

Author: Nabiswa, Gladys Nafula

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Socioeconomic factors ; Women ; Political behavior ; Leadership ; Kanduyi Constituency ; Women's studies ;

Abstract:

Given that women form more than half of the Kenyan population; their low participation in politics means that the needs and interests of more than half of the population are not being prioritized in national development. The purpose of the study is to establish the influence of social economic status on aspiration of women for political leadership in Kenya (a Case of Kanduyi Constituency, Bungoma County). The objectives of the study were: to establish the influence of education levels, income levels, gender stereotypes and multiple roles'of women on their aspiration for political leadership. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that was carried out in Kanduyi Constituency, Bungoma County. The study population comprised 476 (472 women aspirants and leaders of political parties and 4 officials from government and civil society). The study dealt with a sample population of 218 respondents. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires and interview guide. Reliability of the instruments was determined by piloting the instruments in neighboring Bumula constituency. Validity of the instruments was enhanced by requesting the experts in the area of Research Methods at the University of Nairobi to examine content validity. Data was collected, coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics aided by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Data was presented using tables of frequencies and percentages. Key findings revealed that that age was an issue in women political leadership positions as most women who participated in political leadership were mature and elderly as young women tend to shy off due to family responsibilities, less income and do not want to take risk with their careers. It was also found that low level of income was the most important factor hindering women from aspiring for political office in Kanduyi .Constituency. Balancing multiple roles of women was reported to 'be a big factor in determining whether women could join politics. Women are affected by family chores and cultural stereotyping and their dual roles in reproductive and productive work hampers their participation. The study concluded that most women are discouraged in fully participating in political leadership due to their low socio-economic status (low education, low income, heavy domestic work load and gender stereotyping (sometimes characterized with violence and abusive language). The study recommended that the government needs to strengthen policies on women involvement in political leadership, women empowerment with economic resources and awareness and training programmes on gender issues, to encourage women to fully pick political leadership as a career. This study was restricted to Political Women Aspirants in Kanduyi constituency; the researcher recommends that another study be carried out in other categories of political leaders in Bungoma County. Also a thorough study needs to be carried out on the role of the government in promoting women participation in political party leadership as stipulated in the constitution of Kenya and an in depth study needs to be carried out about the effect of sociocultural issues and gender stereotyping in shaping women's decisions about their participation in Bungoma County, after the current constitution has been fully. implemented.

Challenges facing women media practitioners in Kenya

Author: Mugwe, Rosemary N

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gender ; Women ; Broadcasting industry ; Women's studies ; Kenya Broadcasting Corporation ; Royal Media Group ; Standard Media Group ; Nation Media Group ;

Abstract:

The existence of gender inequalities has continued to undermine human and social development for many decades. Eliminating gender inequality to allow for equal opportunities in all industries including the media is one of the biggest challenges facing the world today. Although globally women media practitiouers are making significant contribution as workers in the media sector, they are faced with numerous challenges while pursuing their careers in the sector. The aim of this study was to investigate the challenges facing women media practitioners in Kenya and identify ways through which these challenges can be overcome. The study intended to provide a platform to relevant stakeholders in the media industry for addressing gender issues and concerns. The study adopted the gender theory of liberal feminism, a gender theory based on egalitarianism/equality of opportunity and freedom developed by Wollstonecraft. A conceptual framework was logically designed to describe the model of problems, causes, strategies and results of women and challenges in the media houses. The study was based on the assumption that women media practitioners in Kenya face numerous gender-related challenges in their work, which are common and can be overcome. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey, focusing on Kenya's four major media houses, the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC), Royal Media, Standard group and Nation Media Group. The target population comprised of women media practitioners in the editorial department of the four major media houses in Kenya. Purposive sampling method was used to select the target population. A semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents followed by interviews to complement the questionnaire survey. Data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by descriptive statistics and presented in tables, charts, graphs and written narratives. The study established that majority of women face gender related challenges to career advancement such as sexual harassment, lack of a clear career path; women are rarely given decision making roles; there's lack of child care policy in the media houses and there is unequal division of labour. The findings also indicated that management's commitment to gender balance and sensitively are still below average and the corporate culture does not support women's participation and career advancement. It was concluded that sexual harassment is of serious concern, gender awareness is far from realisation and most journalists are not aware of the policies that are in place in their respective organizations. The study recommends for media owners and policy makers to develop practical approaches to address gender related issues and concerns at all levels in the media industry. Four areas for further research to establish more insights on gender disparities are recommended.

The challenges female students in engineering courses face at the University of Nairobi

Author: Mugo, Hellen Wangechi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: University of Nairobi. School of Engineering ; University students ; Colleges and universities ; Women's studies ; Women ; Gender ; College admissions ; Careers ; Engineering ;

Abstract:

This study examined the challenges female students in engineering courses face at the University of Nairobi. Central to the study was the analysis of the factors that motivate female students to select engineering as their area of study, the issues that affect female students ip their studies and their suggestions on what should be done to enhance their academic performance. Both primary and secondary data were collected using survey and interview methods in September, 2012. A survey was conducted at the School of Engineering, University of Nairobi with thirty female students as respondents. There is a large disparity in the ratio of men to women studying Science, Engineering and Technology courses in public universities in Kenya generally. There are many efforts taken by the Government of Kenya, the universities and other stakeholders to increase the number of women in these sectors and though these efforts are yielding fruits the change is slow. The study was guided by the Gender and Development theory. The study found that there has been an upward trend in the number of female students enrolled in engineering courses at the University of Nairobi and their academic performance was good. The findings reveal that most the challenges female students in engineering are similar in several respects to those faced by male students. The study further revealed that most female engineering students selected the course because they attained good grades in their end of high school examinations, and because engineering is a prestigious and well-paying career. The findings also indicate that many female students find engineering studies demanding because of its heavy workload and inadequate learning facilities. The study further revealed that availing better learning material and improving facilities overall would go a long way to improve the learning environment and performance of female students. Most of the challenges reported by female students during this study were not gender-specific. The female students said they had not been victims of sexual harassment. The study concludes that the main problems female students face are not unique to them as women but are experienced by male students too. The study recommends that continuous implementation of affirmative action in admissions should be adopted and the learning facilities and resources at the university should be improved to enhance the educational experience of students.

Factors affecting entrepreneurs' performance in Kenya : a case of Nairobi Women Groups in the Central Business District

Author: Mugo, Lucy Waruguru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Central Business District, Nairobi, Kenya ; Entrepreneurs ; Women's studies ; Women owned businesses ; Economic development ;

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting women entrepreneurs' performance in Kenya. Women being the backbone of economies in developing countries and specifically in Kenya, playa significant role to ensure their families' well being. The study sought to determine how women's entrepreneurship affects economic growth and development and the impact on women's entrepreneurship in economic development. The study would benlfit stakeholders since it provides information that can be used to formulate policy. The study would be a source of reference material for future researchers on other related topics; it would also help other academicians who undertake the same topic in their studies. The financial institutions would endeavour to offer community service, do business and come up with appropriate products for women in business. The study advocates women education through seminars to help them keep proper record which shows proper business operation, and help them assess the business margins and mark-up to weigh the rate of business returns on their own. The design of this research was a descriptive survey research. A descriptive survey research seeks to obtain information that describes existing phenomena by asking individuals about their perceptions, attitude, behaviour or values. The data collected was analyzed using inferential statistics. After the data collection, the researcher pre-processed the data to eliminate unwanted and unusable data which could have been contradictory or ambiguous, the researcher, developed a coding scheme by creating codes and scales from the responses which was then summarized and analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS).

Challenges facing women's participation in elective politics in Gwassi Constituency, Homa Bay County, Western Kenya

Author: Migowa, Consolata Yambo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Women ; Gwassi, Homa Bay County ; Political behavior ; Socioeconomic factors ; Women's studies ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the economic, cultural and educational challenges facing women's participation in elective politics in Gwassi Constituency. It specifically assessed the influence of income, level of education and values, ideas and practice. defining gender relations on women's participation in elective political events and processes like voting, contesting for a political seat and taking part in the campaigns. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research design was employed in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed with the aid of SPSS for windows and results summarised using tables and graphs. Qualitative responses were analysed thematically and results harmonised with those of the descriptive aspects. Findings indicate that the women of Gwassi face a variety of challenges with regard to their participation in elective politics. These challenges border on their overtly low level of education and highly patriarchal orientation of the society in which they live. Due to low level of education in the constituency, a vast number of women are unable to access employment opportunities that would enable them acquire financial resources needed for key political processes. This situation is made worse by the fact that for a majority of households in the constituency, the decisions and actions of the female lot are to a large extent dictated by the heavily patriarchal idiosyncratic positions and circumstances of their male partners, a classic masculine cultural condition that is still very strong in the Constituency. However, qualitative data strongly indicate that balancing attendance of political events like open field public campaign rallies and securing their livelihood needs is an anathema to many women. This raises the possibility that income reinforces low participation in elective politics through intermediary factors like education and ability to anchor the resource base needed for the inherent processes. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that economic, cultural and education factors impose fundamental challenges on participation of women in elective politics in Gwassi Constituency. In particular, low level educational attainment by the mass of women constituents, limited income generating opportunities and persistence of male dominance in the control of resources and power structures in this society are critical impediments to effective participation of women in elective politics. The study, therefore, recommends design of appropriate policies and programmes for promotion of women's participation in politics.