43 Records out of 22207 Records

Effects of soil and water conservation practices on food security of small scale households : a case study of Machakos County, Kenya

Author: Madara, Audrey

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Soil conservation ; Water conservation ; Food security ; Farmers ; Machakos County ;

Abstract:

The economic performance and development prospects of many developing countries like Kenya are largely dependent on cash crop production. The heavy dependence of these developing countries on agricultural commodities exposes them to adverse economic impacts, sometimes with harmful consequences for growth and the reduction of poverty (Doppler, 2004). The study covered Muisuni are in Kangundo, Machakos district in a quest to establish the effects of soil and water conservation practices of food security. The study had a response rate of 52 per cent where 57.7 percent (i.e. 30) respondents were male and 42.3 percent (22) were female. 61.5 percent were of secondary & above education levels, as expected, 71.2 percent were elderly with 41 years arid above and the majority 90.4 percent was married. The study was looking at answering its research questi of a) to establish how farmers in the study area are exposed to agricultural extension educative efforts; b) to establish the level of food security among the households sampled; c) to examine the characteristics of the households sampled; d) to find out the types of soil and water conservation practices recommended and used and finally e) their level of adoption by households. The study mainly used frequency tables on every variable to try and look at the significance in relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable in our case being food security. This study focused on water and soil conservation to impact on the food production (maize) and security in developing countries Was a modest attempt to bridge the knowledge gap on the various ways to deal with rain water sources, reduce soil degradation and increase food production. From the multivariate level, there were 5 household characteristics variables in the model, the model showed a weak relationship where 37.98 percent of the variation in food security is accounted for by the independent variables in the model. From the results as well, age was seen as having the highest strength in variation as compared to the other four independent variable, meaning that for the age variable, we would expect an increase of 20.95 percent in the food security variable score for every one unit increase in age value assuming that all the other variables in the model are held constant. According to the model, it also shows that gender has a highly negative variation to the dependent variable food security. The study therefore concluded that Age is a very important factor to food security as amongst others, it show that the respondents are well exposed to information and are conclusively aware of what to expect and where to go to in cases of agricultural deficiencies. The study recommended further research to food security as food security does not only focus on crop yield. The study therefore recommends further conclusive research be done to combine the various components of food security in order to get the conclusive impact of independent variables to food security. Early warning systems should be put in place in order to assist the farmers plan and have knowledge on what decisions to make on their farming practices. Partnering with the private sector should also be encouraged this will facilitate sharing of information.

The role of print media in the campaign for Water conservation : a content analysis of the daily nation newspaper

Author: Abukuse, Sylvia

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Water conservation ; Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Media coverage ; Newspapers ;

Abstract:

The study was set out investigate how the Daily Nation Newspaper covered the water conservation issues between 1 st September 2009 and 31 December 2009. Research Methodology used was content analysis. The study was based on The Daily nation newspaper that is published from Monday to Friday. The Saturday and Sunday newspapers of the Daily Nation Newspaper were not included because they are referred to as weekend publications. The units of analysis were published in those months. Frequencies, the numbers of articles, their placement in the paper that is, front page lead, back page, inside page and other variables were all used to analyse the content of the articles. The study showed that water conservation issues were given more prominence in the September and October issues and moving down to December, the prominence declined. The study ends with recommendation that the media should continue campaigning for water conservation since water is a necessity of life and a lot of airtime should be given to it in order to sensitize the public on the conservation strategies and its importance.

Improving small holder land productivity through promotion of sustainable soil and water conservation technologies in Machakos District : a case of vegetative macro contour lines

Author: Baaru, Mary Wamuyu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kathekakai Location, Machakos District ; Soil conservation ; Water conservation ; Land use ;

Abstract:

The study was carried out at Kathekakai settlement scheme, Machakos District to evaluate effects of vegetative macro contour line on soil moisture content and crop performance. In addition, the study also looked at land use and land cover changes in the area, farmer perception on soil erosion and, soil and water conservation technologies as well natural resource change. The research methods used in this study included: baseline survey, focus group discussions and farmer interviews, landsat imagery map analyses and establishment of vegetative macro contour line, The latter comprised of three treatments, namely, terraced vegetative macro contour line with maize-dolichos intercrop and ditch (TVMDD), un-terraced vegetative macro contour line with maize-dolichos intercrop and vegetative macro contour line (UVMD) and terraced vegetative macro contour line with maize mono crop and ditch (TVMD), arranged in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD). Observations were made on soil moisture content and crop performance under these treatments. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted and means separated at P:::;0.05. The result confirm that soil erosion is a major challenge at Katheka-kai settlement scheme, and that most farmers rely more on advice from other farmers (65%) than experts (40%) to control runoff. Lack of training (30%) was identified as key constraint to investment in soil and water conservation measures. Farmers also reported that natural resources (e.g. forests and water resources) had declined with time, a situation they associated with increasing population usually leading to land clearing either for agricultural or development activities. According to landsat imageries, savanna grassland, forest cover, cultivated land and built-up areas increased by 15.8, 2.7, 1.8 and 0.5% whereas rocky areas, bareland and water bodies decreased by 12.8, 7.4 and 0.5% between 1988 and 2009 respectively. However, rocky and bare land became forested, a situation that was associated to population growth that made people to settle on any available land. Results on soil moisture content indicated higher soil moisture levels along the ditch than all other slope positions within the bench. Although there were no significant differences between treatments, terraced benches recorded 15% and 13% higher soil moisture in TVMDD and TVMD treatments. respectively compared to UVMD treatment. Furthermore, the upper and lower slope positions gave significantly (P:::;0.05) higher soil moisture content compared to middle position. Besides, biomass yield and crop perfomance trend on the bench terrace was similar to that observed for soil moisture. While no significant differences were observed for biomass yield and plant height, TVMDD had plants taller by 60% than those in UVMD treatment. Moreover, TVMDD and TVMD treatments gave 9 and 2% higher biomass yield respectively compared to UVMD treatment. Additionally, upper and lower slope positions tended to have taller plants and higher biomass yield than the middle slope position. The results show some degree of effective soil moisture conservation associated with the ditch which seems to serve as a water harvesting site. The fmdings thus, signifies the possibility of enhancing productivity through establishment of terraced vegetative macro contour line. For this reason, the technology ought to be considered when advising on and implementing agricultural activites.

The role of ICT in adoption of soil and water conservation technologies for small holder farmers : the case of Kajiado North and Lugari districts in Kenya

Author: Wanjala, Titus

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Information systems/Communications networks/Soil conservation/Water conservation/Farmers/Farm management/Kajiado North District/Lugari District ;

Abstract:

Kenya typifies the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries where over 80 percent of the population is dependent on agriculture as a livelihood. The smallholders who dominate Kenyan agriculture are faced by various challenges among them inadequate access to technical agricultural information. This has been attributed to lack of appropriate agricultural information systems and services, lack of timely and relevant information and ineffective linkages among agricultural researchers, extension workers and farmers. The Kenyan smallholders should not only strive to increase agricultural productivity from existing farmland, but further meet the sustainability pillars, i.e. environmental, social and economic aspects. If soil and water erosion are to be reduced, then smallholders should adopt to Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) technologies. There is renewed interest towards the role of information in fostering agricultural production in Kenya, prompted by the emerging ICTs; however the factors for smallholders' adoption to SWC technologies are not well defined. The objective of this study was to identify the role of ICT in adoption of soil and water conservation technologies by smallholders in low and high potential districts of Kenya. Guiding the study was the Diffusion of Innovation theory by Rodgers, the Holistic Management theory by Allan Savory, and the evolution of farmer extension model in Kenya among other research findings on smallholder adoption to agricultural technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected across Kajiado North district representing the low potential areas of Kenya, and Lugari district representing the high potential areas. This study interviewed 120 smallholder households who provided quantitative data. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were carried out with Ministry of Agriculture officials, local leaders and agricultural researchers. The quantitative data were processed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The frequencies and descriptive statistics were applied in the analysis of various variables, and related data cross tabulated to establish how the variables changed with time. The findings were studied and documented in line with the study objectives and various relationships across selected variables discussed. It was established that women dominate farming activities across the two systems; the males were passive actors in smallholder farming opting for alternative livelihood activities. Among the common and adopted SWC technologies were gabions, strip cropping, terracing, tree planting and water harvesting. This study established that the lack of technical advice from agricultural experts as a major problem facing smallholders across both farming systems. The Radio, Mobile Phones and Farmer Field Days were the most preferred communication platforms for SWC technologies. The Internet was not preferred in either of the farming systems studied. There were 72 percent of smallholders who used livestock for SWC in Lugari district and 10 percent in Kajiado North; however the use of fire for soil management was not a common practice in both farming systems. It was established that despite acquiring information and technologies on fertilizer conservation, the smallholders were not practicing these due to lack of follow up and adequate training. The fallowing of land was a common practice, with 65 percent of smallholders practicing this method or scientific purposes. This study recommends the need for specialized training and re-packaging of technical information on SWC to women. The smallholder women further require property rights and collective action for scaling up adoption to SWC technologies. This study established factors for smallholder adoption to SWC technologies as: communication language, labour intensity and profit margins. It is recommended that further research be undertaken towards the establishment of a Kenyan Fee-fo

An assessment of PH toxic and essentials plant elements in grey water from selected households in Kenyatta University, Kenya

Author: Kinuthia, Simon Kamau

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya/Households/Water conservation ;

Abstract:

Kenya is experiencing acute water shortage resulting to water rationing, conflict among water users, increased water prices among others. Therefore, there is need for water conservation One of the water conservation methods available today is greywater reuse. Greywater is domestic wastewater generated from kitchens, bathrooms, and laundry activities. According to World Health Organization (WHO) each household in capital cities of most countries produces an average greywater flow of 356 litres per day. Kenyatta University generates a lot of greywater from its premises including staff quarters, messes, hostels and offices, but all goes to waste because in Kenya, greywater is not adequately utilized probably due to inadequate information about its quality and safety. Greywater contains nutrients especially nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and its re-use in irrigation would improve food production. However, greywater may also contain toxic elements to plants such as lead and cadmium hence need for its treatment. Greywater treatment methods such as biological, physical and chemical exist, all intended to improve the quality of greywater for reuse in irrigationt. Some of these methods are costly to install and unavailable in developing countries like Kenya. Therefore, there is need to study the properties of greywater generated and where possible its treatment done before its application in irrigation using relatively cheap treatment technologies. Greywater sampling was carried out in Kenyatta University staff quarters. The present study determined the levels of plant nutrients (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, N03--N and P), toxic metals (Cd and Pb), and pH in the raw greywater and after treatment through sand, activated carbon and ordinary (raw) wood charcoal filtration. The data obtained was analysed using ANOV A. The results in ranges of pH, nutrients and toxic metals were as follows; pH-S.&& to &.9&, K-I.59 to 2&.40 mgIL, Ca-6.46 to 51.30 mg/L, Mg-O.92 to 13.24 mg/L, Zn-O:02 to 0.99 mg/L, Fe-O.12 to 4.04 mg/L, P-O.33 to 15.57 mg/L, N03--N-O.ll to 10.39 mg/L, and Pb-O.Ol to 0.19 mg/L. Cadmium was not detected in all the samples. The results of the study indicate that the levels of'Pb, Zn, Fe and P in raw greywater were statistiCally lower from those in activated carbon and ordinary wood charcoal filtrates while those of K, Ca and Mg in raw greywater and the filtrates were not significantly different at 95% confidence level. The NDJ--N levels were found to increase significantly with sand filtration, probably due to oxidation of nitrites to nitrate during the greywater filtration process. From this study it can be concluded that both raw and filtered greywater can be used for irrigation since the levels of aU the parameters were within the ranges recommended/allowed by WHO for crop irrigation and Kenya Bureau of Standard (KEBS) for drinking water. Therefore greywater can have dual usage as source of plant nutrient and for irrigation, thus preserving freshwater and increasing food production hence enhancing the achievement of Kenya's Vision 2030.

Evaluation of the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on ecosystem services in Sasumua watershed, Kenya using SWAT model

Author: Mwangi, Hosea Munge

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Soil conservation ; Watershed ; Management ; Sasumua, Kenya ; Water conservation ; Models ; Soil erosion ; Hydrology ;

Abstract:

Degradation of agricultural watersheds reduces the capacity of agro-ecosystems to produce Ecosystem Services such as improving water quality and flood mitigation. Conservation of degraded watersheds can abate water pollution and regulate stream flows by reducing flash floods and increasing base flow as a result of enhanced infiltration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil and water conservation practices on hydrology and water quality in Sasumua watershed, Kenya using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Vegetative filter strips, contour farming, bench terraces and grassed waterways were the .conservation measures assessed. They were represented by adjusting relevant parameters in the model and the resulting effect on sediment yield and stream flow assessed. The width of the filter strip was adjusted to simulate vegetative filter strip, USLE-P and CN were adjusted to simulate contour farming and terraces were simulated by adjusting eN, USLE-P and slope length appropriately. Grassed waterways were simulating by adjusting CH_N2, CH_EROD and CH_COV parameters in the model. Two additional simulations were also done to compare alternative management scenarios. It was found that the reduction in sediment yield increased with increase in width of the filter strip but the increase was logarithmic. A 5-meter width was predicted to reduce sediment loading by 38% when simulated in the agricultural part of the sub-watershed. Simulation of contour farming reduced sediment yield for entire Sasumua sub-watershed (67.44 Km2), from the base simulation value of 32,620 tyr' to 16,600 tyr' representing a 49010 decrease. Contour farming decreased the surface runoff by 16% from 193 mm for base simulation to 162 mm and increased base flow from 304 mm to 327 mm an increase of about 7.5%. A combination of 5 meter vegetative filter strip and contour farming were predicted to result in a reduction of 73% of sediment yield. The sediment yield reduced to 8720 tyr' from the base simulation value 32,620 tyr', Simulation of bench terraces reduced sediment load to 4930 tyr', This represents 85% decrease. The I surface runoff decreased by 22% from 193mm to 151 mm while base flow increased from 304mm to 335mm which is an increase of 10%. Both the contour farming and terraces resulted in only a slight change in total water yield. Grassed waterway simulated for some drainage ditches in the watershed reduced sediment load from 20,600 tyr' to 12,200 tyr' at the outlet downstream of the drainage channels that represents a reduction of 41%. For the entire sub-watershed, grassed waterway reduced the sediment yield from 32,600 tyr' to 25,000 tyr' which represents a 23.5% decrease. A management scenario that simulated less intensive cultivation in agricultural lands and proper managed grazing in grasslands resulted in a reduction of 34% sediment yield. The sediment yield reduced from 32,620tyr-l to 21,430 tyr'. The surface runoff reduced by 28% from 278 mm to 138 mm and the base flow increased by about 14% from 304 mm to 346 mm for this scenario. A management scenario that simulated more intensive cultivation in agricultural lands and overgrazing in grasslands was found to have a 53.6% increase in sediment yield, 44% increase in surface runoff and about 10% decrease in base flow. The sediment yield for this scenario increased from 32,620 tyr' to 50,100 tyr' while the surface runoff increased to 278 mm from 193 mm and the base flow reduced from 304 mm to 272 mm. Thus all the conservation practices investigated were found to have a positive impact in enhancing the ecosystem services. Soil erosion 'hotspots' which should be prioritized in conservation were identified. Bench terraces we're found to be the most effective. It is recommended that bench terraces should be constructed in the watershed especially on the soil erosion 'hotspots'. For the farmers who may not be able to construct the bench terraces due to cost, grass strips sho

Investigation of factors contributing to environmental degradation in Tigania North Division Tigania East District Meru County Kenya

Author: Mithika, T Aburuki

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tigania North Division, Tigania East District ; Environmental conditions ; Farming ; Soil conservation ; Water conservation ;

Abstract:

Environmental degradation which is simply defined as the deterioration of the earth's physical quality from ambient concentrations of pollutants was identified as a major challenge contributing factor to -low land productivity and depletion of water resources over the years in Tigania North Division. This came as a result of population growth farming methods, banditry and poaching activities and delayed land tenure systems. The people of this Division have been suffering over the years from food shortages and forest necessities This study was therefore carried out to investigate the factors contributing to environmental degradation in this particular division. The study method was descriptive and casual comparative in nature. The sampling procedure was multi-stage sampling method. The data was collected using personal interview method. The instrument used was a semi-structured questionnaire with open and close ended questions. The analysis was descriptive in form of measure of frequency tables and percentages. The major analysis method was inferential statistics a statistical package for social science (SPSS) was used to analysis data. The study targeted the farmers, the people working in the ministries of land. Those who have been land committees. Those working in the Ministry of environment and wildlife. The research was conducted by collecting primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from small scale farmers in the division with the help of research assistants. Pre-testing of the questionnaire was done in one of the locations not sampled in the division before actual administration in the field. The data was analyzed form the questionnaires using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The findings were then presented in frequency tables and percentages. The analysis was through descriptive and inferential statistics. The study findings showed that the challenges facing farmers in implementation of soil and water concentration measures were poor farming methods, high population growth lack of title deeds and the activities of banditry and poaching. The study therefore made recommendations to policy makers to formulate land policy on land demarcation and subdivision that will enhance soil and environmental conservation. From the study it was recommended that the government of Kenya should compensate those who have been demarcated parcels of land on the hills and in the marginal areas. It was also found that learning institutions should assist in tree planting, gabion building and the like. Training programmes should target all farmers and gender.

Management of water resources in the peri-urban areas of Ruiru District, Kenya

Author: Mugera, Eunice Wambui

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MES

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Ruiru District ; Water resources ; Water conservation ;

Abstract:

In peri-urban areas of the country, there are numerous and complex problems that confront the residents. Water scarcity is one of the critical problems that deserves most attention. It is a major challenge hindering socio-economic development in these areas. This therefore calls for research to find out how water is managed in these areas. Ruiru District was chosen for the study to fill this gap due to its high population density as significant population working in Nairobi city and Thika towns are shifting to the District looking for places to settle. The high population increases water demand leading to water scarcity in the area. Ruiru District has two Divisions, six locations and ten sub locations. A multistage design involving stratified and random sample surveys were used to come up with the required sample. A household survey approach with the aid of questionnaires and observation record sheets were used to collect data on the major sources of water, their accessibility, reliability and utilization in the area. The study examined the techniques used to conserve water and established the problems the people experience while practicing these techniques. The data collected was analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Scientists programme and presented in frequencies, percentages and ranking. The study has confirmed that Ruiru Distrtict has rapid population growth without a corresponding increase in water sources. The study also established the main sources of water as Nairobi Water Company mains, Community Based Organization's mains, boreholes, wells and rivers. The major problems found were limited access to potable water, inadequate number of water sources and drying up of wells during the dry season. The study revealed that the mean, household water consumption rate in the area was 18.3 liters per person per day. This rate is slightly below the recommended per capita consumption rate of 20 liters per person per day. Water conservation techniques practiced include roof rain water harvesting, repair of leaking taps/pipes, water reuse, use of efficient taps and installation of dual flush toilets, among others. The various limitations that affected water conservation techniques include lack of finances, lack of awareness, dry weather conditions, altitude and culture, among others. Based on the findings it is necessary to provide water at homes so that people involved in providing water can be engaged in other productive activities. Promotion of appropriate technologies such as use of dual toilets, use of efficient taps, drip irrigation and mulching need to be encouraged. There is also need to promote marketing and processing of farm and livestock products so as to increase the people's daily earnings and so alleviate poverty in the District which is directly affecting water conservation practices. There is need to increase public awareness regarding protection of water sources, their use and conservation in the District. Specific efforts should be made through the Ministry of Water and Irrigation and other related actors to increase water conservation awareness programmes to enable the people appreciate the importance of water management in the District.

Water consumers' willingness to pay for conservation of watersheds : a case of Nairobi County

Author: Mose, John Nyaoko

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi County ; Water supply ; Water conservation ; Environmental protection ;

Abstract:

Kenya's population of almost 40 million as per 2009 housing and population census exerts great pressure on natural economic resources like water. Kenya is classified as a water scarce country. The fresh water covers two per cent of the total surface area. The per capita' availability of water in 2007 was 647 M3/year against the recommended minimum of 1000 M'zyear by the United Nations and is projected to fall to 235M3/year in 2025 (Kenya's Vision 2030). This is a scaring trend considering that the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year (KNBS Census Report, 2009). To manage watersheds in Kenya, water users may be required to pay more . for water so as to give the communities around the catchment areas an incentive for them to conserve. This will contribute significantly to improvement of the environmental ecosystems by ensuring continuous supply of environmental services. The existing literature indicates payment for ecosystem/environmental services (PES) is working either for carbon or water (Landell-Mills and Porras, 2002; Pagiola and Platais, 2007). This study will explore the PES as a mechanism for financing conservation in Kenya. The study applied a dichotomous binary response probit model on primary data from a simple random sample of 128 randomly selected households. A descriptive technique was followed in the analysis. We noticed that the bid amounts (BA), age, monthly water expenditure were some of the factors affecting WTP. There are benefits of adopting conservation of our watersheds as it ensures a continuous flow of environmental services. Education had a negative relationship with WTP; perhaps more educated individuals felt that there could be alternative ways of assuring sustained water supply. They also focused on reducing water wastage, exploring alternative sources of water and educating people at catchment areas about the importance of protecting their own lands. Males were found to be more intent on paying for conservation than females.

An assessment of intergrated water resources management practice in Ewaso Narok River catchment area

Author: Muturi, James Gathitu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Ewaso Ng'iro River ; Ewaso Narok Catchment Area, Kenya ; Water resources ; Water conservation ;

Abstract:

This thesis focuses on the assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management of Ewaso Narok Catchment Area, one of the nine Management Units of the Ewaso Ng'iro Catchment Area. The purpose of this study was to establish whether water is used efficiently and whether stakeholders are involved in planning, development and management of water resources for sustainability in order to achieve socio-economic development. The methods used in the study included administration of questionnaires to farmers and households, semi-structured questionnaires to government offices in the establishment of population and other factual data as well as interviews with various officers of different institutions such as WRMA and WSPs. In this assessment, water demand in the catchment was established from population data and the water available was determined based on the rainfall data and compared to the river flow data. The household survey done established the socio-economic status as well as the water and sanitation situation in the study area. It also established the level of knowledge by communities on water conservation methods and water regulations in place. Enumerators with prior training carried out the survey on a span of five days. The study established that the challenges facing implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management in the Catchment Area includes; ? Lack of information on the water sector reforms by the local residents. 86% of respondents were not aware of Water Act 2002 and 86% were not aware ofthe National Water Resources Management Strategy. ? Un-even distribution of water resources across the catchment. 39% of the population depends on ground water (shallow wells and boreholes) while 13% depend on dams and pans. Rivers and streams supply water to 43% of the population with half of the people getting water directly from the river and the other half getting piped water from water supplies. ? Surface water sources are polluted by industries, informal settlements, farmers and residents accessing them. 65% of farmers in the project area use insecticides while 22% of the farmers use pesticides which are washed down to the rivers. Informal settlements dump both solid wastes and human excreta into the water. ? Catchment degradation which is mainly by deforestation. Forest cover has reduced to 30% of the total coverage it was in 1980. The main causes of deforestation are wood fuel accounting for 24%, charcoal burning accounting for 25% and construction posts accounting for 13%. ? Poor farming methods especially furrow irrigation. Among the 15% of population that practice Irrigation, 46% practice furrow irrigation and 34% practice sprinkler irrigation which wastes a lot of water. ? Lack of water permits and therefore perception of water as a free commodity. Only 3% of the population had the knowledge of water permit. ? High poverty levels, at 67.4% which means the local people cannot afford to pay the full cost of water. ? Poor involvement of all stakeholders especially the poor and marginalized, in water management. Only 16% of the respondents confirmed participation in water management. The results ofthe survey established that; ? There was more than adequate water in the catchment area i.e. a surplus of21.461m3/s. However, it was unevenly distributed across the catchment and across the year, with most of the surplus being at the rainy seasons. With proper management and development of infrastructure, the residents can be supplied with adequate water of good quality. ? There is need to enforce water abstraction law, which allows abstraction only with availability of a water permit. This will stop farmers from diverting the rivers into their farms and using the more wasteful furrow irrigation method. ? Water resources were polluted by agricultural activities, factories, informal settlements and water users with direct access to water sources. ? Residents were farming in areas gazetted as swamps and forests a