7 Records out of 22207 Records

Use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification(lamp) of DNA in diagnosis and monitoring treatment of trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections in vervet monkeys (chlorocebus aethiops)

Author: Chimbevo, Lenny Mwagandi

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense ; Vervet monkeys ; Deoxyribonucleic acid--DNA ;

Abstract:

The recently developed loop-mediated isothermal (LAMP) based on RIME gene was used in diagnosis, staging and post-treatment' follow-up of HAT in infected vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) and compared with microscopic methods. The monkeys (A and B) were infected with 2537 and sub-curatively treated with diminazene aceturate (Berenil?) at 35 day of post infection (dpi) and later with Melarsoprol (Mel B?) at 113 dpi (78 day of post treatment (dpt) with Berenil?) and 171 dpi (136 dpt with Berenil?) respectively . Pure and crude DNA from the samples for LAMP was extracted using Saponin method and heat treatment respectively. Amplification was conducted in a thermocycler and a water bath set between 60?C to 65oC. The test results were assessed visually by addition 'of SYBR green I dye and by ultra violet (UV) illumination of DNA bands in 1 % ethidium bromide stained electrophoresed agarose gel. Parasitaemia, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parasitosis, packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC) counts and total CSF protein concentration were also determined. In the blood and CSF, microscopy detected 28.21 % and 21.18% positive cases in the collected samples respectively. In the blood, serum and CSF, LAMP detected 60.26%, 55.13% and 79.49% positive cases in the collected samples respectively. The Chi-square (X2)-Statistics of 16.734 (p=O.OOO and 38.023 (p=0.000) was obtained between LAMP and microscopy in the blood and CSF, respectively. The percentage trypanosome DNA detection on different sample preparation and amplification methods on LAMP was also assessed. Pure DNA on a thermo cycler had 60.27%,55.13% and 78.12% in the whole blood, serum and CSF respectively. For pure DNA on a water bath, the percentage detection was 46.15%, 48.72% and 75.64% in the whole blood, serum and CSF, respectively. For crude DNA on a thermocycler, the percentage detection was 56.41%, 56.41% and 76.92% while crude DNA in a water bath had 48.72%,44.87% and 64.10% detection rate was in the whole blood, serum and CSF, respectively. Trypanosome DNA was detected at 7 dpi in the blood and serum and starting at 21 dpi in the CSF. After subcurative Berenil? treatment, trypanosome DNA cleared at 56 dpi (21 dpt with Berenil?) in the blood and serum of both monkeys, and re-appeared at 77 dpi (42 dpt with Berenilte) and 129 dpi (84 dpt with Berenil?) in the blood and serum of monkey A and B respectively. After Mel B? treatment, trypanosome DNA cleared after 40 and 90 days and 90 and 150 days in the blood and serum and CSF of vervet monkey A and B respectively. The comparison between LAMP and microscopy for crude DNA on thermo cycler had k values of; 0.397 and 0.602 and X2-value of 13.141 (p=O.OOO) and 35.247 (p=0000) in the blood and CSF respectively. Percentage agreement (k) and X2) between LAMP and microscopy in detection of trypanosomes in the late stages of the disease was 0.600 and 15.000 (p=O.OOO) respectively in the CSF. or post-treatment follow-up the k and X' values were 0.472 and 19.429 ?(Ml.000) and 527 and 21.346 (p=O.OOO) in the blood and CSF respectively. Therefore, heat ,treatment and amplification on a water bath may be use as sample preparation and amplification methods respectively. Blood and CSF may are the preferred sample for early and late stage of the disease.

Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection in the vervet monkey ( Chlorocebus aethiops) model of sleeping sicknesss : The potential of biomarkers for staging and diagnosis

Author: Gaithuma, Alex Kiarie

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense ; Trypanosomiasis ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Vervet monkeys ; Haematology ;

Abstract:

Diagnosis and stage-determination still hampers proper control of sleeping sickness. This study reports potential biomarkers for staging and diagnosing the disease in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) model. The monkeys were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense IPR 001 and subsequently given subcurative treatment 28 days post-infection to induce the advanced late stage disease. Blood samples for serum and plasma separation, urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained at weekly intervals. Various analyses were then carried out on the samples. A typical HAT -like infection was observed in the vervets, with an early stage disease characterized by significant changes including: Low platelet counts (P<O.05, CI: 88.2-303.9), low glucose levels (P<O.05, CI: 0.180, 3.533), low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P<O.05, CI: 1.0420-1.4789), high ketone levels (P<O.05, CI: - 0.91-4.58), high urine protein levels (P<O.05, CI: 0.13-20.87), high levels of triglycerides (P<O.05; CI: 1.050-4.640), and high creatine kinase levels (P<O.05; CI: 2704-3551). Urine pH varied inversely with parasitaemia, while specific gravity varied directly with parasitaemia. The late stage disease was marked by significantly high cholesterol levels (P<O.05; CI: 1.735-3.822). A panel of platelets, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, blood glucose and urine ketone bodies could be used as adjunct markers for early stage disease, while cholesterol could be included into the panel of late stage indicators. However, further studies need to be done to investigate the relationship of these biomarkers to the disease especially cholesterol levels in late stage disease.

Social and ecological effects on endoparasites in vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas (Erythrocebus patas) monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya.

Author: Ekdahl, Dawn Rise

Awarding University: Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Patas monkeys USE Erythrocebus patas ; Laikipia, Kenya ; Erythrocebus patas ; Vervet monkeys ; Monkeys and apes ; Parasites ;

Abstract:

During a 16-month field study of vervet ( Cercopithecus aethiops ) and patas ( Erythrocebus patas ) monkeys on Segera Ranch in Laikipia, Kenya, I examined the natural repertoire of intestinal parasites that infect these two sympatric species and the variables that potentially influence the parasites' maintenance and transmission. The prevalence of pathogenic gastro-intestinal parasites in these primates has not yet been established for this region of Kenya or the extent to which they could serve as a reservoir for potential zoonotic and anthropozoonotic disease transmission. The results of microscopic examinations of fecal samples demonstrated the presence of 12 endoparasite species, including two trematodes, 10 nematodes, and two protozoan species. Overall, 40% of the 527 fecal samples (211/527) exhibited at least one parasitic ovum or larvae. A strong difference between species infection rates was evident; 52% (180/346) of the vervet samples contained at least one parasite while only 17% (31/181) of those from the patas did. The vervets had a higher percentage of positive samples for helminths (28%) than did the patas monkeys (13%) and had a greater diversity of helminths present in the samples. Protozoan intensity and presence was also determined to be significantly higher in the vervet populations. The differences in parasite presence, intensity, and abundance were assessed by group size, season, age, sex and rank in both species through behavioral observations and systematic fecal collection and analyses. A strong effect of the season, when established by the amount of rainfall, is indicated in parasite presence and abundance. Significant differences in parasite presence were also established by age and vervet group size. No significant differences in the presence of helminth or protozoan parasites were established between male and female vervets or according to the dominance hierarchy. The analysis of pollens, spores and phytoplanktons from the fecal samples provided additional baseline information on environmental and seasonal changes. An evolutionary approach to studies on the ecology of disease systems and host-resistance mechanisms may provide more insight into the persistence and effects of long-term host-parasite associations.

Mechanisms by which dietary Acacia may act as proximate regulator of breeding seasonality in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus [aethips] pygerythrus) [Kenya].

Author: Garey, Joan Deborah

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Acacia ; Feeds ; Animal reproduction ; Vervet monkeys ; Monkeys and apes ;

Abstract:

Mechanisms were investigated by which dietary acacia may act as a proximate regulator of the breeding season in an equatorial population of the vervet monkey, Cercopithecus ( aethiops ) pygerythrus . Equatorial vervets contend with seasonal changes in climate and food availability not unlike many temperate zone mammals. It is advantageous for them to give birth at an energetically optimal time of year. Products of Acacia species (i.e., leaves, seeds, flowers, and gum) comprise 50% or more of the diet of certain equatorial, savannah populations of vervets. The hypothesis of this study is that dietary Acacias have intrinsic chemical properties which have the potential to directly regulate reproduction in savannah vervets. The chemicals would likely act in combination with other environmental and social factors to control breeding. Data from a Kenyan, equatorial captive vervet breeding colony was analyzed for evidence of birth seasonality. The colony exhibited birth seasonality at its inception; it was greatly diminished after seven years. A quality diet, coupled with the absence of other factors from the wild, most likely accounts for this observation. Whitten (1982) suggested a causal association between the ingestion of Acacia elatior flowers and the onset of mating activity among female vervets in the Samburu-Isiolo Game Reserves. A. elatior flowers were collected in Samburu and analyzed them for estrogenic activity, which could stimulate mating behavior in vervets. Data collected by two assay methods suggest that A. elatior flowers have significant estrogenicity. The fatty acid content of the diet may also directly effect ovulation. The fatty acids of Acacia elatior and A. tortilis plant parts from Samburu were thus analyzed. A diet high in linoleic acid may help stimulate ovulation, while a diet high in linolenic acid may inhibit ovulation. only the seeds of both species contain a high linoleic acid content; Whitten's (1982) data suggest that vervets are conceiving at a time when they have an increased ingestion of acacia seeds. Since the vervet diet is weighted more heavily toward linoleic acid at the time of conception, vervets may be using higher linoleic acid levels in their diet to most effectively achieve ovulation.

Comparative susceptibility of East African non-human primates, Vervets(Cercopithecus aethiops) and Sykes (C.Mitis) Monkeys to experimental infection with Leishmaria donovani

Author: Binhazin, Awadh Amir

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 1986

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Monkeys and apes ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Vervet monkeys ; Cercopithecus mitis ; Infections ; Leishmania donovani ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Ecological and social influences on development of vervet monkeys

Author: Lee, Phyllis Chadwick

Awarding University: University of Cambridge, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1981

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Ecology ; Vervet monkeys ; Papio anubis ; Monkeys and apes ; Animal behavior ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Structural and functional organization of the capsules and ligaments of the hip and knee joints in the Vervet monkey and Olive baboon.

Author: Walji, Anil Hassanali

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 1969

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Chiromo Library ;

Subject Terms: Anatomy and physiology/Vervet monkeys/Papio anubis/Monkeys and apes/ ;

Abstract:

The structural organisation of the capsules and ligaments of the hip and knee joints in the vervet monkey and olive baboon forms the central' theme of this thesis. In particular, the stu~y addresses itself to the microscopic organisation of the elastic fibres with respect to their possible speciarised function during locomotion and the various habitual postures of these animals. Specifically, the joint capsules and ligaments of the hip and knee joints of the vervet monkey and olive baboon have been investigated macroscopically and microscopically. The study has demonstrated that the capsules and ligaments of the hip and knee joints in these Cercopithecinae are preponderantly collagenous. The elastic fibres, however, are concentrated,in the inferior and postero-inferior aspects of the hip joint capsule and the posterior aspect of the knee joint capsule, areas that are subject to constant stretching during extension and flexion. The high concentration of elastic fibres in them therefore lends support to the hypothesis that elastic fibres have a tensioregulative function (MUNGAI, 1963). The study has also shown that the iliofemoral ligament in these animals is orientated almost horizontally, and is less well developed in constrast to its thickness and almost vertical / disposition in man. It is suggested that these differences are related principally to the limitation of the range of movement enjoyed by the habitually semi-flexed hip joint of the vervet monkey and olive baboon and the extended hip joint of man with his erect posture. The study has further shown that the capsules are attached to bone mostly through periosteum, while the ligaments are attached to bone through fibrocartilage in the absence of periosteum, constituting a layered pattern of supporting metaplastic tissue. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated a fibrovesicular suprapatella in the quadriceps tendon of these Cercopithecinae. It is postulated that the presence of this structure is related to the biomechanical requirements of the anterior capsular compartment of the knee joint. These possibly entail the build up of net compressive forces in the deep aspect of the quadriceps tendon, particularly during the hyperflexed position of the knee joint in the initial phases of jumping and springing in these quadrupedal monkeys (WALJI and FA SANA , 1983). It is concluded that the results of this study indicate a very close relationship between' posture and locomotion on the one hand, and the morphological organisation of the capsules and ligaments of the hip and knee joints in these Cercopithecinae on the other. In addition, the findings of this study support the hypothesis that elastic fibres have a tensioregulative and may possibly have a tensiometric function (MUNGAI, 1963), while the collagen fibres provide rigid constraints that limit deformation of the tissue and thus play a predominantly protective role.