31 Records out of 22207 Records

Determinants of effective food aid distribution among Turkana pastoral women in Kerio Division : case of World Vision Kenya

Author: Namur, Joseph Emathe

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: World Vision Kenya ; Kerio Division, Turkana District ; Food programs ; Turkana (African people) ; Pastoralists ; Women ; Humanitarian aid ;

Abstract:

Food is a critical resource. Therefore, reaching beneficiaries who would otherwise suffer the effects of malnutrition and hunger, in a timely manner and in an appropriate form is especially important for the effectiveness of food aid distribution. If done right, food aid can contribute effectively to development strategy, by safeguarding the most valuable asset of the poor who are embroiled in food deficits due to famine and drought. For a long time food aid has been a reserve of most humanitarian organizations. This is perceived to have created a lacunae that demonstrates that they can work at their pace; thus crushing the reason and mandate of saving lives in times of crisis or disasters such as famine. The study examined the determinants of effective food aid distribution among Turkana pastoral women in Kerio division: case of World Vision Kenya. The purpose of the research study was to evaluate the determinants of effective food aid distribution among Turkana pastoral women in Kerio division. It was pursued by examining socio-cultural, political factors, humanitarian logistics and stakeholder engagement. Recommendations that determine effective food aid distribution among Turkana pastoral women in Kerio division are provided. The systems theory was found to be relevant to the study because of the actions of interaction and cooperation that is required amongst humanitarian agencies, states, private sectors and communities as they carry out interventions related to food aid distribution. The research adopted a descriptive survey design that enabled the description of the variables that determine food aid distribution. The sampled population consisted of 55households that were systematically sampled using the Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) in the study due to their relative small number. An interview schedule for staff engaged in food aid distribution and a questionnaire targeting women at household level were administered. The data was collected, coded and analyzed quantitatively with the help of statistical package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 12 and qualitatively through content, and theme analysis. The findings of the study revealed that social-cultural (63.79%), political 42(72.41%), humanitarian logistics 33(86.84%) and stakeholder engagement 52(89.66%) factors had a direct influence on effective food aid distribution among pastoral women in Kerio division of Turkana district. In conclusion, the study found out that four factors namely; humanitarian logistics, stakeholder engagement, social-cultural and political factors influence effective food aid distribution among pastoral women in Kerio division of Turkana district. Women (supported by 78.95% respondents) should- play an active role in food aid distribution because they are the primary care-givers of the household in African context. Time (agreed by 87.93% of the respondents) should be highly considered by humanitarians as they execute their logistics. Food aid distribution should be depoliticized (agreed by 89.47% respondents) and stakeholder engagement upheld (agreed by 89.66% respondents) so as to realize efficacy in food aid distribution. The study recommends that the community needs to be involved in the distribution of food aid to increase the level of community involvement and ownership of the food aid distribution program to enhance its effectiveness. It also recommends that food aid distribution program needs to be de-politicized as much as possible; and that the government should take the lead in mobilizing its resources and those from humanitarians to improve efficacy in food aid distribution. Suggestions for future research include carrying out studies in areas that experience food deficits because of other catastrophes such as floods, consider food aid programs that supply food to men or to the whole community and carry out research in the larger Turkana County to compare findings and be able to draw a broader scale of understan

Assessment of economic and financial sustainability of Lokichoggio slaughterhouse, Turkana district, Kenya

Author: Magero, Joan Akumu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Lokichoggio, Turkana District ; Livestock industry ; Turkana (African people) ; Meat industry ; Benefit cost analysis ;

Abstract:

Study was conducted to asses the sustainability of a slaughterhouse at Lokichoggio in Turkana District, Kenya. The slaughterhouse was constructed by a project, 'The Rural Development in Northern Kenya's arid areas', whose main objective was to contribute towards improving the living standards of the Turkana people by providing a marketing outlet for their livestock, implemented by AMREF and Terra Nuova. The study aimed at generating infonnation that could be used in managing the slaughterhouse. The objective of the study was to analyze and evaluate the financial and economic sustainability, using cost benefit analysis methodology. The data used in the analysis was obtained from different sources, including AMREF, Terra Nuova, results of environmental impact assessment and the feasibility studies. Livestock statistics was obtained from the District Livestock Production office, the District Veterinary Office, (both in Turkana District), the Livestock Production Division and the Central Bureau of Statistics. Information on slaughterhouses and number of animals slaughtered was collected from the Department of Veterinary Services and the District Public Health office in Turkana. Four possible investment scenarios that were analyzed in this study included purchase and slaughter of livestock (Scenario 1), rendering slaughtering services to third parties only (scenario 2), slaughtering for third parties and trading in livestock (Scenario 3) and a combination of slaughtering of purchased livestock, selling the meat and trading in livestock (Scenario 4). Net Present Value (NPV), Financial Internal Rate of Return (FIRR), Pay Back Period (PBP) and Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) were calculated for each scenario. seasonality of livestock supply. Due to these challenges it is recommended that cost benefit analysis should be carried out periodically to assist management with information that will allow sound decisions to be made and action taken on time.

Media and conflict resolution : the case of Cattle Rustling in Northern Kenya

Author: Emeripus, John

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Northern Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Conflict resolution ; Livestock ; Turkana County ; Pokot County ; Rustling ; Mass media ; Turkana (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ;

Abstract:

This Northern Kenya case study is an example of armed violence in the periphery, in the remote, semi-arid northern districts of the country. The economy is principally dependent upon pastoralism, and armed violence is mostly associated with livestock raiding. This case study focuses on two contrasting counties of northern Kenya: Turkana in the north-west, which has endured a particularly intense couple of decades of armed violence and the Pokot.Although livestock raiding is an inherent feature of the pastoralist economy, it appears to have become increasingly violent since the early 1980s as small arms became more widely available. It is now associated with higher and less discriminate loss of human life and greater livestock losses. The conflict dynamics that fuel livestock raiding are complex and extend far beyond a simple 'competition for scarce resources' model. The weakness of government, specifically of state security institutions, means that criminal activity can flourish, particularly in the form of 'commercialized' livestock raiding. Instability has sometimes been encouraged for electoral purposes. The wider regional dynamics are also critical, as northern Kenya borders with Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, all of which have had, or are currently experiencing violent civil wars. They are thus associated with lawlessness and the unchecked flow of small arms. The use of arms in northern Kenya has to be understood in this wider context.

Factors influencing cross border conflict resolution between Turkana and Pokot communities of Northern Kenya

Author: Ekiru, Mark Narengo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Northern Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Conflict resolution ; Turkana (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ; Kainuk Division, Turkana County ; Sigor Division, West Pokot County ;

Abstract:

For many decades peacemaking between Turkana and Pokot communities in Northern Kenya has been very elusive. This study therefore examined major factors influencing cross border conflict resolution between the two communities with the aim of determining the extent to which local politics, local culture, social and the prevailing economic conditions influence interventions for durable conflict resolution. Cross border conflict has been evolving taking many forms currently manifested through regular cattle raids, highway banditry, conflict over resources such as land, pasture and water. The study was carried out in two divisions, Kainuk in Turkana County and Sigor in West Pokot County. Questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Data analysis was done with the aid of the SPSS tool. Rank correlation and regression techniques were used in data analysis and based on the results of the data analysis, the study findings clearly indicated that economic factors had the highest influence in cross border conflict resolution with key elements such as deepening poverty, high unemployment, over-reliance on single livelihood and natural resource competition ranked high as the main economic drivers. Political factors came second and most of the respondents pointed out to lack of local leaders peace building capacities, incitements, disregard of the traditional governance systems, long held marginalization and lack of local communities in development activities and implementation which played a key role in influencing cross border conflict building and resolution. Breakdown of social networks and decline of intercommoned interactions through sports and intermarriages reduced extent of harmonious co-existence which previously existed. Finally cultural factors which played a greater influence were ingrained in deep held value system, rituals, rites and beliefs. The contemporary setting within the two communities indicated that these cultural elements had been abdicated and thus played a lesser role in cross border conflict resolution. The study concludes that the four factors discussed had high level of influence on cross border conflict resolution and therefore recommended strengthening of cross border policing, enforcing laws that prohibit politicians from interfering in peace building efforts, creating investments on the local economy and diversifying livelihoods of the communities while at the same time reviving social networks with a high premium on peace, and also taking into account positive cultural elements that paid dividends on cross border peace. These actions to be taken by the by government, civil society, United Nations agencies, donors and the Non Governmental Organizations.

Perception of women on adoption of micro enterprise activities in Turkana Community in Lokichar Division, Kenya

Author: Otieno, Evans Ochieng'

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Lokichar Division ; Turkana (African people) ; Women ; Small business ; Perceptions ; Social life and customs ;

Abstract:

The role of micro and small-scale enterprises sector (MSEs) in the development process has been at the centre of development debate for the last three decades in Kenya and elsewhere in the developing world. Economic hardship experienced in the formal sector in Kenya, and indeed in other developing countries have contributed to the enthusiasm now associated with MSEs sector. Increasingly, the sector is perceived as critical component of much needed skills, employment and generation of livelihood for growing number of people within urban as well as rural sector. Non- Governmental Organizations, Church based organizations and relevant lines Government Ministries have played a major role in business development in Turkana community, assisting mainly women and youth to start and manage group businesses. The commonly used mode of assistance is the provision of finance and financial management skills, as well as connecting client with market outlets. Despite all these efforts businesses collapse as soon as the assisting organization has pulled out. This study sought to contribute to this effort through determining perception of women on adoption of micro enterprise activities in Turkana community, Lokichar Division, Kenya. The study was based on descriptive survey research design. This was conducted through random sampling and snow ball sampling techniques. A structured questionnaire with a five point Likert -type scale was applied to 80 respondents to determine to what extent cultural factors, socioeconomic factors, access to credit and government programs influence perception of women towards adoption of micro enterprise activities. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data in the form of frequencies, percentages, modes and means. Findings were presented using frequency and percentage tables. Statistical package for social scientists (SPSS) was used in analyzing Quantitative data. Qualitative was transcribed, organized into various emerging themes and reported. The study found out that family care and cultural based stereo-type roles have made it difficult for women to engage in micro enterprise activities, respondents did not have relevant skills and training in business and due to low educational level the women micro entrepreneurs had not appreciated access to credit as an engine for business development. The study concluded that perception of women on adoption of micro enterprise activities in Turkana community was a complex function and cuts across different sectors of the economy. Based on the findings, the study recommended that the government, policy makers, stakeholders and NGOs be encouraged to ensure that capacity building in entrepreneurship is complemented by access to social programmes to relieve the burden of dependency.

Local knowledge of, and responses to, HIV-1/AIDS among the Turkana of Lodwar Township [Kenya].

Author: Owiti, John Arianda

Awarding University: McGill University, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Disease ; HIV infection ; Lodwar, Kenya ; Turkana (African people) ;

Abstract:

This study used a broad theoretical framework encompassing an ecosystem approach to HIV-1/AIDS that investigated: local knowledge of HIV-1/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); local knowledge of the nexus between HIV-1/AIDS and tuberculosis on one hand, and other STIs on the other; the factors of the ecosystem that influence the contraction and transmission of HIV-1; and the local responses to HIV-1/AIDS among the Turkana of Lodwar Township. The study found that, according to the Turkana's local knowledge of HIV-1/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis, these infections are largely contagious, and are attributed to impersonal and natural causes. In addition, in line with biomedical knowledge, the Turkana's local knowledge emphasises a conceptual link between tuberculosis and HIV-1/AIDS. The study also demonstrates a link between other STIs and HIV-1/AIDS. This has implications for the successful control and prevention of HIV-1, as well as that of all STIs, tuberculosis, and the management of AIDS. In addition, the study demonstrates that factors of the ecosystem such as kaada , video and disco halls, unsafe medical practices, polygamy, banditry, urbanisation, migration and travel, poverty, long-distance truck drivers, military personnel, refugees, the low use of condoms, the gender-accentuated power imbalance, poverty-accentuated commercial sex work, poor sexual health and the prevalence of STIs, widow inheritance, and other sociocultural practices play an influential role in the vulnerability of the Turkana to the contraction and transmission of HIV-1/AIDS. The thesis posits an integrated approach to the prevention of HIV-1 and the management of AIDS that combines structural, public health, and biomedical approaches. In view of this integrated approach, various arenas of interventions are recommended. Some seem obvious, such as HIV-1 counselling and testing, and the development of a more durable healthcare infrastructure. Others are less obvious and concern the empowerment of women, the care of orphans, the training and use of indigenous healers and indigenous birth attendants, home-based care, the promotion of condom use, better nutrition, the provision of a safe working environment for commercial sex workers, socioeconomic development and poverty reduction, health education and mass campaigns, and, finally, the prevention and cure of prevalent, but preventable infections.

Food insecurity and entitlements among Turkana pastoralists, northern Kenya.

Author: van den Boogaard, R

Awarding University: University of Sussex, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Food security/Northern Kenya/Turkana (African people)/Pastoralists/ ;

Abstract:

This study focuses on the linkage between environment, livestock production, assets and market exchanges in the analysis of food insecurity of pastoralists in Turkana District, Kenya. Turkana is an arid to semi arid district, with highly variable rainfall and production levels, and recurrent periods of food insecurity. The research examines levels of environmental and livestock production, linkages to the pastoral economy and levels of food security. It also looks at customary and institutional responses to food insecurity. This is done using a variety of methods, mostly derived from the entitlement theory. A major source for this research comes from data collected by the Turkana Drought Contingency Planning unit between 1988 and 1994, although several other sources were also used. In protecting entitlements, Turkana pastoralists have developed significant customary practices of herd management and nutrition. However, these practices have not prevented high levels of food insecurity, mostly as a result of drought. Responses by government and donors have thus far only had marginal results in the protection of entitlements. The study confirms the interaction and linkages between the processes of environmental and livestock production as well as market exchanges and the impact on food security, but there is also evidence that ill-designed economic policies may contribute drastically to increasing levels of food insecurity. The high variability of the ecosystem, causes highly variable production rates which in turn have an impact on markets and food security. A main conclusion is the existence of a timelag between the decline of production and the drastic decline of entitlements. The study confirms the possibility of entitlement protection by utilising early mitigation interventions during situations of food insecurity. Thus far, only food aid distribution has received attention on large scale

Discovering the face of an intercultural God : Christian evangelization among the Turkana nomads of Kenya and implications for the worldwide church.

Author: Grenham, Thomas Gerard

Awarding University: Boston College, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Turkana (African people) ; Acculturation ; Ethnology ; Christianity ; Evangelism ;

Abstract:

This dissertation defines interculturation as the activity of persons from diverse cultures and religious worldviews mutually and respectfully interacting with the intention of discovering the vision of the Gospel. Seeds of Gospel vision exist in every person, culture, and religion. Religious intercultural engagement uncovers the spirituality of the gospel which can lead to both a local and global commitment for the well-being of every person, culture, and religious perspective. The process of interculturation perceives cultural and religious interdependency as crucial for life-giving relationships within all creation. Worldwide collaboration is necessary to sustain human dignity and life for all. Within an age of globalization that fosters economic interdependency among nation-states, diverse cultures and religious perspectives encounter different challenges and opportunities for understanding religious and cultural identity, faith, human freedom, transcendence, justice, peace, reconciliation, relationships, and so forth. All religious evangelization, particularly Christian evangelization, needs further exploration in order to foster a diverse spiritual solidarity within this interconnected and interdependent world. Religious education functions in nurturing the life-giving seeds of the Gospel into plants of spiritual nourishment that reflect scented flowers of life-giving interpretation, appropriation, and transformation for sustained hope. Agents of Christian evangelization have the task of actualizing Gospel vision through relevant religious practices, localizing this vision within the contextuality of lived human experience, and globalizing this sense of transcendence for human well-being worldwide. For diverse communities of faith, meaning and a sense of belonging are discerned when each engages the other in an evolution of conversation. Such life-giving conversation is underpinned by a respectful reciprocity that shares power to create a conducive environment for mutual trust. This environment shapes and nurtures 'right relationship' with ourselves, others, creation, and God.

Availability of food and dietary micro nutrients among refugee and local households of Kakuma, Kenya.

Author: Teshome, B Felelre

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Food/Refugees/Turkana (African people)/Kakuma, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

History of socio-economic adaptation of the Turkana of Kenya, 1850-1963.

Author: Nyanchoga, Samuel Alfayo

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Turkana (African people) ; Ethnology ; Colonialism ; Social change ; African history ; Adaptation ;

Abstract:

This is a study of the history of social and economic adaptation of the Turkana of Kenya from 1850 to 1963. The study is based on primary and secondary sources in archives and libraries in Kenya and on oral interviews with some informants. The study is set in the context of pre-colonial and colonial Kenya. The study set to investigate the impact of ecology and colonialism on the social and economic activities of the Turkana as well as how the Turkana people responded to the varied situations confronting them. The study uses the following theoretical framework; ecological and articulation of modes of production. The theories have been brought into the study with a view of analysing the role of ecology in shaping human social and economic institutions. The study demonstrates the centrality of the interactions between physical environment and human population as crucial in understanding the dynamics of Turkana social and economic activities. In the process of interaction between the physical environment and human population as crucial in understanding the dynamics of Turkana social and economic activities. In the process of interaction between the physical environment and human population, there evolved viable, social and economic institutions among the Turkana. Among some of the social and economic institutions discussed are pastoralism, hunting, gathering, agriculture, fishing, age-set system, stock associateship and traditional legal system. The study therefore underscores the importance of both the physical environment and the Turkana, given that they (Turkana) did play a critical role in shaping the outcome of their social and economic organisation. Articulations theory has been applied in the study to demonstrate the impact of the capitalist mode of production on the pre-capitalist modes of production once incorporated into the capitalist mode of production resulted in historical relationship which tends to dissolve undesired elements while conserving useful elements in the former. The process of intergration of the Turkana pre-colonial economy with colonial capitalist economy involved the use of coercive and non-coercive powers. Coercive powers involved unleashing violence on the people by the military personnel, seizure of livestock and punitive taxation. While non-coercive powers involved establishing institutions of chiefdom as instrument of co-optation and local control. The process of integration led to the dissolution or distortion of certain features of Turkana pre-capitalist social and economic set-ups while conserving desirable institutions for the purpose of enhancing the functionality of capitalist activities in the region. The colonial capitalist policies introduced in the Turkanaland resulted in social and economic changes among the Turkana. The study concludes that despite the destructive nature of the colonial state and capitalist structure through depastoralisation programmes and anti-raiding policies, forced labour and taxation, the Turkana were able to evolve various adaptive strategies. The Turkana people developed profitable and adaptive linkages between agriculture, wage labour and pastoralism as this study demonstrates.