22 Records out of 22207 Records

Nutritional status of children aged 3-5 years with and without severe early childhood caries in New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya

Author: Wasunna, Dorah Catherine

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition/Children and youth/Dental caries/Dental care/Teeth/New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital Dental Clinic/Hospitals/ ;

Abstract:

Early childhood caries (ECC) is defined as the presence of one or more decayed, missing due to caries, or filled tooth surfaces in the deciduous dentition in children whose ages are from 71 months and below. However, in younger children aged 3 years, any sign of smooth surface caries is indicative of severe Early Childhood Caries (severe ECC). In the age group of 3 to 5 years, ECC is also considered once one or more carious, missing (due to caries), or filled smooth surfaces in the primary maxillary anterior teeth. Also a decayed, missing or filled score of ~ 4 (age 3), ~ 5 (age 4), ~6 (age 5) constitutes severe ECC. Some studies have shown that severe ECC affects growth and development of a child; while others have shown that there is no relationship between nutritional status and severe ECC. Currently there is scarce information regarding the nutritional status of children with severe ECC in Kenya. Objective: To determine and compare the nutritional status of children aged 3 - 5 years with S - ECC with the nutritional status of 3 - 5 year old children who are caries - free. Study area and Design: This was a comparative cross sectional study based at the Nyanza Provincial General Hospital in Kisumu, Western Kenya region. Materials and methods: Sampling and sample size: Purposive sampling was done to select the 196 children aged between 3 to 5 years for this study. There were eighty one children with severe ECC selected from amongst the patients who had sought dental treatment at the dental clinic at the Nyanza Provincial General Hospital. However, 115 children who were caries free were selected from amongst the children attending the maternal child health clinic at NNPGH over a period of three months. While Oral hygiene status was assessed using the plaque index of Loe and Silness (1964) ,the WHO 1997 caries diagnosis criteria was used to assess dental caries experience. Oental caries was diagnosed when there was Clinically detectable loss of tooth substance and when such loss had been treated with fillings or extraction. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric measurements and cut-offs of ?2 standard deviations (SO) were used to identify children at Significant risk for either inadequate ?-2S0) or excessive (>+2S0) growth for the following indicators: weight- for-age (WAZ) , height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ). Results: One hundred and ninety six children aged 3 - 5 years among whom 100 were males and 96 were females were recruited for the study. One hundred and forty eight children had fair oral hygiene status and thirty two had good oral hygiene status. Children with severe ECC had poor and fair oral hygiene status when compared to caries - free children. Pearson's chi square test showed that there was a statistically Significant difference with a p - value of 0.027. The mean -dmft of children with severe ECC was 7.5 (? 1.9 SO). Among males and females the mean dmft was 7.5 (?1.8S0) and 7.5 (?1.2S0) respectively. The prevalence of underweight, wasting, and stunting among both groups of children was 14.3% 3.6%, and 2.6% respectively. Eleven males were underweight and seventeen females were underweight. Among children with severe ECC 14%, 4.9%, 2.5% were underweight, wasted and stunted respectively. 13.9%, 2.6%, 6.1 % of caries - free children were underweight, wasted and stunted respectively. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the nutritional status of children with severe ECC and caries - free children for Stunting (p=O.311), Underweight (p=O.859) and Wasting (p=0.451). However, children with Severe - ECC were 1.23 .times more likely to be underweight than caries - free children . Recommendations: There is a need to create awareness on infant feeding practices and oral hygiene status for all children below 5 years of age. This may be done through maternal child health clinics. There is also a need to improve accessibility and availability of dental servic

Effect of dental caries and malocclusion on the oral health-related quality of life in 12-14 year old children in Viwandani Slum, Nairobi

Author: Opondo, Immaculate Achieng'

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Viwandani, Nairobi, Kenya ; Low income groups ; Children and youth ; Teenagers ; Teeth ; Dental caries ; Quality of life ;

Abstract:

Background: Traditional methods of measuring oral health mainly use clinical dental indices. In recent years, the use of subjective assessments to gain information about the impact of oral disorders on Oral-Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) has been advocated. By supplementing the clinical assessments with subjective assessments, a comprehensive account of the oral health of populations can be given. Studies on the OHRQoL of children in Kenya are so far largely unexplored. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the effect of dental caries and malocclusion on the OHRQoL of 12-14 year-old children residing in Viwandani slum. Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods: A total of four hundred and fifty two children aged 12-14 years attending public and private primary schools in Viwandani slum, Nairobi participated in the study. Their mean age was 12.9 years. The two public schools in the slum were included in the study. The private schools were selected through simple random sampling. The children in each school were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data on OHRQoL was obtained using an interviewer administered Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) Index. Intra-oral clinical examination was done to assess caries experience using the DMFT index and severity of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic (DAI) Index. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme. Spearman's Rank Order Correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to relate caries experience and severity of malocclusion with OHRQoL. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 56.2%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.72 ?2.40, with the mean DMFT for the female and male children being 1.73 ?2.07 and 1.71 ?2.40 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the males and females (p=O.95) with regard to their mean DMFT. The prevalence of malocclusion was 32%, of which 19.9% had definite malocclusion, 6.7% had severe malocclusion and 5.4% had handicapping malocclusion. More males than females had malocclusion with the difference being statistically significant (p=O.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between caries experience and OHRQoL (~=O.09, p=O.OO). There was no association between the presence of malocclusion and OHRQoL (p=O.20). Conclusion: Dental caries was found to affect many aspects of the children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, while malocclusion had no effect on the OHRQoL of these children. Recommendation: There is a need for preventive and curative oral health services for the children in Viwandani slum. More studies are needed to determine the dietary patterns and oral hygiene practices of the children living in the slum in order to aid in future planning of appropriate interventions.

Dental caries and its relationship to oral health knowledge and practice among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West districts , Kenya

Author: Gathecha, Gladwell Koku

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Dental care ; Teeth ; Nairobi West District ; Mathira District ; Children and youth ; Soft drink industry ;

Abstract:

Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease that causes demineralization of dental hard tissues. Dental caries was declared a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005 because of its high global prevalence and severe consequences. The prevalence of dental caries varies worldwide between 60% and 90%. In Kenya approximately 50% of children aged between 13-15 years have dental caries. The main objective of the study was to determine the association between dental caries and oral health knowledge and practice among children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 639 children aged 12 years attending public primary schools in Nairobi West and Mathira West districts. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of knowledge and practices employed. Oral screening was performed using WHO recommended methods. Dental caries was measured using the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. Nairobi West District had significantly higher caries prevalence of 37.5% than Mathira West District which had a prevalence of 24% (p<0.05). The mean DMFT in Nairobi West District was 0.76 ? 1.2 while in Mathira West District it was 0.36 ? 0.7. On multivariate analysis knowing that a toothbrush should be changed after three months (OR 3.2) and high consumption of soda (OR 3.0) were found to be significant risk factors for dental caries in Nairobi West District. In Mathira West District having a caregiver with no formal education (OR 4.3) was a significant risk factor for dental caries. The study shows the need for intensive oral health promotion in urban areas to reduce the higher prevalence of dental caries. The school health policy should be used to promote oral health by provision of oral health instruction and educating on harmful dietary practices particularly soft drinks. should be encouraged to caretakers of their children for regular dental check-ups.

Oral health education and practices among community members in central division, Machakos district, Kenya

Author: Mutinda, Agnes Kasusu

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Mouth ; Teeth ; Dental care ; Hygiene ; Health education ; Central Division, Machakos District ;

Abstract:

Although oral health problems are not life threatening, they are of public health concern globally due to their high prevalence, morbidity, general discomfort and negative effects on the overall quality of life. The under privileged and rural communities are the most affected in both developed and developing countries. Poor distribution of oral health facilities, equipment and qualified personnel for the services have been implicated as some of the obstacles for people's acquisition of oral health services in Kenya. The aim of this study was to examine Oral health education and practices among community members in Central Division of Machakos District. Data for the study was drawn from a cross sectional survey of community members in Mumbuni and Mutituni locations in April and May 2006. The data was collected using pre-tested self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 391 respondents. The collected data was cleaned, coded, scored, then entered into the computer and analyzed using SPSS Statistical package. Descriptive statistics such as the mean, standard deviation, range and percentages were worked out to describe data. Pearson- Chi -square was used to test statistical associations between variables. The variables considered were utilization of oral health services (visits to the dentist) as the (dependent) variable and oral hygiene practices, availability of oral health services, accessibility to oral health services, alternative treatment of oral diseases and oral health education (awareness) as the (independent) variables. Level of significance was fixed at 0.05 (p=0.05). The results of this study revealed that there was no relationship between distance from area of residence and visits to the dentist p > 0.05 as the respondents were forced to seek health care by urgent health needs. Further, a statistical significant difference was observed in tooth brushing habits among gender and age groups as females observed better oral health care practices than males p<0.05 and the youngest group 15-24 years compared to other groups p< 0.05 respectively. Tooth brushing habits were personal, not significantly associated with visits to the dentist p >0.05. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) brushed teeth using industrial toothbrush / chewing stick and paste which are considered as the correct tooth cleaning devices. Oral health services were provided as 94% of the respondents were treated upon presentation to the dentist. Majority of the respondents (61.9%) had never sought oral health care, which is a major requirement in prevention and early diagnosis of oral diseases. Among those who never visited a dentist, (83.8%) believed they should only visit when they have oral health problems. Urgent `need' (85.3%) or when there were oral health problems was the main reason of visiting a dentist, as was in painful tooth (52%). Most of the respondents presented themselves late, with advanced disease for treatment and tooth extraction (82.9%) was the treatment of choice. Oral health education, which is mainly preventive, was poor among all age groups, as there was no significant difference observed p>0.05. Only (30.4%) of the respondents had received various oral health messages mainly from teachers in schools. This study recommends strengthening of oral health services in the study community by provision of trained manpower to teach oral health education and for early diagnosis of oral diseases. The education should aim to motivate the individuals to self-oral health care. The results of this study would greatly contribute in designing interventions geared towards change of people's attitudes on utilization of oral health services.

Oral health status and HIV related oral manifestations of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS aged 2-15 yrs in Nairobi and Mombasa

Author: Anver, Mariam

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: HIV infection ; Children and youth ; Opportunistic infections ; Mouth ; Teeth ; Dental caries ;

Abstract:

Background: HIV infection in children is associated with immune suppression and susceptibility to various opportunistic infections. There is also an increased . risk of dental diseases. Objective: Was to determine the oral health status and HIV related oral manifestations in children living with HIV/AIDS. Setting: Nyumbani and New Life childrens homes and outpatient Comprehensive Care Centres at Kenyatta National Hospital and Coast Province General Hospital. Study design: Cross-sectional descriptive study over a period of three months. Subjects: Two hundred and thirty seven children aged between 2-15 years living with HIV infection/AIDS. Methodology: The parents /guardians of the children answered a structured questionnaire on the oral health practices, oral complaints and whether the children were on ARV's. A clinical oro-facial examination of the study subjects was undertaken to determine the oral health status and prevalence of HIV oral lesions. The findings were then recorded in a modified WHO oral health assessment form. The data were analysed using S.P.S.S. version 11.0. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using the X2,Mann Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and Student T tests setting the p value at 0.05. Results: Of the 237 participants, there were 112(47.3%) males and 125(52.7%) females, with mean age of 7.5 years. A fair oral hygiene was elicited in 161(67.9%) while 49(20.7%) presented with high plaque scores and only 27(11.4%) had good oral hygiene. Two hundred and five (86.5%) children presented with gingivitis among whom 115(48.5%) had mild gingivitis, 89(37.6%) moderate gingivitis and one child (0.4%) severe gingivitis. The deciduous dentition caries prevalence was 84.4% with a mean dmft of 6.38(? S05.45). Caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 78.3% and the mean OMFT score was 3.35 (? SO 3.55). The dental parameters varied according to the study centres, gender, oral health practices, oral complaints and immune suppression state. The prevalence of HIV related oral manifestations was 45.8%. Candidiasis was the most common (40.9%), 6.3% had oral ulcerations, 3.7% bilateral parotid enlargement and 1.7% linear gingival erythema. The frequency of oral manifestations was higher amongst children from the Comprehensive Care Centers (p<O.05), those with increased severity of gingivitis, primary dentition caries, poor oral health practices, and oral complaints (p<0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of children living with HIV/AIOS is generally poor with a high prevalence of dental disease and HIV related oral manifestations. Recommendations: Primary care of HIV infected children should include dental management to alleviate symptoms associated with oral opportunistic infections related to HIV infection and institution of preventive oral health care measures

Dental caries and gingivitis among 12 year old children in Peri-urban Kitale, Trans-Nzoia District, Kenya

Author: Owino, Richard Okombo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: Dental caries ; Children and youth ; Gingivitis ; Teeth ; Kitale, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Background: One of the WHO global health goals stated that the global average for dental caries should not have been more than 3 DMFT at 12 years of age by the year 2000. However the prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis and dental treatment needs among 12-year-old children in Kitale municipality has never been investigated this study will form a baseline database for this cohort. Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and the dental treatment needs among 12-year-old children in Kitale municipality. Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Primary schools in Kitale municipality, Trans Nzoia district. Materials and methods: Eight schools were randomly selected from the 4 educational zones. Two schools represented each zone. A total of 292 children aged 12 years were randomly selected from the eight schools. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire and a data collection form. Data analysis: Data was analysed using SPSS. The mean was computed for DMFT, frequencies for prevalence of caries and gingivitis. Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis were used to test associations between dental disease and oral health knowledge, practices and oral health seeking behaviour. Data was presented in the form of tables and graphs. Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries was 50.3%. The prevalence of dental caries when only the permanent teeth were considered was 44.5% with a mean DMFT of 0.92 (SD 1.36). Girls had a significantly higher caries experience (DMFT) than boys (p< 0.05). The main treatment need indicated for decayed teeth was one surface restoration, with 46.9%% of all the children requiring this kind of treatment. Endodontics was indicated in 7.5% of the children while extractions were the least required treatment with 5.1 % of the children examined requiring this kind of treatment. The prevalence of gingivitis was 77.7%. Out of these 38.7% of the children required professional dental care (scaling and oral prophylaxis). Majority (67.5%) of the children brushed their teeth. Out of those who brushed their teeth, 87.8% used toothpaste. 64.5% used a tooth brush, 16.8% used mswaki and 16.2% used mswaki and toothbrush. These oral hygiene practices did not have an influence on caries experience or on the prevalence of gingivitis. The utilization of dental services was low with only 36.3% of the children having visited the dentist. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis was high. The mean DMFT was 0.92(SD 1.36). There was a greater need for one surface restoration and mouth scaling for these children. Knowledge and oral hygiene practices did not influence the prevalence of gingivitis.

Early childhood caries among 3-5 year olds and their caregivers' oral health knowledge, attitude and practice in Kiambaa Division, Kenya

Author: Njoroge, Nancy W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: Dental caries ; Teeth ; Children and youth ; Kiambaa Division, Kiambu District ;

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) denotes any form of caries occurring in the primary dentition of children before 71 months of age. The prevalence of ECC appears to be on the increase among preschool children in Kenya. Change of diet from the traditional fibrous foods to western refined foods coupled with poor oral hygiene of the children may be part of the reason for the increase. Oral health knowledge and attitudes of caregivers may influence dietary habits and oral hygiene practices of their children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and patterns of ECC among 3-5 year olds and their caregivers' oral health knowledge, attitude and practice in one division of Kiambu District, Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among 3-5 year old children. A list of schools from the District Education office was used as the sampling frame. Stratified random sampling was used. The schools were categorized into private and public. A table of random numbers was used to select schools from each category until the sample size was obtained. A total of 343 children were enrolled in the study. An oral examination of the children was done under natural light using a dental probe and mirror. ECC experience was assessed using decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) index in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria of 1997. Three hundred and forty three questionnaires were sent to the respective child's caregiver. Information sought included caregivers oral health related knowledge, attitudes and practices. DATA ANALYSIS: The data was analysed using SPSS 12.0.1 for Windows version. Descriptive analysis was used to report cross-sectional data. Univariate analyses were performed using chi-square statistics and one- way ANOV A. RESULTS: Slightly over a half, 201 (59.5%) had dental caries. The mean dmft was 2.46~3.2 SO with the greatest component (95%) being decayed teeth. Mandibular deciduous molars and maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth. Majority (94.4%) of the children brushed at least once daily. Ninety five percent of the children used toothpaste. The caregivers' knowledge on causes and prevention of caries was high. Although 85% of caregivers reported that deciduous teeth were important, 57% preferred extraction of an asymptomatic carious deciduous tooth . CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ECC was 59.5% while the dmft was 2.4~ 3.2 with a mean decayed component of 2.36. Children from private pre-schools had a statistically higher prevalence of ECC compared to those from public preschools. Oral health knowledge among the caregivers was relatively high but the role of infant feeding practices on ECC was low. RECOMMENDATIONS: Initiate oral health education programmes integrated with ANC, MCH/FP and School Health Education Programmes. Mobilise community oral health workers to perform regular dental check-ups of preschool children to enable prompt referral to the nearest dental health facility. Conduct further research to elicit factors influencing dental health seeking behaviour and dietary habits of the children.

Comparison of the factors which influence the oral health status amongst pre-primary school children in a rural and urban area in Kenya

Author: Kibosia, Jelimo Caroline

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: Teeth/Dental care/Health education/Children and youth/Dental caries ;

Abstract:

Aims and objectives In Kenyan children aged five currently have a decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index of 1.5 while the twelve year old have a DMFT of 0.2. The objective of this study was to look at the disease pattern in preprimary school children from different social economic backgrounds and also to look at difference in presentation of disease between urban and rural communities. Materials and methods This study was a descriptive cross sectional study involving three hundred and seventy two (372) five year-old pre primary school children. Children were sampled from four Municipality schools, which consisted of the urban group, and four Ministry of Education schools distant from the municipality using multistage sampling method. Results Children from the urban group were 191 (46.1% female, 53.9% male) and 181 (47.5% female, 52.5% male) from the rural population. Health seeking behaviour: When comparing the health seeking behaviour it was found that most children (81.6% (n=146) rural and 83.8% (n=160) urban) had never visited an oral health facility. Diet: With regard to the dietary preferences it was found that there were statistical differences between both groups in the categories of commonly enjoyed food, beverage and snacks with all having p values of 0.000. Oral Hygiene: The oral hygiene habits of these children showed that 78% (n=149) of the urban group and 35.9% (n=66) of rural children reported use of toothbrushes showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.000). Most of the urban children who brushed used modem toothbrushes (91.5% (n=136) while only 51.5% (n=34) rural children used modem brushes and 48.5% (n=32) used the traditional mswaki. Amongst those children who brushed 87.9% (n=131) of the urban children used toothpaste, however it was found that only half of the rural children who brushed their teeth reported using toothpaste (48.5% (n=32), with a p value of 0.000. Most of the children who report having toothbrushes brushed only once (49% (n=73), 33.6% (n=50) twice and 12.1% (n=18) three times. Fewer rural children who have toothbrushes; 65.2% (n=43) brush only once, 15.2% (n=10) twice and 4.5% (n=3) three times (p=0.002), showing a statistically significant difference. De'tal Diseases: Dental caries contributed to most of the oral disease burden found in the two study samples, with the dmft for rural children comprising 1.97 (n=75). Forty six point four per cent (46.4% (n=84) were found to be caries free, whilst the urban children had dmft values of 3.30 (n=127) and 31.9% (n=61) were caries free). Using Mann Whitney Analysis, p value of 0.001 was reported for both the decayed teeth and dmft. This was indicative of a statistically significant difference between the two groups. The greatest amount of oral disease seen in these two groups is mainly dental caries. The number of decayed teeth (urban n=84 (44.5%) and rural n=61(33.7%) contributed to the majority of the dmft with very few missing and filled teeth. This represents a high number of unmet treatment needs (UTN). Estimation was made that the UTN for rural children is 95% while that for the urban children is approximately 91% Source of Drinking Water: A greater proportion of the urban children reported use of chlorine treated tap water (71.2% (n=136)) where as most rural children reported use of water from boreholes (84.5% (n=153). A statistically significant difference was shown between the samples (p=0.000). Most children using treated tap water reported little incidence of dental fluorosis (93.8% (n=136) while there were more children reporting use of water from boreholes 29.4% (n=60) having fluorosis than those using river/streams water (30.4% (n=7). Conclusion: It was concluded that health seeking behaviour, oral hygiene practices, diet and dietary habits, disease patterns and source of water all affect oral health status of both urban and rural pre-primary school children. There was an association f

Influence of packaging and labelling on consumer preference for toothpaste brands : a case of shoppers selected in retail outlets in Nairobi central business district.

Author: Mulewa, B M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Lower Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Consumers ; Attitudes ; Brand preferences ; Dental care ; Teeth ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Dental caries, fluorosis and periodontal disease among 12-15 year old children from Juja in rural Kenya

Author: Waweru, Lucy W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: Dental caries/Fluorosis/Teeth/Children and youth/Periodontal disease/Juja, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE