27 Records out of 22207 Records

An analysis of the impact of structural adjustment programmes on education, in Sub-Saharan Africa : a case study of Kenya (1980-2010)

Author: Pamba, Elizabeth Sanya

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Impact analysis/Structural adjustment/World Bank/International Monetary Fund/Quality of education/Education policy/Economic policy/Sub-Saharan Africa/ ;

Abstract:

This study examines the impact of the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) which were implemented in several African countries in the Sub-Saharan region, as a means of enhancing growth and development. The study focuses on the role played by the Bretton Woods Institutions i.e. the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, in the education sector. SAPs were aimed at improving the overall economic performance as well as enhancing a country's capacity to provide basic social services such as education and health. One of the requirements of the programmes was that Sub-Saharan African (SSA) governments reduce their involvement in the economy through cost-sharing with its citizens in the provision of health and educational services. The study examines how structural adjustment programmes impacted on the economic performance of the Sub-Saharan African countries and how this in turn affected the provision of educational services in Kenya and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Public spending on education by governments can be a strong instrument in ensunng equity, through expansion of opportunities and raising the standards of living its people and especially to the poorest. This was the rationale behind governments subsidizing education for their citizens. Lower spending in the educational sector by governments, resulted in the deterioration of quality of teaching and research. Educational institutions also operated under adverse conditions such as deterioration of physical facilities, overcrowding, lack of resources for required materials and maintenance. SAPs were articulated in Sessional Paper No. 4 of 1980 on Economic Prospects and Policies and later elaborated in Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1986 on Economic Management for Renewal Growth, which was to be the blueprint for the implementation of SAPs. These Sessional Papers provided ideal development targets and policy guidelines and were often meant to attract aid from the donors, who had signaled that they would reward the government that adapted to the reforms and penalize those that refused to reform . The fact that a large section of the population in most countries in SSA live below a dollar a day, complicated matters in that they were not able to play their part as far as costsharing was required, due to their financial status. It is a fact that an illiterate population cannot participate effectively in the development process. Rationalization of public sector spending meant increased fees and cost-sharing, which many families could not afford. While education institutions in SSA had increased in numbers despite the introduction of SAPs in the 1980s and 1990s, the quality of education offered seemed to be on the decline. Areas highlighted include the impact that the SAPs generally had in SSA in enrollment in schools, gender disparity and economic issues in education. In Kenya, SAPs brought about a lot of challenges in education and thus the study will focus on areas related to expenditure in the education sector, enrollment and the gender disparity in schools. The methodology used comprises both primary and secondary sources of data. Research is based on documented sources, library research at various institutions and stakeholders in the education sector The main objective of this study is to look at the nature of SSj economies and to explore the extent of the implementation of SAPs and their impact on education, especially to the poor and vulnerable groups in SSA and particularly in Kenya.

Effects of structural transformation on employee performance in Kenya Electricity Generating Company

Author: Nzuki, Permenus K.

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi LIbrary ;

Subject Terms: Kenya Electricity Generating Company ; Employees ; Structural adjustment ; Performance appraisal ;

Abstract:

The study sought to find out the effects of structural transformation on employee performance in the Kenya Electricity Generating Company. It singled out structural parameters such as chain of command, span of control, job-redesign and work teams, and their effects on the performance of employees in the organization. The study used the survey research design. The target population was nine hundred employees. However, a sample of ninety was selected using proportional stratified sampling technique and the random sampling method within the six business divisions of the Company. A questionnaire and an interview guide were used to collect data. Out of the expected response rate of ninety, a total of seventy-four reacted to the questionnaire and interview. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, where the researcher used an excel spread sheet to draw proportions and percentages for the closed-ended questions, while responses from the open-ended questions and interview were analyzed using discourse analysis. Findings of the research indicated that changes in chains of command, span of control, work teams as well as job redesign in the organization led to an improvement in employee performance. In line with these findings, and to ensure a sustained improvement of employee performance, the researcher recommends a reduction of management hierarchies, a reduction of the number of supervisors, thus 'larger work teams and the establishment of policy provision to ensure constant review of employee job roles.

The Structural Adjustment Program and education reform in Kenya.

Author: Gichuri, Anne Nduta

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Structural adjustment ; Education reform ;

Abstract:

I researched on the role the World Bank's Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) played in education reform policies formulated and implemented by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MOEST) in Kenya between 1980 and 2000. My key respondents were the World Bank education specialist at the Kenya Office, and two senior officials with in the MOEST. My research primarily consisted of open-ended interviews guided by my basic research question. I analyzed the resultant data thematically based on the broad categories generated by my basic research questions. I triangulated interview data with extensive document analyses and direct informal observations of salient issues raised during interviewing. My findings revealed that the SAP adjustment credits were closely intertwined with the MOEST education reform policies between 1980 and 2000. Indeed, the SAP adjustment credits seem to have playing a pivotal role in the formulation and implementation of MOEST education reforms. My conclusions reveal notable benefits in favor of sustainable local development, apparent as a result of these close interactions and partnerships. I recommend further longitudinal and cross national research studies to explore these emergent findings further.

Impact of privatization on firm performance : a case of selected privatised firms in Kenya

Author: Okumu, Argan Wekesa

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Privatization ; Structural adjustment ; Mumias Sugar Company ; Kenya Commercial Bank ; Kenya Airways ;

Abstract:

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Kenyan economy experienced a series of shocks. Some of them affected all developing countries, but others were specific to Kenya. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other donors responded with substantial commitment of structural adjustment lending. Kenya was the first sub-Saharan African country to receive structural adjustment funding from the World Bank and later the first to receive an enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF) loan from the IMF. Privatisation was one of the key requirements of those forms of lending. For many years since independence in Kenya, parastatals have generally proved to be 'parasites' on the treasury. Though the state entities do generate some revenues, the revenues seldom cover a reasonable proportion of their costs. They end up being a burden to be borne by the government instead of contributing something to the exchequer. Privatisation as a component of public sector reform policy has attracted mixed across the various stakeholders. Whereas it has long been yearned for by some, it has proved to be a threat to others. This fundamentally manifests the respective perceptions of the impact of privatisation. The research responded by carrying out an assessment of the impact of privatisation on performance, thereby putting to light the expected outcome of a typical privatisation. The approach used was case study based on Mumias Sugar Company, Kenya Commercial Bank and Kenya Airways. The study applied t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests on hypothesized performance indicators. Analysis of privatisation was further examined by discussing lessons drawn from international experiences

The impact of structural adjustment programmes on social justice philanthropy in Kenya : a case study of community based health and educational institutions.

Author: Zainab Athuman Osman Ali

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: United States International University-Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Structural adjustment/Justice/Health services/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The impact of structural adjustment programme on the management of public enterprises : a case study of Kenya.

Author: Toroitich, O K

Awarding University: University of Wales

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Structural adjustment/Public enterprise/Management/ ;

Abstract:

Despite the attention paid to privatisation around the World, much remains undone in Sub Saharan Africa, especially in respect of research. Although most African countries have undertaken one form of privatisation or another, and despite the centrality of privatisation in the process of economic reforms, no detailed empirical research has yet been undertaken on either the scope or impact of privatisation in the continent. Indeed, as yet, there is no systematic research at the firm level on the post privatisation performance of privatised and restructured firms. Thus this research avoids the popular and common assessment of privatisation involving measurements and comparisons of pre and post-privatisation performance. Instead, it evaluates the internal adjustment processes that occur in the firm from the pre-privatisation to the post -privatisation period. It uses data collected from four firms using a number of methods, chiefly interviews and various forms of secondary data. Principally, a number of factors are identified which facilitates the successful restructuring of the firm following the privatisation or restructuring process. It is argued that the presence of these factors contributes chiefly to the success and the post privatisation performance of the firm. These factors are leadership, presence of a well established foreign partner, minority or no government presence in the ownership structure, importation of managers and pre-privatisation performance. Further, it is identified from the case study evidence that firms undergoing privatisation in Africa can achieve successful post privatisation restructuring and thus performance as the example of Kenya Airways clearly demonstrates. Finally, a conceptual framework is developed and it is suggested, should be used in the pursuit of similar but more extensive research in the future. Several recommendations directed at managers and policy makers are offered. Finally, the study?s limitations are clearly outlined.

Competition law and policy in economic restructuring : an evaluation of Kenyan experience

Author: Njoroge, Bernadette

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Competition ; Economic policy ; Economic development ; Law ; Structural adjustment ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

An assessment of the impact of aid conditionalities by the Bretton Woods institutions on the political and economic performance of Kenya (1990-2002).

Author: Laban, Ayiro Peter

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level :

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: United States International University-Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Bretton Woods System ; Structural adjustment ; Economic impact ; Foreign aid ; Political economy ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Reforming university finance in sub-Saharan Africa : a case study of Kenya.

Author: D'Souza, Alba Charlotte

Awarding University: Stanford University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: School finance ; Colleges and universities ; Education policy ; Foreign aid ; Structural adjustment ; Economics ; World Bank ; Education Sector Adjustment Credit ;

Abstract:

This study is a critical analysis of the complex process and dynamics of negotiating and implementing World Bank structural adjustment reforms in Kenya. The Education Sector Ajustment Credit (EDSAC) 1990 to 1995, sought to reform university financing, was implemented against all odds. The study gains in significance because of its implications for the wider sub-Saharan African context in which such financial reforms are generally deemed to have failed. It is anticipated therefore that the case study will be of theoretical and practical benefit to national governments, and to international agencies and recipients. The study includes three major theories: agency, patron- client, and principal-agent. Agency is key to exercising leverage and leadership, at the national and international level, even where constraints appear to be pervasive. Patronage is deeply embedded within the African context, and the international/national perspective is examined using the conceptual lens of principal-agent. Collectively, these three perspectives frame the analysis of the case study. Reform of university financing is a major policy dilemma in sub-Saharan Africa. At issue is a policy shift from total financing by governments to one in which the beneficiaries and their families have to contribute to the costs of university education. This policy shift has reverberations because it is fundamentally about power, privilege, economic and social mobility and has implications for access and equity in the provision of education. The choice for African governments is stark. African governments are being forced to reconsider university financial reform because African universities are in crisis. Economic decline in the last twenty years has put a severe strain on funds available to finance education, eroding the potential of governments to sustain funding at current levels. The success of the edsac was a tribute to the part that agency played in domestic politics, policy dialogue, negotiation and compromise. A judicious mix of economic rationalism and political agency increases political stability and enhances the possibility for successful reform. The case study also confirms the literature, that if the objectives of the donor and the recipient differ, the reward incentive must be great.

The devastating effects of the restructuring process on the workforce not entrenched in the Republic of Kenya.

Author: Kobuthi, Edward Ndwiga

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: United States International University-Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Civil service/Government employees/Economic policy/Structural adjustment/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE