140 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors influencing spread of HIV/AIDs among borana women in Sololo division, Moyale district, Kenya

Author: Bule, Tumme Teresa

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Sololo Dvision, Moyale District ; Boran (African people) ; HIV infection ; AIDS (Disease) ; Women ; Epidemiology ; Social life and customs ;

Abstract:

This study was set out to explore the socio aspects which leads to the spread of HIV and AIDS among Borana women aged between15-45, the issues are cultural practices like FGM, wife inheritance, domestic violence and the management of HIV / AIDS. Female genital mutilation and wife inheritance is also very rampant, among Borana community, which leads to the spread of HIV / AIDS. The community practices FGM in order to reduce women sexual argues, to uphold traditions and as a sign of maturity, this is done using crude weapons which are shared among the victims and this can lead to spread of HIV/AIDS. Early marriage is also rampant because the community doesn't value girl child education, therefore access to information, which raises the level of awareness of the respondents in relation to spread and prevention of HIV / AIDS is denied. The study therefore sought to establish social factors which lead to the spread of the disease and recommends remedies like women empowerment through education. Disregard for harmful cultural practices like female genital mutilation and wife inheritance. For this to be achieved the society, Government, churches, NGOs and other stakeholders will work in unity to reduce the rapid spread of HIV / AIDS. The researcher used a total of 196 respondents from Sololo Division, Moyale District. Questionnaires were used in order to get information from the field. Also questionnaires were administered to N GO workers, health workers who assist in the management of HIV/AIDS. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science as it will be presented inform of frequency tables, percentages and cross tabulations which was clearly to show the relationship between the variables. This study established that there was a positive correlation between female genital mutilation, early marriages, wife inheritance, domestic violence and Spread of HIV / AIDS among borana women with wife inheritance influencing the spread of HIV/AIDs most, followed by female genital mutilation, early marriages and domestic violence. This study recommend that the government of Kenya, NGOs and community based organization leaders should come together and create more awareness on vcT and its importance in Moyale District, condemn FGM, early marriages and domestic violence.

Factors influencing women participation in political leadership : the case of Kimilili constituency of Bungoma county, Kenya

Author: Tabuka, Elizabeth Tundi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kimilili Constituency, Bungoma County/Politics/Women/Women's studies/Gender/Social life and customs/Cultural change ;

Abstract:

Politics is almost everywhere a male-oriented, male-dominated enterprise. Even though women in most countries have been in all legal respects politically equal to men for over forty years, sex differences in political participation are enormous. This study therefore sort to assess the 'factors influencing women participation in political leadership' a case of Kimilili Constituency of Bungoma County. This study highlights the deep- seated culture that define women primarily as wives and mothers, with electoral politics seen as an appropriate activity for men, but less so for women. The project has explored the ways in which c gender roles hindered the supply of, and demand for, women in the politics of Kenya moreover Kimilili constituency. It has also discussed how lack of finances, low women educational level and political factors influenced women's political participation in Kenya and moreover Kimilili. The study found out that women in Kimilili constituency are ignorant of their rights and moreover patriarchal system is still a hindrance of women participation in political leadership. Due to social-cultural, economic, education and political factors, found to influence women participation in political leadership in Kimilili Constituency the researcher recommended that changing culture to suit the political needs of women would be a very challenging option to carry forward in Kimilili. It is not an issue which is solvable overnight; hence women's participation in politics should be actively pursued by women. The Kenyan system has provided opportunities for women to show their capabilities. It is not the changing of culture; however, it is how one uses the available opportunities to be visible in eyes and ears of the chiefs, elders and heads of families. One has to use the opportunities given by culture to have an effect and inform changes to culture. The interest to carry out this research was prompted by the fact that participation in politics is a way of life for all human beings regardless of their gender, religion, class or ethnic background, however politics has predominantly been dominated by the male, despite the fact that women form a big percentage of the population and are the majority of voters in Kimilili Constituency.lt's so amazing that Kenya moreover Kimilili has potential women who can be leaders or even presidents of this country Kenya, but they aren't, the question is why? Therefore, this formed the need for this research. The research was conducted using a descriptive survey research design and the data was collected using interview guide where five women aspirants and six key informants were interviewed,questionnaires were also employed on men and women in eight wards of Kimilili constituency selected through purposive sampling and proportionate stratified sampling technique from the accessible population. It was analyzed using SPSS and presented in tables. The hypothesis was tested using Pearson Chi-square at 95% level of confidence. Pilot study was conducted using test re-test method to test the viability and reliability of the questionnaire administered.

Factors influencing participation of learners in adult and continuing education in Magumoni Division, Meru South District

Author: Taari, Joyce Kageni

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Magumoni Division, Meru South District/Adult education/Adults/Enrollments/Social life and customs ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this research study was to investigate the factors which influence participation of learners in ACE in Magumoni division, Meru South District. Data was collected from 50 adult learners and 10 adult education teachers and 2 zonal adult officers using questionnaire and interview guide. The study revealed that the majority of adult learners were females which could be attributed to the fact that majority of the men are the family bread winners and have limited time to participate in the ACE. The study also revealed that the majority of the adult learners were married with family responsibilities which limited participation in ACE. The research established that that the major causes of low participation of the adult learners are; Limited time by men to participate in the ACE because majority are the bread winners, family responsibilities as a result of marital obligations, inadequate finances to pay for ACE tuition, distance from home to ACE programme, cultural factors whereby some men though illiterate do not attend the ACE programme because of the customs and the male chauvinism whereby some men feel that they are superior and do not need to attend classes together with female learners. The study recommends that the government should conduct a country wide educational campaign on the significance of ACE to enhance the participation of adult learners. The study recommends that government and other stakeholders should explore into investing in livelihood of the people of the low economic status to allow them to participate in the ACE.

Factors influencing male attitudes towards vasectomy in Kilifi District, Kenya

Author: Kidzuga, Musa Lugwe

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Reproductive health/Men/Attitudes/Vasectomy/Social life and customs/Kilifi District ;

Abstract:

Vasectomy is unique among the modern method of contraception as it enables the male partner to take primary responsibility for fertility control; its availability broadens the choice of methods for family planning users and contributes to promoting male involvement in family planning. This therefore led to the need of undertaking a study of the factors that influence the male attitudes towards vasectomy in Kilifi District. Specifically the study assessed how independent variables like education level, economic factors, cultural and religious factors and reproductive health service providers and had an influence on the male attitudes towards vasectomy in the district which is the dependent variable. Descriptive survey design was used and a sample of 3 health centers was selected through purposive sampling methods. Reproductive health service providers' and men from different parts of the division formed the study respondents. Questionnaires with both closed and open ended questions were used to collect data as well as an interview guideline. The study findings identified the main factors influencing male attitudes is culture, low education levels, ignorant educated men and health service providers bias,. The study findings recommend vasectomy sensitization campaigns, training of service providers and long term commitment of government, donors and other stakeholders towards vasectomy programs in terms of leadership and resources.

The cultural perspective of violence against women : a case study of the Suba community on Rusinga Island

Author: Obonyo, Josephine Anyango

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Suba (African people) ; Rusinga Island ; Women ; Domestic violence ; Social life and customs ; Wives ; Families and family life ;

Abstract:

This study set out to explore the forms of violence against women on Rusinga Island and how it relates to enculturation and the women's perceptions of it. The study sought to address the following research questions: What forms of violence against women exist on Rusinga Island? To what extent is the violence against women a result of enculturation? And, does women's socialization make them perceive the violence against them as normal, hence influencing its perpetuation? The overall objective of the study was to explore the forms of violence against women on Rusinga Island and the relationship between the violence and enculturation. The specific objectives were to determine the forms of violence against women on Rusinga Island, to investigate the relationship between this violence and enculturation and to establish the perceptions of women regarding the presumed harmful beliefs and practices that perpetuate violence against women. The study was guided by the radical feminist theory which analyses patriarchy as the primary cause of women's oppression. Data were collected using the survey method, semi-structured interviews, direct observation, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Data from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS computer programme and the findings presented in tables of frequencies, percentages and bar charts. Qualitative data were sorted out, tabulated and interpreted in relation to the research objectives. The findings are presented using verbatim quotes and narratives. The study found that physical, emotional, sexual and economic violence against women exist to a great extent on Rusinga Island. All these forms of violence are greatly fuelled by the deeply ingrained cultural beliefs, practices and perceptions that not only help to perpetuate the violence, but also make it difficult to eradicate the vice. Various traditional beliefs and practices are a great source of violence for women. These include the present day practice of polygyny, which is very common in the study area, wife inheritance, forced marriage and practices around burial rites for widows who have not yet been inherited. Others include the traditional practices surrounding young women who have reached puberty, as they are considered to be impure and polluting, with the perceived ability to cause a spell or doom, and wipe away an entire homestead. The study, therefore, concluded that violence against women exists in various forms which include physical, emotional, sexual and economic on Rusinga Island. Violence against women is perpetuated by the way the people are socialized to believe that men have unlimited rights over women, particularly wives. The study, therefore, recommends sensitization of the community as a whole on human rights in general, and on the rights of women in particular. Similarly, women should be encouraged to report incidents of violence to relevant authorities. Finally, various cultural beliefs and practices that perpetuate violence against women should be reconsidered and alternative rites prescribed by clan elders.

Culture and athletics : an ethnographic investigation of everyday practice of the Nandi people in Nandi hills, Kenya

Author: Nicholas, Daniels

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nandi (African people) ; Nandi Hills ; Running ; Social life and customs ; Athletes ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines the everyday practices behind the success of Nandi athletes, uncovering the hidden secrets that give them an advantage over non-Nandi runners. By gathering the cultural history of running in Nandi Hills to provide an explanation behind the factors influencing its middle and long distance athletes, thematic issues associated with everyday life within the community shed light on its middle and long distance runners. Research was carried out in order to deconstruct the components that produce a successful sportsperson, by offering an ethnographic insight into the lives of athletes in Nandi Hills. This was possible through the lens of anthropological research, incorporating cultural dynamics as 'that complex whole' of views and perspectives into social research. The unit of analysis is individual Nandi athletes who live and train in Nandi County. In addition, non-athletes who live in the research location contributed data to the study. Purposive sampling was used to select people in accordance with groups constituting athletes of different genders, ages, running distances and training locations. The main data collection method employed was ethnographic observation. Additional data was also collected from one focus group discussion, four narratives and three life histories. A survey was administered to 100 respondents selected as they became available, and taking into account gender and age. Findings supported initial assumptions that: athletics in Nandi Hills has its origins in pre-sportised running such as raiding and cattle rustling that was organised as sport; athletes assume a prominent status in community life in accordance with traditional customs and practices that respect physical achievements and dedication to running; and, athletics is a lifestyle choice for the Nandi, who are heavily influenced by their culture and also an aptitude for running. These findings were linked to theoretical notions such as the changing nature of running as a moral economy for the Nandi; the modernisation of ethnic identity and the changing status of women; and cultural transformation within the community as Nandi people are increasingly exposed to global systems and structures. It is concluded that the high number of world champion professional athletes coming from Nandi Hills is because of the close relationship between sport, culture, and society which can be seen in the production and reproduction of a running tradition within the Nandi community.

Impediments to women's economic empowerment in mitigating their vulnerability to HIV/AIDs in lower Nyakach Division, Kisumu County

Author: Oruko, Elizabeth Akinyi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Lower Nyakach Division, Kisumu County ; HIV infection ; AIDS (Disease) ; Women ; Social life and customs ; Health risk assessment ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

Economic powerlessness poses major threats tp, mitigation of HIV/AIDS vulnerability among women in the world. As such, exploration of the relationship between economic powerlessness and HIV/AIDS vulnerability will be the focal point of this study, Through mainly the use of literature based research, studies have indicated how low economic status and disease, most 'specifically HIV/AIDS are related. Researchers globally have argued that there is ample evidence that the high and increasing vulnerability of women to HIVIAIDS is due to gender-based social and economic inequalities; sexual violence and inequality in access to prevention, education and training. Low economic status among women and dependence on men contribute to their inability to control the conditions such as condom use and multiple sexual partners. This shapes their risk of HIV infection and their high infection rates compared to men. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the impediments of women's economic empowerment in mitigating their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Lower Nyakach Division, Kisumu County. The study was carried out to fulfill four objectives, to establish extent to which family status impedes women's economic empowerment in mitigating vulnerability to HIVIAIDS; to investigate how economic status impedes women's economic empowerment in mitigating women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; to examine extent to which cultural factors impedes women's economic empowerment in mitigating vulnerability to HIVIAIDS and finally to assess how lack of sensitization and training impedes women's economic empowerment in mitigating vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The study was limited by the fact that diversity of cultural background made it difficult to generalize findings to women in other parts of the country. The study was delimited by being confined to womenin Lower Nyakach division. Literature was reviewed under the following sub themes: Family status and women's economic empowerment and vulnerability to HIVIAIDS, Economic status and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, Cultural factors and economic empowerment and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and lastly sensitization and training and economic empowerment and vulnerability to HIVIAIDS. The study adopted the relevant theoretical and conceptual frameworks which guided the researcher in determining variables. The descriptive design which involved qualitative and quantitative strategies to data collection was employed. 13,018 households were targeted for the study; a sample of 208was identified using multi stage sampling method. Key informants were sampled purposively. Data was collected through focus group discussions and questionnaires as the main research instruments. The data was analyzed through frequencies and percentages presented in tables and discussed as per the literature reviewed in chapter two. A cross sectional research design was used to establish the findings and revealed that impediments to women's economic empowerment have contributed to vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. From the findings, 63.7% of the respondents reported that men are the household leaders hence key decision makers. Low economic status was very critical as it led to low level of education and knowledge. It was revealed that 51.7% of the respondents earned below kshs 5,000 while only 11.9% earned above kshs 15,000. Such low income rendered women powerless in negotiations for safe sex. 49.8% of the respondents reported that men solely owned property while 17.4% reported that women owned property. The study also revealed that negative cultural practices have subjected women to unsafe sexual behaviours. For instance, 58.7% reported that men were the main decision makers in households. 60.2% reported that condoms prevent HIV infection though they lack the final say on their use. The study concluded that low economic status impedes economic empowerment hence vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Negative cultural practices subjected women to unsa

Influence of socio-cultural factors on cattle rustling among pastoral communities in Kilgoris Constituency, Narok County

Author: Oloolumbwa, Anne Seenoi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Socioeconomic factors ; Social life and customs ; Cattle ; Rustling ; Pastoralists ; Kilgoris Constituency ;

Abstract:

The socio-cultural factors considered to influence cattle rustling in Kilgoris Constituency, Narok County, include; income level, formal education level, cultural practises and leadership. Low income level has an influence on cattle rustling as this is taken as an alternative means of meeting the daily needs, especially after drought andlor diseases outbreaks. Low level of formal education among pastoralists attributed to factors such as local customs, traditions hostile to change, the nomadic lifestyle itself and insufficient attention by govemmmts to alternative models of schooling has left them with limited opportunities of pursuing economic benefits thus cattle rustling. The pastoral set up characteristics of strong cultural practises compel members to resort to coercive means of wealth acquisition to address needs like dowry payment indeed influence cattle rustling. The type of leadership in a traditional set up plays a role in cattle rustling by either discouraging the practises or enhancing it. This entirely depends on the role played by the leaders or their opinions. The purpose of this study was to highlight on the sociocultural factors that have potential to influence cattle rustling in pastoral communities with reference to Kilgoris Constituency, Narok County in particular. This research report is organised in five chapters. Chapter one introduces the topic and generally highlights on the background to the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study as well as definition of significant terms as used in the study. Chapter two presents systematically how the sociocultural factors, namely; income level, formal education level, cultural practises and leadership influence cattle rustling. It sites literature from various references that account for the effects of socio-cultural factors globally, regionally, in Kenya and locally. It also has the theoretical, together with the conceptual framework. Chapter three covers the research methodology that is broken down to research design, target population, sampling size and sampling procedure, research instruments, how the instruments were piloted, their validity and reliability checked, data collection procedures, data analysis techniques, ethical considerations and operational definition of variables. Descriptive survey research design was used because it allows the researcher to gather useful information, summarize the data, interpret and present the results. Most of the data collected was qualitative in nature highlighting the descriptive influence of socio-cultural factors on cattle rustling. However, quantitative data was generated from responses about frequency of cases of cattle rustling in relation to the socio-cultural factors identified in the study, where validity and reliability of the instruments was ensured. Analysis of data collected using Statistical Packages of Social Scientists was done. Chapter four deals with data analysis, results and discussion of the findings on the influence of social cultural factors on cattle rustling among pastoral communities in Kilgoris Constituency. The data was analyzed with the help of a computer software namely Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This enabled the researcher to present the data in frequencies, percentages and summarized in tables. The chapter is divided into two main sections, namely results and discussion of the findings. Chapter five presents the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations based on the analysis on the influence of social cultural factors on cattle rustling among the communities in Kilgoris constituency. The findings of this study may be useful in developing policies targeting the pastoral communities. The District Security and Intelligence Committee (DIDC), peace committees and other development partners may find the study useful in understanding t

Factors influencing female teachers ascend to headship position in public primary schools in Loitokitok district, Kajiado county, Kenya

Author: Manini, Mary Silole

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Loitokitok District ; Primary schools ; Educators ; Women ; Employee promotions ; Social life and customs ; Families and family life ; Sex roles ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing female teachers to headship position in public primary schools in Loitokitok District, Kajiado County, Kenya, The objective was to assess social cultural beliefs and practices and. their influence on female teachers to headship position, examine Ministry of Education policy on promotion to headship and how it impact on female teachers in taking up headship position, investigate the attitude female teachers have towards headship roles, and determine how community perception on female head teachers affect female teachers participation in the headship of public primary schools in the district. The study was based on the great man's theory of leadership which suggests that the capacity for leadership is an in born; that great leaders are born not made. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population included all the eighty schools in the district. A sample of 1 DEO, 3 AEOs, 20 headteachers and 80 teachers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire tools were adopted to collect the data. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the reliability of the tools. A questionnaire return rate of 97% was achieved which was deemed very good for data analysis. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 17.0. The study found out that female teachers did not seek promotions positions out of the fear of being posted away from their homes, that marital obligations hindered female teachers from seeking headship positions, that academic qualification was an important issue for one to be considered for promotion, and that the surrounding community perceived that women's place was on domestic chores. The study recommended that TSC should reinforce teachers' promotions procedures in the district. That the Ministry of Education encourages more female teachers to apply for promotions to headship positions and that the Ministry of Education provides housing for headteachers. Further studies was suggested to be conducted on whether the gender ofthe headteacher in the district affected performance in schools.

Influence of home-based factors on girls' performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in public schools in Enkorika Zone, Kenya

Author: Muthii, Shelmith Wairimu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Enkorika Zone, Kajiado Central District ; Parents and parenting ; Primary education ; Girls ; Academic achievement ; Social life and customs ;

Abstract:

Although there have been concerted efforts by various stakeholders to enhance girl participation in education, for example bursaries and more so free primary education grants, there are increasing concerns that such policies are not sensitive to performance at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education but only enhancing access or retention. To this end, the study investigated the influence of home-based factors on girls' performance in public primary schools in Enkorika Zone in Kajiado Central District, Kenya. The study objectives were to determine the influence of parents' level of education, economic background, household chores and cultural practices on girls' performance at the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education examination. Literature review was based on the study objectives. From the reviewed literature, it is clear that home based factors are major determinants of a girls performance, however some earlier researchers found that the home based factors are not the major determinants of girls' performance in school. The study adopted Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs. Adopting the ex-post facto research design, the study targeted a population consisting of 15 head teachers, 79 class teachers and 1752 female pupils in 15 primary schools. Using purposive and stratified sampling techniques, the researcher based the study on a sample of all the 15 head teachers, all the 20 standard 8 class teachers and the 150 standard 8 female pupils, yielding a total sampling matrix of 185 subjects. To collect data the researcher used two sets of instruments: Questionnaires for pupils and class teachers while interview guides were used to collect data from the head teachers. The instruments were handed over to the supervisors to establish whether they measured what was intended to measure. The researcher then revised the instruments accordingly based on the supervisors' recommendations. To access the validity of the instrument a pilot study was done. To ensure reliability of the instrument the researcher employed test retest method. Data analysis was descriptive, analytical and statistical in nature as per study objectives. Qualitative data was subjected to content analysis involving the analysis of emerging themes while percentages were used to analyse quantitative data. The findings were then presented in fonn of frequency tables, cross-tabulations, pie-charts and graphs. The major findings showed that majority of the parents who discussed performance with their daughters had no formal education. Pastoralism was the major economic activity, majority of the girls spent most of their time doing various household chores with fetching water and cooking. Involving the girls most and various cultural practices adversely affected girls' performance even if economic factors had an influence too. The researcher recommends that efforts be made to stop retrogressive cultural practices such as FGM, emphasizing on guidance and counselling of pupils/girls, enforcing laws to counter cases of early marriages, enlighten parents or the community on the importance of girl child education and building boarding schools/rescue centres to house the rescued girls. The researcher made suggestions for further research to be conducted in the following areas that is; factors contributing to persistent practices of certain retrogressive cultures despite the existence of campaign and laws against such practices, impact of the emphasis of girls child education on boy child education and why there is increasing concern for education among parents with little or no education compared to those with some level of education.