107 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors influencing participation of men in anti-poverty self-help groups : a case of Dagoretti District, Nairobi County-Kenya

Author: Mbuki, Mary

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Low income groups ; Support groups ; Dagoretti District ; Men ; Participation ; Social change ; Gender ; Stereotypes ;

Abstract:

Self-help group is a voluntary and self-managed group of people, belonging to similar socioeconomic characteristics, who come together to address a felt need amongst themselves. The self-help group (SHG) approach is a model into the field of development whose objectives are to increase the well-being of the poor people, provide access to resources and credit, increase self-confidence, self-esteem and increase their creditability in all aspects oflives. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the factors influencing participatios of men in antipoverty SHGs in Dagoretti District of Nairobi County. The main research questions explored the extent to which patriarchy system, masculinity, socio-culture and gender stereotyping influences participation of men in SHGs. The research study adopted mixed research design which combines elements of qualitative and quantitative approaches to provide breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration of information. The data collection instruments included questionnaires, interviews and Focused Group Discussions. The target population was men in Dagoretti District and to some extent institutions that work with SHGs in Dagoretti District. Study findings indicated Patriarchy system, Masculinity, Socio-culture and Gender stereotyping have a significant influence on participation of men in anti -poverty SHGs. Patriarchy indicators such as Key leadership in SHGs, gender preference in leadership, dread of women domination as weIl as decision making patterns in SHGs were found to have an influence on subscription of men in SHGs. Self-sufficiency, femininity and vulnerability avoidance, overconfidence and hate of women domination indicated masculinity influences. Belief such as help seeking is womanly, SHGs are not cultural for men and societal expectations of men in regarding to seeking were also found to have an influence on participation of men in SHGs. Stereotypes such as perception on which gender fits better in an SHG, women are more natural members of SHGs, SHGs are women oriented, stereotypes in policies of institutions working with SHGs and stereotypes related to low participation of men and complexity of working with women were found to also contribute to the participation of men in SHGs. Socio-culture and Gender stereotyping influences rated highest at 73% and 71.4% respectively with patriarchy system and masculinity influences at 67% and 59%. The researcher recommended awareness creation on benefits of SHGs, changing stereotypes and ancient perceptions regarding SHGs, evaluation of policies and practices of government and institutions to ensure equitable development for all and investing more in education and capacity building for the society to challenge traditional views of masculinity and cultural expectations of men. The study concludes that for men, especially poor man to be encouraged to participate in SHGs that would uplift their economic standards, there is need to address the dominant patriarchy system, help men define what it is to be masculine in a way that favours them, redefine socio-cultural arena and work towards changing stereotypes that cause men to shun SHGs. Further studies should focus on perspectives of women on factors influencing participation of men in SHGs and exploration of models of SHGs that men would be attracted to.

An evaluation of the effects of self-help group approach on poverty alleviation in Mtwapa

Author: Syengo, Titus Kameta

Awarding University: St. Paul's University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: St. Paul's University Bishop Okullu Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Poverty/Mtwapa, Kenya/Kilifi District/Social change/Rural development/Self help groups USE Support groups/Support groups/ ;

Abstract:

Despite the many efforts by the Government of Kenya and its policy makers to improve the quality of life and the dignity of its citizens, significant poverty reduction among the very poor has remained elusive. Part of the reason poverty levels have not reduced significantly since 1965 when the country developed its first development blue print is the lack of involvement of the poor in the design and implementation of development initiatives and the often top-down approaches to development. The other reason has been the challenge of multi-dimensional nature of poverty, which cannot be addressed if the country views poverty from economic lenses alone. This research seeks to study the characteristics of Self-Help Group (SHG) approach, its ability to address the multiple dimensions of poverty and the effects this has had on the lives of members of SHG. It is a case study of the application of SHG approach in Mtwapa, Kilifi District in Kenya in increasing SHG members? levels and quality of social, political, financial, physical and natural capitals and hence reducing their poverty levels. It then recommends the approach as one of the major development strategies that can effectively address the challenges of poverty in Kenya. The research results show that the SHG approach has had major effects in reducing poverty among its members. The approach is holistic and its self-reliance principles should be utilised by development professionals and policy makers to design and implement sustainable development programmes. Key Words Poverty, Anti-poverty, Self-help groups approach, Sustainable Livelihood Framework, Poverty reduction, Social capital, Political capital, Physical capital, Financial capital, Natural capital, Vulnerability, Kenya

Post conflict intervention : a comparative analysis of the education strategy in Kenya and Rwanda, 1996-2000

Author: Omwenga, Everlyne Kerubo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflict resolution ; Post-election violence ; Genocide ; Rwanda ; Social change ; Education ;

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to demonstrate the role of education as an intervention strategy during post-conflict situation, a case study of Kenya and Rwanda. The first chapter provides background content to the topic of research including reasons for conducting the study and objectives that the research seeks to meet. A discussion of the literature that informs the research is also provided as well as the methodology for conducting the research. The last content is the bibliography that laid ground to the theoretical knowledge. The second chapter introduces the concept of post-conflict intervention and describes the nature of activities that go on during post-conflict intervention and the place for education in such environment. The third chapter conducts an analysis between educational intervention in post-conflict societies, specifically post-genocide Rwanda and post-2008 election violence in Kenya. This chapter presents a critique of the analysis ofthe problem statement and the views that the study adopts following the analysis. Lastly the fifth chapter provides the findings from the data analysis and develops a conclusion to the research based on the findings. The study found that with the adoption of broad transformational agendas by individuals and institutions alike, there exists an opportunity where legacies of political violence in both Kenya and Rwanda can be countered. The commitment to confront past injustices can bring about substantial change. Indeed, without the acknowledgement that particular structures in society, such as institutional set-ups and socioeconomic factors, have allowed for political violence, profound change is unlikely to occur. Despite the existence of a civil society in Kenya that educates the masses while reminding political leadership of its pledges for reform, and scrutinises action taken; as well as an international community that follows closely the developments, there are risks that important transformational processes will not bear fruit. To avoid these risks, leaders and individuals in society must take responsibility, even if in the short-term it might seem easier to move on without addressing what is needed. It is imperative to implement educational initiatives that seek to entrench a culture of peace towards strengthening the individual and society as a whole, while addressing socioeconomic issues such as poverty, inequality, and resource distribution. The society must be allowed, and be willing, to participate and engage substantially in the further shaping and implementation of such transformational processes.

An investigation of the self-help group approach as a poverty reduction strategy amongst poor women in Pumwani slums, Nairobi

Author: Maina, Loise Waruguru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya ; Low income groups ; Women ; Self help ; Support groups ; Social change ;

Abstract:

This study sought to investigate whether the self-help approach, which has been taunted as an effective poverty alleviation strategy particularly amongst very poor women, is indeed reducing poverty amongst the target beneficiaries in Pumwani slums. The study was guided by the antipoverty theory that was proposed by Caroline Moser in 1993. The anti-poverty approach to women focuses mainly on productive roles on the basis that poverty alleviation and promotion of balanced economic growth requires the increased productivity of women in low-income households. A total of 105 respondents wen purposively selected from the self-help groups in Pumwani to observe changes in their lives as a result of their membership in the groups for a minimum of 2 years.The study helped to highlight the determinants of poverty amongst these women like low literacy levels, high numbers of children/dependants, limited access to credit for business, poor housing, . inadequate access to health services, poor sanitation facilities, abuse of rights and insecurity and revealed that the self-help groups have contributed significantly to improving the members' lives on the economic, social and political fronts. The study recommends that the government and other partners need to support these efforts by ensuring that there is better infrastructure in terms. of toilets, street lights and market facilities as well as an enabling environment for business that is free from violence and insecurity.

Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with spontaneous abortion among women attending Thika District level V Hospital, Kenya

Author: Mwangi, Emmah Nyambura

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Thika District Hospital, Kenya ; Abortion ; Coffee ; Women ; Social change ;

Abstract:

Globally, an estimated 210 million women become pregnant annually and more than 25% of these pregnancies end in abortion or an unplanned birth. While many abortions may result from the desire to delay or avoid pregnancy, it is estimated that 15% to 20% of pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion which may be associated with matemal diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS and matemal lifestyle such as heavy caffeine intake before and during pregnancy and exposure to domestic violence. The understanding of the etiology of spontaneous abortion is still limited as few studies have been conducted on the same. Information on the occurrence as well as exposure factors of spontaneous abortion is non existent in Kenya The main objective of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and ,lifestyle factors associated with spontaneous abortion among women attending Thika District level V hospital, Kenya A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Thika District level V hospital, Kenya that included a total of 196 ante-natal and post-natal women who were systematically selected to participate in the study. A pretested questionnaire was then administered to women within the child bearing age (18- 49 years) to determine the level of occurrence as well as exposure factors of spontaneous abortion. Level of occurrence based on 'ever suffered' a spontaneous abortion was 28.6%. Having a family history of spontaneous abortion was the only socio-demographic factor significantly (p<O.020) associated with spontaneous abortion. A woman had a 2.4- fold risk (OR= 2.4, 95% CI= 1.135-5.073) of experiencing a spontaneous abortion if she had such a history. Among the lifestyle factors, coffee intake during pregnancy was significantly (p < 0.002) associated with spontaneous abortion with 37.9% of those reporting to have taken coffee during pregnancy experiencing a spontaneous abortion relative to 18.3% of those not taking coffee. Further research through controlled studies on the quantity and duration of coffee intake that predisposes one to spontaneous abortion is however necessary in order to corroborate these findings. Exposure to X-ray treatments during pregnancy was also significantly (p<0.001) associated with spontaneous abortion with ?? of those who had been exposed to X-rays experiencing a spontaneous abortion. Antenatal clinic attendance was also significantly (p< 0.(05) associated with spontaneous abortion whereby there was a decreased risk (OR=O.23; CI= 0.08- 0.69) of experiencing a spontaneous abortion if a woman was attending antinatal clinic. A significant association (p<O.OOI) was also observed between malaria and spontaneous abortion. The results of this study provide evidence that several lifestyle factors are associated with spontaneous abortion among women attending Thika District level V hospital. Advice 10 encourage women to adopt an appropriate lifestyle such as ante-natal clinics atendance needs to be emphasized. The results also provide a basis for further work so that more evidence can be provided on the etiology of spontaneous abortion.

Emerging perspectives in pastoral conflicts, commercialization of cattle rustling, diminishing role of elders and gun supremacy : a case study of the Turkana of Kenya

Author: Koli, Derick Epae

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : Master of Internatio

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Firearms/Pastoralists/Conflicts/Rustling/Social change/Turkana District ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Factors influencing tuberculosis control among the Maasai of Narok district, Kenya

Author: Kirui, Joyce Chepkirui

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Tuberculosis/Masai (African people)/Narok District/Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Health care/Public health/Disease control/Social change/Milk/ ;

Abstract:

Tuberculosis, a deadly infectious disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is increasingly becoming one of the leading health concerns globally. Human Immuno- deficiency Virus has exacerbated the situation in developing countries and it has led to the resurgence of tuberculosis. Of more concern is the emergence of multi drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB which are much more difficult and costl-. to treat. Kenya has mounted a series of interventions with a view to sensitizing people about the disease. Despite those efforts, there remain hard-to reach regions or communities such as the Maasai whose coverage in the interventions have been minimal. A special TB treatment programme, 'TB Manyatta' strategy was introduced to maximize treatment outcomes in the region, The main objective of the study was to establish the community perceptions, socio- cultural beliefs and practices and other factors influencing TB control among Maasai of Narok District. This was a survey which utilized quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A sample size total of 384 TB patients were recruited for the study as they went into the TB clinics, after obtaining prior informed consent. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version 10 program. The level of significance was P<O.05. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically using NVIVO (version 8). To obtain secondary data, this study also utilized records that were kept at the district hospital. Bivariate analysis revealed several factors that had independent statistical significance when related with respondents' knowledge ofTB. These included age of the respondent (P<O.OOl), marital status (P=O.034), religion (P=O.032), the level of education acquired (P=O.022), accessibility to TB education (P=O.039) and overall patients attitude towards TB (P<O.OOI). Tuberculosis was perceived a highly contagious, incurable and killer disease such that those suffering from it were to be stigmatized and isolated. Socio-cultural practices such as coughing without covering the mouth (92%), consumption of untreated milk (25%) and crowding in traditional huts with no or minimal ventilation predispose the Maasai to contracting TB. Regarding health seeking behavior, first health facility visited was significantly related to knowledge on TB (P=0.002). Patient delay before medical consultation was conspicuously observed. Major factors associated with delay before seeking medical consultation included use of traditional medicines (47.9%), inaccessibility of health facilities (29.2%) and poverty (21.1%). The Maasai community had a negative attitude towards TB manyatta strategy, as they considered it forced treatment. . As a result records reviewed for year 2008/2009 revealed that treatment defaulting has always been around 13.5%. Knowledge ofTB disease is inadequate and attitude towards TB is predominantly negative. Knowledge gap that exists should be bridged through continuous public health education that is tailored to suit the Maasai beliefs and practices. To improve access, health services should be decentralized nearer to the people.

The East Pokot on the precipice : conflict and social change in a pastoralist community

Author: Mutsotso, Beneah Manyuru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pokot (African people) ; Pokot, Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Samburu (African people) ; Njemps (African people) ; Minority and ethnic groups ; Conflicts ; Security ; Social life and customs ; Social change ;

Abstract:

This study was designed to understand the context of the East Pokot conflict with the neighbouring communities and the resultant socio-economic changes/adjustments on pastoral livelihoods. Further, the study sought to understand the nature of the East Pokot relationship with the government of Kenya from the colonial period to the present and how this. has affected pastoralism. The study utilized research questions set out at the beginning to guide the study. The literature on pastoralism shows that pastoralists in general are faced with many challenges: drought, disease and insecurity, and have. an uneasy relationship with government. This is out cf their desire to move freely as pastoralism dictates and the government's intend to put them under control. Government legal and policy reforms have led to the alienation of the most productive pastoral land thereby leading to strained relations. The theoretical framework utilized to guide the study was: rational choice theory, conflict theory and modernization theory. The study utilized a qualitative approach in the data collection and analysis process. Primary sources of data were focus group discussions, group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Secondary data was obtained through review of archival materials and other government documents. Quantitative data was obtained through administration short questionnaire to capture the social characteristics of the respondents who participated in the interviews. The findings of the study were: the triggers of conflict are both historical and contemporary and they vary from conflict zone to another. However claims and counter claims over land and contested administrative boundaries featured prominently. The historical causes were the collapse of the oath taken between the East Pokot and the Samburu, Njemps and the carelessness of the middle age-group among the East Pokot who have failed to take up the responsibility the community has bestowed on them. The East Pokot have now delved into other forms of livelihood as a fall back mechanism or enhancement of pastoralism in response to conflict.. They now undertake activities previously reserved for the poor (chepleng) for a livelihood. Other social adjustments include: cultivation of crops, beer brewing, bee keeping and labour employment. The rise of an entrepreneurial ethic especially among the East Pokot women' is impressive. They now dominate small scale enterprises in the shopping centres - food, kiosks, hotels, grocery shops, honey etc The rise of the indigenous East Pokot businessmen who now dominate the livestock trade is particularly intriguing. Enclosure of common land especially in Churo area is a new phenomenon as people begin to take a more or less permanent claim to land. The rise of alcoholism and the deviant moran reflect a moral decline among the East Pokot. The relationship between the East Pokot, the colonial and independent Kenya government has been strained to the present especially following unpopular government policies towards them. The study concludes that unless the conflicts are urgently resolved the future of East Pokot pastoralism remains in jeopardy due to an increasingly shrinking resource base. The prospect of the East Pokot pastoralism sliding further down the precipice remains real unless the security situation is sustainably resolved. However, the rise of alternatives to pastoralism is a discernible adjustment mechanism which should be enhanced. The study recommends the. following: diversification of pastoralists economy is needed and important in order to reduce over-reliance on livestock; insecurity among pastoralists arid/or agro-pastrolists could be sustainably resolved through utilization of historical records and by itltpartial negotiators; insecurity is a national problem and should receive national attention. At a research level, the study recommends a regional study of conflict between pastoralists in order to appreciate it

Socio-cultural and socio-economic participatory monitoring and evaluation indicators used in adopting improved cassava varieties by communities in Kuria and Migori districts, Kenya

Author: Tana, Paul Ochieng'

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ;

Subject Terms: Manihot esculenta/Food security/Kuria District/Migori District/Farmers/Participation/Participation/Social change/Socioeconomic factors/ ;

Abstract:

Cassava production is critical to household food security in Kuria and Migori Districts. The adoption of improved cassava varieties has been low largely due to non-participatory extension approaches. PM&E at the community level is a relatively new approach and there has been considerable lack of emphasis on community-based monitoring and evaluation indicators during the development of technologies in Kenya. This study investigated the socio-cultural and economic based monitoring and evaluation indicators used by Kuria and Luo Communities in adopting improved cassava varieties in the two districts. The study design was cross-sectional survey. The study used both qualitative and quantitative participatory survey tools. Stratified proportionate random sampling was used to select 184 households and 8 farmer groups for the study. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect data from farmers in order to obtain information relating to the use of local M&E indicators used for the selection and adoption of cassava varieties in the two districts. Focus group discussion was used to initially identify socio-cultural and economic PM&E in the two communities. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer Programme. Data analyses used included both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used included percentages, means and standard deviation while Independent t-test and Rank order correlation were used for inferential statistics at the 5% level of significance (oc = 0.05). The study identified socio-cultural and economic community-based PM&E Indicators for selection and adoption of cassava varieties in the two districts. The study found no significant differences and significant differences in some of the socio-cultural and economic indicators. The study also found that the adoption of improved cassava varieties is low in the two districts. The identified community-based participatory monitoring and evaluation indicators would help in enhancing scaling up of cassava technology development, packaging and technology dissemination strategies by researchers, extension agents and farmers. The study recommends the incorporation of local indicators during development and dissemination of technologies by research institutions as this would help in enhancing the uptake of new technologies developed.

Effective behaviour change strategies in environmental communication : a case study of youth involvement in Nairobi

Author: Omondi, F Osano

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Eastlands, Nairobi, Kenya ; Children and youth ; Young adults ; Environmental education ; Behavior modification ; Social change ;

Abstract:

This study discuses the involvement of youths in behaviour change communication interventions. It is based on a case study that was carried out on respondents hailing from Eastlands neighbourhood estates of Korogocho, Kariobangi, Dandora , Huruma and Mathare areas within Nairobi North District. These localities experience overwhelming environmental challenges. The study design advanced an overall aim of establishing the factors responsible for low levels of youth response to BCC interventions and to also attempted to offer insights regarding strategies for designing potentially effective environmental behaviour change contents that can be disseminated through available media channels. It also took into account respective channel features that impact positively or negatively on environmental communication. A general outlook has been given to pertinent concepts like emerging media and participatory communication which have in recent years been considered vital in optimizing behaviour change amongst youthful audiences. Findings of this study have unveiled the urgent need to enhance participatory mechanisms in BCC approaches with regard to E C. Undertaking strategic methods in content designs, formats and patterns of delivery that ultimately target the youth through the more attractive forms of emerging and alternate mediums is a fact that can not be overlooked. Conclusions drawn from the study point to the huge gap of research that still remains to be carried out by practitioners in all areas of sustainable development but more so within the twin fields of Behaviour Change Communication and Environmental Communication in a collaborative manner. The study primarily sought to establish the crucial linking points and approaches that would provide complementarity between these two related fields which formed the basis of this study. As in most other current research practicesthis study clearly outlined objectives indicating the scholarly gaps and needs it desired to fill. That aim has been well achieved from the findings documented in Chapter four and yet the discussion in Chapter five has substantiated current status of Behaviour Change attempts in E C interventions among youth audiences in Kenya. Finally, the study has given recommendations on the way forward.