7 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors influencing vulnerability of women in refugee camps : the case of Dadaab refugee camp; Garissa County, Kenya

Author: Jegede, John Oluwatosin

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya/Refugees/Women/Sex discrimination/Gender ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to explore the factors influencing vulnerability of women in Dadaab refugee camp. Women consist of over 60 percent of the total population of this world's largest refugee camp and are perceived as the most vulnerable and marginalized group within the camp. research has the potential of providing involved or ganizations and institutions, whose mission is to protect people from the harmful repercussions of refugee crisis, with pertinent information that will aid in reducing the magnitude of difficulty faced by refugee women and so reducing the unnecessary burden of life for these women. Furthermore, the study will also provide future researchers with a useful pool of resources. Although refugee women issues have been addressed in the developed world and in some of the developing countries, not many studies have been done within the Kenyan context. Many Non- Governmental Organizations led interventions have brought women issues to people's consciousness and some short term measures to alleviate women's problems have followed. However despite these interventions women continue to suffer. The objectives of the study is thus to determine the influence of culture, level of education/awareness, law enforcement mechanisms, availability of opportunities on the vulnerability of women in Dadaab refugee camps. This research also reviews the pertinent literature that underpins this study from the global, African and local perspectives and also offers a conceptual framework and indicates the knowledge gap that the study intends to fill. The mixed research approach was employed; it consists of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The study adopted a Cross-Sectional design which allows the researcher carry out the study in natural, real life settings and to ask a random sample of individuals to respond to a set of questions about their backgrounds, past experiences, and attitudes. Oral interviews were also employed. Study findings revealed that culture, level of education/awareness, law enforcement mechanisms and opportunities influences the vulnerability of women in Dadaab refugee camp. The study recommends that the needs of refugee women must be incorporated into all stages of refugee life, including in the granting and documenting of refugee status, and in the organization of refugee camps. The governments of states that accept refugees must modify their refugee protection system to account for persecution based on sex and gender, and must make the documentation process available to women. In the refugee camps, international relief agencies and large donor-coordination organizations, specifically UNHCR, must require that the Guidelines are followed and that women's rights are protected.

Factors affecting the economic empowerment of women Mvita constituency, Mombasa County, Kenya

Author: Moindi, Hilda Nyasengo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mvita Constituency, Mombasa County ; Women ; Sex discrimination ; Socioeconomic factors ; Traditions ;

Abstract:

Women continue to lack access to and control over resources, the purpose of this research project therefore was to identify the factors influencing the economic empowerment of women in Mvita Constituency in Mombasa County. The factors under study were education, self help groups, political representation and cultural practices. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data. Secondary data was obtained from scholarly books and journals, reports and proceedings of international conferences and seminars. Primary data was obtained by administering questionnaires to respondents; an interview schedule was also utilized when gathering information from the key informants. The research used the survey research design in order to capture the various characteristics of the population. Cluster sampling was utilized by selecting households from Mvita constituency, 90 individual respondents were then picked from each household using simple random sampling. 10 key informants were selected using purposive sampling. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS and presented in the form of percentages and tables, standard deviation, Pearson correlation and chi square. The literature review was found to be in agreement with the findings of the study that portrayed that women continued to lack the access and control of resources in the society. This indicates that they had low income levels and were often excluded from the major decision making machinery. Their low economic status was further hampered by low levels of education; therefore, women lacked even the basic skills to enable them to improve their standards of living. The findings also indicated that cultural practices and traditions perpetuated the view that women are less superior to their male counterparts. The study found that male supremacy and early marriages were some of the negative cultural practices that were rampant in the community. Political representation by women was also influenced by their lack of economic resources often needed to vie for political positions and cultural stereotypes. Self help groups were found to be beneficial because they not only enabled women to pool their resources and save, but also provided easy access and collateral for loans. Among the recommendations of the study was to create watchdog mechanisms in order to monitor the community on the high dropout rates among the girl child. Mainstreaming of self help groups should be done to enable their transition from informal groups to formal groups in the society. The study noted that is important for a similar research to be conducted on other counties to establish other factors that affect economic empowerment of women.

The effect of socio-economic discrimination on womens' empowerment : a case of Gatue division, Tharaka North district, Kenya

Author: Mpara, Faithjoy Karimi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gatue Division, Tharaka North District ; Women ; Sex discrimination ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

Socio- economic discrimination of women has been an issue of concern globally and Kenya in particular. Although the Kenyan constitution has put emphasis on gender equality and women empowerment and that many worlds' governments ratified CEDA Wand accepted it as a Bill of Rights for women in their laws, these have however not received meaningful support from men as well as the government structures. It is on this ground that the researcher sought to find out the effects of socio-economic discrimination on women's empowerment in Gatue division- Tharaka North District. The research was carried out using descriptive and correlational research designs and the data was collected through 6 key informant interviews and 8 focused group discussions. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and themes since the study was based on both quantitative and qualitative paradigms. The analyzed data was presented using percentages, frequency distribution tables and themes. The study revealed that socio-economic discrimination of women in form of lack of participation in decision making and leadership roles, lack of property ownership and engagement in economic activities, inadequate access to education, are an hindrance to women's empowerment because they reduce the women to the domestic sphere with limited opportunities to get empowered. The study also recommends that similar studies be done in other parts of the country so as to establish similarities or differences in research findings and to enrich future studies.

The effect of occupation on wage discrimination in Kenya

Author: Akuma, Joash Ogonyo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Wages and salaries ; Occupations ; Sex discrimination ;

Abstract:

This research paper examines the effect of occupation on wage discrimination in the Kenyan labour market using cross-sectional data from 1998/1999 labour force survey. The study examined whether occupational segregation exists in the labour market and assessed the effect of occupation variable on wage discrimination in the labour market in Kenya. Occupations have been classified into eight categories based on International Labour Organization's International Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) framework. The Duncan and Duncan Index of dissimilarity was used to measure the existence of occupational segregation. The computed value of 25.7% reveals that occupational segregation exists in the Kenyan labour market. This index is however, less than that observed in industrial countries such as Germany and United Kingdom with 40% and 33% respectively. Two separate equations were regressed for both the male and female wage equations using Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The regression was first run with occupation included in the model and with occupation excluded from the model. The results indicate that the value of R-squared was 46% and 55% for male and female respectively when occupation was included in the model while when the occupation variable was excluded; the Resquared value was 39% and 49% for male and female respectively. Based on the findings, we can be conclude that occupation has an effect on wage discrimination since its inclusion in the regression gives a higher value of R - squared which decreases when he variable is excluded from the model. The results of the wage decomposition show that there is a wage gap between male and female. This is attributed to the human capital characteristics and the contribution of returns. The study recommends investment in instruments that reduce gender inequalities in access to education, choice of occupation and also policies aimed at promoting training programmes for both men and women.

Factors affecting women in their career development progression and job placement : a case study of Moi University

Author: Maru, Chepchirchir Grace Rono

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPhil

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya ; Women ; Career advancement ; Discrimination ; Sex discrimination ; Job descriptions ;

Abstract:

Women all over the world have slimmer chances as compared to their male counterparts when it comes to career development, progression and job placement. Studies indicate that they tend to be highly concentrated in a narrow range of fields and in jobs of lower responsibility and skill especially in institutions of higher learning. Despite their qualifications and educational background, they 'tend to lag behind men in power, wealth and opportunities. Gender discrimination remains pervasive in many dimensions of life with disparities in access to and control of resources. Therefore the study examined factors affecting women in their career development, progression and job placement. The objectives of the study were: to examine the relationship between the level of education of women and their career development, to evaluate relationship between skill enhancement, management, leadership and career training of women and their professional development and progression, to document the disparity between male and female staff members in job placement, and to assess the relationship between values, qualities and talents of women and promotion in organizations. This was a case study. It was carried out in Moi University's three campuses; Chepkoilel Campus, Town Campus and Main Campus. Purposive sampling was used to obtain key information from senior level and middle members of staff. Simple random sampling was adopted to obtain a total sample size of 62 out of 162 staff being 40% of the total employed in Moi University. The study instruments were closed and open-ended questionnaires. The findings of the study were presented in tables and discussed accordingly. The analysis of the data was done using descriptive techniques (mean, averages and standard deviation among others), and computer software Statistical Package of Social Scientists (SPSS). The hypotheses were tested using Chi-square and inferential statistics. The study identified factors that affect women on their career development and job placement and various measures, policies and strategies were suggested towards improving career development and progression among women in public universities and other public and private sectors.

Factors influencing women career development in Kenya : a case study of secondary schools in Lugari District

Author: Mwivanda, Marycasta

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPhil

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Lugari District ; Career development planning ; Women ; School administration ; Sex discrimination ;

Abstract:

Women's large influx into the labour market has not appreciably changed the nature of work for the vast majority neither has it reconciled women's productive and reproductive roles. This has not significantly narrowed the gap between men and women because indirect discrimination still exist in many forms especially in recruitment procedures, training and promotion policies as well as career development opportunities that still favor men. It's in the view of the above, that this study seeks to investigate into the factors that influence women career development thus limiting their entry into administrative positions in Education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence women career development in Kenya. This research was based on the reproduction theory as discussed by Deem, (1980), and Tiernery, (l989).The study used the descriptive survey design. This research was carried out in Lugari District .The target population was secondary school teachers in administrative positions (Headteacthers, deputy Headteacthers and heads of departments). Stratified random sampl ing was used to select 16 schools out of 32 and a sample of 128 respondents of administrators was selected through systematic random sampling. Data was collected by the use of structured questionnaires with both open and closed ended questions. Interviews were conducted with headteacthers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics specifically means, percentages and standard deviation. Inferential statistics in particular Mann Wh itney to relate the answers of the two groups of respondents were used and chi-square to test relationship between variables of headteachers perception and women career development. Pearson product moment correlation was used to test the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. It was found that the low incidences of women in senior positions in educational institutions is due to a combination of many factors both internal and external, each reinforcing the other as a result of complex social, cultural and educational factors which have continued to influence women career development such as lack of: mentors, networks and lack of policy. It is recommended that women administrators should form support groups to help in mentoring and networking while the Ministry of Education and schools should actively recruit, encourage and support women aspirants and gender mainstreaming. The findings will be useful to all policy makers in schools, and Ministry of Education. It also will be useful to women administrators.

Gender disparities in the flow of pupils in public primary schools in Teso District, Western Province, Kenya

Author: Emong'ole, Akijakin Lawrence

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Primary school students ; Enrollments ; School dropouts ; Gender ; Teso District ; Women in education ; Sex discrimination ;

Abstract:

Globally, basic primary education is recognized as a fundamental human right. There is evidence that all nations throughout the world are making efforts to attain universal primary education (WCEFA, 1990). Although pupils enrolment primary education has greatly increased in all regions of the world over the recent years, it is unfortunate that their participation is not sustained to the completion of the primary level of education (UNESCO, 1999). The problem of the study arises from the fact that, there are considerable non-enrolments and dropout in public primary schools in Teso District (Teso District Development Plan 1997-2001). The purpose of the study was to determine gender disparities in 1994 and 1995 cohorts. The study was guided by research questions and the objectives of the study. The pupils were stratified by gender, and then 360 pupils were selected for the study. Twelve 12 head-teachers and 24 parents' representatives were included in the study. The data was collected revealed that the number of pupils who proceeded from standard one to another was more or less than the initial number of pupils enrolled. 1994:2548 out 11327 children managed to survive up to class 8 but 1911 children registered for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education. 1995:2786 out of 8740 managed to survive up to class 8 but only 2129 children registered for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education. Pupil cohort wastages were: In 1994: Crude:0775-----------------1995: Crude:0.681 Actual:0.784--------------- Actual 0.738 Going by Gender: Boys: In 1994:1638 out of 5464 boys managed tosurvive up to class 8 but 1229 graduated. While in 1995 1762 out of 4218 boys had enrolled in class 1 managed to survive up to class 8 but only 1346 graduated. Girls: In 1994, 910 out 5863 girls survived up to class 8 but only 728 girls graduated. In 1995, 1024 out of 7399 girls managed to survive up to class 8 but only 758 graduated. The wastages were: 1994:.........................................1995: Boys/Girls: Crude: 0.775...............................0.681 Actual: 0.784..............................0.738 Boys: Crude: 0.700...............................0.582 Actual 0.719................................0.640 Girls: Crude: 0.845...............................0.774 Actual: 0.640...............................0.838 Wastage rate: It was noted that parents who have no formal education are not in a position to assist and motivate their children to progress in education. Most parents have negative attitudes towards education of their children especially girls in Teso District. In the community, Value is attached to the marriage institution