22 Records out of 22207 Records

Perceptions of teachers on primary school children vulnerability to HIV/AIDs during the 2007 post election violence in Kibera slums, Kenya

Author: Situma, Grace Nelima

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Post election violence/Child welfare/Sex crimes/Primary school students/HIV infection/Educators/Perceptions ;

Abstract:

The study aimed at establishing the perceptions of teachers on primary school children vulnerability to HIV/AIDS during the 2007-2008 post election violence in Kibera Slums, Kenya. Four research objectives were formulated to guide the study. This study used descriptive survey design. The sample comprised of 16 headteachers and 160 teachers. Data was collected by use of questionnaires for teachers and headteachers while children were involved in focus group discussions. The data indicated that there were various causes of HIV/AIDS infection among primary school children during post-election violence. Findings indicated that there were various factors that led to primary school children vulnerability to HIV/AIDS during Post Election Violence. It was revealed that during post election violence law enforcement that protect individual rights broke down thus increasing vulnerability of children to sexual intimidation and consequently HIV/AIDS. Poverty during post election violence led to child prostitution among primary school children putting them at the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Children were compelled by the 'push' factors like poverty and lack of protection to indulge in unbecoming behavior like prostitution. Extreme push factors arose when children's families got killed or when they had separated from their parents or customary caretakers who might have provided care and protection. Orphans and separated children decided to join prostitution as a means of obtaining food. Besides, destitution of the children due to the post election violence made them susceptible to such heinous acts as rape thereby increasing their chances of acquiring HIV/AIDS. Some children engaged in small scale businesses to fend for their families. This too exposed them to sexual abuse which could have led to the acquisition of HI V/AIDS. The study concluded that there were various remedial actions towards primary school pupils' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS during post Election Violence. These included initiation of education programmes to support children's psychological welfare, guidance and support to vulnerable children, keeping records of the affected children and linking them to children officers. Also the headteachers had created networks to identify affected children; they also organized educational activities that aimed at promoting awareness among children while programmes for parents on how to report incidents of child sexual abuse were introduced. Based on the findings it was recommended that measures should be put in place during violence to minimize children vulnerability.

Child sexual abuse protection services in Lunga Lunga slums of Makadara District, Nairobi

Author: Opati, Emily A

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth ; Child abuse and neglect ; Sex crimes ; Protection ; Lunga Lunga, Makadara District ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Government and Civil Societies have mounted many campaigns since 2003 in the media to create awareness on children rights, laws and encouraging members of the society to take increased responsibility in reporting CSA. Despite several measures put in place, the incidence of CSA has not significantly dropped. This study sought to assess the relevance and adequacy of Child Sexual Abuse protection services in Itunga Lunga slums. Specifically, to assess the prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, to identify the CSA protection services available to children and the communities, to analyse the challenges effecting Child Sexual Abuse protection services and to assess the adequacy of Child Sexual Abuse protection services in Lunga Lunga slums. The site of the study was Lunga Lunga slums which are located within the newly created Viwandani Division in Makadara District on the Eastern side of Nairobi County. The study used questionnaires and interview guides to collect primary data from different categories of respondents. The study also employed Focus group discussions to elicit data from committees tasked with prevention ofCSA and members of the community. It was found that initial sexual encounters in slums are generally attributed to sexual abuse or exploitation due to overcrowding in the living spaces, sharing of external toilets and poor lighting which precipitate CSA incidents. The occurrence of similar incidents involving the survivors of CSA was frequent. The protection measures against Child Sexual Abuse most widely known by the respondents were the criminal justice systems followed by the civil child protection system and government liaisons with stakeholders for sensitization of children and the public. The most common factors motivating victims to seek CSA remedial services were friendly and quick services rendered followed by mental and medical treatment and child protection and education. The duration taken to receive CSA services by most survivors ranged from within one day to three days. Most respondents did not seek CSA protection measures due to poor criminal and child protection outcomes followed by corruption, legal challenges, threats and fear, verbal abuse and stigma and lack of information and awareness. The strategies recommended by most survrvors for improving protective measures was supporting survivors and community in the criminal justice process fellowed by enhancing staff capacity of children agencies, medical and police doctor services and awareness creation. Majority of the survivors were of the opinion that the protection measures in preventing CSA were largely ineffective. The study concluded that the Child Sexual Abuse protection measures in Lunga Lunga slums are ineffective. This is due to llOor criminal and child protection outcomes, legal challenges, verbal abuse, stigma and fear and threats, from perpetrators, their acquaintances and the public, and lack of information and awareness. Other reasons why the protection measures are considered ineffective are inadequate stakeholder capacity, corruption, poor CSA programmes and policies and societal apathy in reporting incidents. This study recommends that the government through the Children's Department formulates a policy on issues of child protection and especially on CSA, facilitates training on CSA for the provincial administration, the police, court officers and employ gender personnel to deal with sexual violation cases affecting children in every slum and police station. The government should increase the capacity of the police stations to deal with CSA. Further, it is recommended that the Children's department, apart from considering gender sensitivity in staff deployment, should also have officers assigned to deal with CSA cases only at least down to the divisional level and provide material and logistical support to facilitate Volunteer Children Officers. Government should ensure that every division has a designated health centre w

Appraisal of HIV post exposure prophylaxis program amongst sexual assault victims at Kenyatta National Hospital

Author: Muriuki, Eric Munene

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: HIV infection ; Sex crimes ; Disease control ; Antiretrovirals ; Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Gender Based Violence Recovery Centre ;

Abstract:

The infection rates following occupational exposure to HIV in a variety of settings have been documented facilitating the use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) among exposed health workers. The merits of post-exposure prophylaxis in non-occupational HIV exposures e.g. in sexual violence is however unknown partly because the risk of acquiring HIV and/or other sexually transmitted diseases due to the circumstances involved are not well characterized. While the incidence of sexual assault is on the rise in many African countries including Kenya, the efficacy of PEP amongst individuals who have experienced sexual violence is still unclear. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the profiles of victims and perpetrators of sexual violence who attended the gender based violence recovery center (GBVRC) program at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and exposed to the non occupational human immunodeficiency virus post exposure prophylaxis for management. In addition, we also reviewed the uptake, compliance, experiences and outcome of those initiated on PEP as part of their intervention .. METHODS: Post-rape survivor records of patients who accessed services from 1 st June 2009 up to 1st June 2012 were retrieved from the Kenyatta National Hospital Gender Based Violence Recovery Center. A retrospective cross-sectional study was then used to examine the biodata of both victims and perpetrators, nature of sexual assault, HIV serostatus, proportion initiated on post-exposure prophylaxis, experiences, compliance and outcome of use. In addition, qualitative data was collected from health care workers interviewed at the gender based violence recovery centers in Nairobi during the data abstraction phase of the study. The staff members were interviewed as key informants on service delivery issues. DATA ANALYSIS: The quantitative data was coded and analyzed using a statistical program SPSS@ version 17 for Windows@ 7. Chi square test was performed to better understand associations between use of PEP, outcomes of interest and specific patient characteristics. Thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. Tables, charts and.~atter graphs were then used to illustrate the findings. RESULTS: There were 391 participants in the study out of which 385 (98.5%) were sexual assault survivors and 6(1.5%) were key informants. Out of the 385 sexual assault survivors who accessed services at KNH-GBVRC, 53(13.8%) were males. Condoms were also not used in 347(90.1%) of the sexual assault cases while the perpetrators were known in 164 (42.6%) of the cases. Of all the perpetrators 12 (3.1%) were females while 7(2%) were under the age of 18 years. In 15(3.9%) assault cases, the perpetrators committed the crimes under the influence of alcohol while in 6 (1.6%) of the cases the perpetrators had taken other drugs. There was no previous relationship between the perpetrators and survivors in 330 (85.7%) of the cases in the study. When we examined the time taken by survivors to seek help, 184(47.8%) of them had presented to the recovery center within 72 hours of exposure for treatment. However, 207(53.8%) were started on post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). The median, minimum and maximum time taken for PEP initiation after a sexual assault was 17 hours, 2hours and 168 hours respectively. Of the 207 sexual assault survivors who were started on PEP, 49(23.7%) adhered to the regimen while only 43(20.8%) completed the 28 day PEP dose. Only 4 participants out of the 207 initiated on PEP came back for a repeat HIV test after 3 months. CONCLUSIONI RECOMMENDATIONS Surprisingly, 53(13.8%) sexual assault victims were males although the majority of the survivors were students and pupils attending schools and colleges. Policy makers therefore need to take note of these changing trends. At the KNH-GBVRC, service providers flouted the PEP service guidelines, kept poor records and there was also poor adherence to the prescribed antiretrovirals by most of the survivors. Train

Modelling the prevalence of violence against women using the Kenya Demographic Health Survey 2003

Author: Kaloki, Miriam Wandia

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Violence/Women/Sex crimes/Emotional abuse/Socioeconomic factors/Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003 ;

Abstract:

This study examines the determinants of violence against women in Kenya. The data used in this study comes from the Demographic and Health Surveys, (DHS). Parsimonious Logistic regression models were estimated based on this data with the three forms of violence that is Sexual, Physical and Emotional as the dependent variables and a set of demographic variables that is age, marital status, education level, occupation, religion, region, residence and wealth index as the explanatory variables. The results presented in this paper suggest that the DHS data can be used to determine the correlates of violence against women.

Child sex trafficking : an analysis of the policy and legal framework addressing the problem and victim protection

Author: Muturi, C G Eunice

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth ; Sex crimes ; Human trafficking ; Legislation ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Barriers faced by sexually abused women in seeking legal justice in Kibera Slums

Author: Lutainulwa, Hellen Lutta

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Women ; Sex crimes ; Criminal justice ;

Abstract:

This is a cross-sectional exploratory study of barriers faced by sexually abused women in accessing legal justice in Kibera slums. In this study, close assessments of the perceived and actual barriers to accessing legal justice were of keen interest. Convenience sampling was used to select 50 informants for in-depth interviews to this study drawn form Gatwekera, Laini Saba and Kisumu Ndogo villages in Kibera slums, six key informants were purposively drawn for this study to give insight into perceived and actual barriers to legal justice for the women survivors of sexual abuse in the slums. Finally, six women were purposively selected to give case narrative interviews based on their lived accounts after experiencing sexual abuse and going through the legal system. The results reveal that sexual violence is perceived by the subjects as act of raping, beating, pushing, and coerced sexual intercourse by someone they are quite intimate with or even a stranger given their experiences. This study also indicates that perceived barriers to seeking legal justice include a non-responsive police system riddled with corruption, gender insensitivity at the police posts, high costs of pursuing court cases and frequent dismissal of cases due to shoddy investigations and lack of evidence which dissuade survivors from pursuing legal justice. The perceived economic dependence and vulnerability of the women within the slum areas also act as a deterrent to seeking legal justice. Moreover, actual barriers to seeking legal justice are bound within cultures which include among others socialization of men in the society in which they wield more power relative to women, male dominance of the local dispute resolution mechanisms, stigma associated with abuse and consistent intimidation from male perpetrators. This study recommends the creation of gender-desk points in all police posts within Kibera slums to take care of the sensitive needs of women who have been sexually abused when they are reporting. The study also recommends that the police officers need to be trained on conducting sexual abuse investigations in collaboration with medical personnel to reduce instances of dismissal of cases due to insufficient evidence. Finally, the study recommends the need for heightened community sensitization of the community members on the contents of the Sexual Offences Act and how they can seize the opportunities provided in the same for accessing legal justice.

Barriers faced by women survivors of gender-based violence in seeking care : the case of Kenyatta National Hospital Gender based violence recovery centre

Author: Muyanga, Margaret

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Women ; Sex crimes ; Health care access ; Gender ; Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Gender Based Violence Recovery Centre ;

Abstract:

This was a cross-sectional study on barriers faced by women survivors of gender-based violence . in seeking care at the Kenyatta National Hospital Gender Based Violence Recovery Centre. The study sought to describe the nature and prevalence of GBV reported by women survivors at the centre, and to examine the barriers faced by the women survivors in seeking care. The study was guided by the barriers to seeking care for sexually abused women model by Beaulaurier et al. (2008). Data were collected through in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and case narratives. The study findings indicate that gender-based violence is perceived by the study subjects as acts of raping, beating, pushing, economic deprivation, verbal abuse and coerced sexual intercourse by someone they are quite intimate with or even a stranger. The findings also suggest that barriers to seeking care include the non-responsive police system riddled with corruption, gender insensitivity at the care centres, and the high cost of pursuing care services. The economic dependence of women from low income areas, coupled with little free-healthcare service providing centres in the immediate environment, also acts as a deterrent to seeking health care. Moreover, actual barriers to seeking care are bound within cultures which include the socialization of men as being superior to women, men's dominance of the local dispute resolution mechanisms, stigma associated with abuse and consistent intimidation from male perpetrators. This study concludes that several barriers affect the access to medical and psychosocial care for sexually abused women that report to KNH GBVRC that range from cultural perspectives, poor legal system and justice dispensations for the abused victims, economic deprivation of abused women, high stigma among abused women and the frequent resort to local dispute resolution mechanism. The study recommends establishment of one-stop-centres by the Ministry of Health for genderbased violence survivors at health care institutions to provide care across medical, psychological, social, cultural, economic and legal referrals. The study also recommends that health care providers at Kenyatta National.Hospital and other health centres should be trained on how to handle survivors of gender-based violence with sensitivity to encourage peer referrals based on previous experiences with care-givers. Finally, the study recommends a high level of awareness creation among communities on the care-seeking procedures for gender-based survivors. This can be done through the Ministry of State for internal security in collaboration with pro-bono lawyers from FIDA.

Factors associated with sexual violence among female patients aged 14-24 years at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Author: Carmen, N D Sohouenou-Togbeto

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Women ; Children and youth ; Sex crimes ; Violence ;

Abstract:

Violent practices against women are commonplace, widespread and deeply entrenched in many cultures worldwide, as research on sexual violence, which is serious public health problem, is continuously being conducted all around the world (Youri P, 1994; Wood K et aI., 1998; Obunge O.K. et aI., 2001). In Kenya, sexual violence remains highly prevalent and continues to escalate, thereby contributing to hindrance in the achievement of national goals as well as the Millenium Development goals. Most studies on gender based violence usually develop interest in only one form of sexual violence: sexual assault. Moreover, factors associated with sexual violence among adolescents and youth have not been systematically explored by previous research in Kenya. The purpose of this study is to determine factors associated with sexual violence among females aged 14 - 24 years reporting at KNH, with all forms of sexual violence being addressed, in order to understand the dimensions and the complexity of this public health problem. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in order to determine factors that influence sexual violence among females aged 14 _ 24 years. The study consecutively recruited 295 eligible participants who presented for health care services at KNH during the study period and who consented to participate in the study. They included both outpatients and in-patients. Of the eligible respondents, 285 (96.6%) consented to participate in the study. Two pre-tested questionnaires were used to collect the relevant data. Four research assistants were recruited to assist with data collection and they received some training on interviewing techniques prior to data collection. Analysis of quantitative data was perf{)JlIJed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (presently, PASW) programme. Univariate analysis was performed in order to obtain descriptive statistics. Thus, proportions, means and standard deviations were determined during the analysis. The results are presented in form of tables and diagrams. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were also performed in order to examine associations between the independent variables and the occurrence of sexual violence among eligible female adolescents and youth. The chi-square test, student t-test (for comparing means) and logistic regression analysis were performed. The level of significance used was 5%. The researcher analyzed qualitative data manually in relation to study objectives and the results are presented in form of narratives. The variables measured included the following: socio-demographic characteristics, family settings, high-risk social behaviors and cultural factors. Of these, marital status, early sexual initiation and forced early marriage were found to be significantly associated with sexual violence prior to controlling for confounding factors while only marital status was found to be significantly associated with sexual violence after controlling for confounding factors. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted among female adolescents and youth at KNH (Nairobi, KENYA), which revealed that the prevalence of sexual violence among females aged 14 - 24 years is alarmingly high -overall (72.6%)- considering all forms of sexual violence, as well as various categories of variables. In actual fact, all the sociodemographic categories of respondents were found to be affected by the problem whereas neither family settings, nor high risk social behaviors significantly influence the high prevalence of sexual violence among the study population. Regarding cultural factors, forced marriage was the only variable that was found to predispose to sexual violence. Therefore, the findings of this research, like others, show that sexual violence is a universally prevalent problem. Although the reduction of sexual violence remains a big challenge, mostly due to the stigma associated with it, this serious pu

Hospital preparedness to provide comprehensive care for gender based violence survivors in Kenya

Author: Wakahe, Jane Kagure

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Violent crime/Sex crimes/Victims of crime/Health care delivery/Health facilities/Gender ;

Abstract:

Sexual violence (SV) in all its forms is universal and occurs in every culture, and level of society in all nations and creed. In most cases survivors are women and girl children but men of various ages are also involved. Sexual violence is thus a global problem socially and spatially, affecting every population and all gender groups. In Kenya this problem is wide spread. Health institutions have a major impact on the immediate and future health of the survivor. The first contact of a survivor at the health institution influences the physical, sexual, reproductive and psycho-social well being of the survivor and the reintegration into society. The ideal set up is to ensure that the survivor is comprehensively managed at the first health institution where they seek help and ensure efficient and immediate transfer to a better equipped unit when necessary. The study was a baseline survey aimed at assessing the level of preparedness of Kenyan Health Institutions to comprehensively handle the ever increasing SV survivors especially during unexpected situations such as was seen during the 2007/2008 post election clashes. A sample of fourteen different levels of medical institutions as per the classification by the Ministry of Health of public medical institutions was audited. The audit was conducted between August and November 4th 2009. Data collected covered a six months period from March to August 2009. Of special interest was the composition of staff, physical facilities, laboratory support, availability of essential drugs and record keeping. Also noted was the negative attitude of the staff towards the enumerators and by extension towards the survivors. The results revealed widespread lack of preparedness to provide comprehensive care for survivors of sexual violence. Inadequate or absence of infrastructure, inadequate or poor deployment of skilled staff, lack of essential drugs, unreliable laboratory back up and non-existent forensic material collection. The lack of communication among medical, legal and police arms was widespread at all levels of facilities. Institutions that had integrated GBVRC services alongside the rest of the hospital activities registered more sexual violence survivors. This is positive in that the community is aware of the existence of such services. These GBVRCs are externally funded and this translated to more comprehensive care as was evident in one referral hospital which was also the only institution with an Outreach program for survivors of Sexual violence. In conclusion none of the audited Kenyan medical institutions are prepared to comprehensively handle survivors of sexual violence. One private hospital is uniquely situated by its reputation as the GBV centre and therefore handles many survivors of SV. One institution alone however cannot manage the whole country's GBV survivors. The Kenya Government should prioritize gender based violence and integrate GBVRCs in all districts, provincial and national hospitals to comprehensively handle all its aspects. Improvement of infrastructure, laboratory and reliable supply of essential drugs should be addressed. Specific training of all cadres of medical staff, the police and the legal arm of the 'government in handling gender based violence should be implemented in their curriculum and continuous education.

Effects of post-election sexual violence against the Internally Displaced women and girls at the Kirathimo IDP camp in Limuru, Kenya

Author: Wahome, Mary Njeri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Post election violence/Internally displaced persons/Sex crimes/Women/Girls/Kirathimo IDP Camp, Limuru, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This research was concerned with the examination of the key aspects of post-election sexual violence among the internally displaced persons focusing on women and girls at the Kirathimo IDP Camp in Limuru. The research design used was the survey. The study sample population consisted of the sexually violated women and girls at the Camp. A sample of 60 respondents was drawn using convenience/accidental sampling. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in this study. Secondary data was collected by way of reading, analyzing, collating and recording data contained in ready prepared materials. Primary data was collected through direct observation and interviews using a structured open and closed ended interview .schedule which was administered to the respondents through face to face interviews. Information relating to the subject under investigation was also obtained from three key informants. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the quantitative data. The data was presented in form of frequency and percentage tables, pie and bar charts. The information was presented thematically guided by the objectives of the study. The major findings of the study were that internally displaced women and girls in IDP camps faced a number of forms/types of sexual violence' the most common ones being battery/beating and rape. The effects of the violence on the victims included contracting HIV/AIDS, low self esteem, stigmatization or depression, unwanted pregnancies, abortions and/or miscarriages, pain/injury, trauma and death. The study also found that the sexual violence coping mechanisms employed by the victims were numerous, both positive and negative such as seeking medical attention/going for VCT services, keeping quiet. The intervention strategies employed to address sexual violence against women and girls in camp included; provision of security, improvement of camp lighting, involving group leaders in problem solving, forcing abusers out of the Camp, assisting in repatriation and resettlement and meeting basic needs of the persons in IDP camps. However, efforts to address the problem faced challenges/constraints such as inadequate finances, presence of criminals in camp, hostility of locals, lack of medical care and poor reporting systems. The way out of these constraints/challenges could come by ways such as through proper planning at the camp, involving government security forces in the protection of IDPs at the camp, provision of family tents and establishment of recovery centres. This study recommends that adequate resources be sourced and all mps repatriated and resettled back in their original farms or other safer areas. However, before all mps are resettled, it is recommended that those still in camps be provided with their basic needs. The Sexual Offences Act of 2006 should also be strictly enforced in order to deter the perpetrators of the sexual violence vice in Kenya in general and IDP Camps in particular.