149 Records out of 22207 Records

Challenges facing Kenya Medical Research Institute in the implementation of the automation strategy

Author: Wandera, Carolyne Mukola

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kenya Medical Research Institute/Strategic management/Automation/Medical research/Research centers ;

Abstract:

Strategy implementation is one of the biggest challenges in modem day strategic management in an organization because strategic decisions influence the way organizations respond to their environment, it is very important that a firm makes strategic decisions and define strategy in terms of its function to the environment. The objective of this study was to establish the challenges faced by KEMRI in the implementation of automation strategy. The specific objectives included: determination of the challenges faced by Kenya Medical Research Institute in implementation of automation strategy and the establishment of what the Kenya Medical Research Institute did to overcome the challenges. This study adopted a case study since the unit of analysis was one organisation. The study used primary data collected using an interview guide with six senior managers in the organization to avoid duplicity of data. KEMRI faced several challenges in its automation strategy implementation including inadequate resources to finance the implementation of the automation strategy, high resistance from staff who were meant to be the implementing agents but preferred status quo, Inadequate office and limited training on the new Enterprise Resource Planning software system. To respond to the challenges, KEMRI leadership created awareness of the automation of KEMRI business processes so as to foster positive attitude towards the planned change in work processes so as to reduce resistance from employees. It also facilitated resources availability despite the diminishing funding from the Exchequer. KEMRI also established an implementation committee which comprised of members from different departments who were put in charge of monitoring progress of the. automation strategy hence promoting automation strategy implementation. To deal with these challenges, KEMRI ensured smooth flow of information by ensuring that all employees were well communicated to on matters of the automation strategy. To deal with limited employee skills on ERP system, KEMRI invested into capacity building where employees with limited skills were trained on how to use the system. It also ensured successful automation strategy by incorporating the automation strategy into its employees' daily job descriptions which meant it became part of employees' evaluation key deliverable indicator.

Traceability and quality management in the fishing industry : a case study of Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (Kisumu)

Author: Wasilwa, Barbara Naliaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Quality control/Fishing industry/Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute/Kisumu, Kenya/Parastatals/Research centers ;

Abstract:

A field study of how traceability relates to quality management was conducted at KMFRI -Kisumu, this is a research institute that covers all the Kenyan waters. The process from catch to transportation up to the shipping company is followed and recorded through. a traceability system that has been developed to trace back and forward the history of fish products. High quality and safe products are as a result of an effective quality and traceability system. This research is based on the assumption that there are various potential drivers of an organization's investments into traceability systems; food traceability has become an essential and effective way in food quality and food safety management systems around the world. The main objective of this research was to identify the relationship between traceability and quality management in the fishing industry. The research found out that 89 % of the respondents believed that traceability has influenced the handling quality of fish products at landing sites, whi Ie 91 % believed that there is improved product quality due to traceability and quality mechanisms employed at the fish factories. This shows that in deed there is a relationship between fish traceability and the quality management of fish products.

Relationship between employee demographic characteristics and their attitude towards performance contracting in Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Nairobi

Author: Shabaya, Isaiah

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Employees/Attitudes/Performance contracts/Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute/Research centers/Demographics/ ;

Abstract:

For many developing countries that include Kenya, the public enterprise is the major vehicle for economic development with responsibilities for the effective management of infrastructure activities. Lackluster performances of these entities lead to the adoption of performance contracting as a means of performance management. Performance Management is a key processes that, when effectively carried out.ehelps employees know that their contributions are recognized and acknowledged. This descriptive study set out to determine the relationship between employee demographic characteristics and employee attitude towards implementation of performance contracts in Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute in Kenya. The population of interest was all employees of the agency. A sample of 125 employees was considered adequate for the study and primary data was collected by use of a questionnaire. Based on the study findings, employee age, employee personality, parentage and marital status are the demographic characteristics positively correlated to employee attitude towards performance contracting. Employee gender notably has no relationship with the attitude towards performance contracting but the levels of education negatively correlate to the attitude towards performance contracting. It is therefore concluded that for the success of the performance contracting process, employee demographic characteristics should be considered as a way of creation of ownership of the performance contract. There is also need to allocate adequate resources to achieve the set tarlSet which should also not be abstract or general.

Empirical evaluation of bankruptcy models estimated by University of Nairobi Masters in Business Administration (MBA) studies

Author: Onguka, Renis Akinyi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Research ; Bankruptcy ; Models ; University of Nairobi, Kenya ; MBA programs and graduates ;

Abstract:

A contemporary threat to businesses today, despite their size and nature of operations is insolvency. The developments in the corporate environment highlight the importance of default prediction both in academia and industry. In developed countries, bankruptcy prediction models have been developed and are continually improved to match with the economic changes. In Kenya, various bankruptcy prediction models have been proposed by Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students but they are not being widely used by the industry though there are reported cases of unpredicted bankruptcies as firms go under. This historical study tests the validity of six bankruptcy prediction models in a Kenyan context. The population for this study consisted of all firms listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 1970 to 2009. Of the business failure prediction models tested over a period of five years on ten failed and ten non-failed firms, three of the models had prediction of accuracy of above 80%. Specifically, the models that incorporate profitability, leverage and liquidity ratios seem to be accurate predictors of business failure. There are however certain firms, that the models would classify in - accurately mostly because of environmental or firm specific factors. The findings also infer that specialized industry specific models like the insurance industry or banking industry models may not be applicable in general company bankruptcy prediction.

Detecting changes in mean of malaria time series using change point analysis

Author: Okello, Gabriel Otieno

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Malaria ; Time series ; Medical research ;

Abstract:

We have shown how to detect and locate change points in mean of a time series data. Change point detection is the identification of abrupt changes in time series (sequential) data. Change point detection can be done using SPC or statistical change point detection methods. The algorithm uses CUSUM plus bootstrapping. Objective To detect points of change in mean of malaria time series using change point analysis Methods CUSUM CPA was used to detect changes in mean within the malaria time series data for Eldoret East district for the period 2010 and 2011. To detect change in mean, the two-step procedures in clued (1) calculating cumulative sums, followed by (2) use of bootstrapping to make inferences. Results The results suggest that most important changes in mean time series for malaria cases occur between May 2010 and December 2011 where the trends of malaria cases have reduced. It is shown that statistically detected changes in the mean of a time series coincide with identifiable period when the interventions were put in place and when there were epidemics, which might have caused these change points Conclusion It is suggested that CUSUM CPA is an effective tool for detecting changes in mean for time series data and should be adopted so as to detect points of change due to epidemics or intervention impact together with the existing methods so as to get meaningful results.

Employees perceptions of performance appraisal practice at KEMRI

Author: Mwangi, Susan Wanjiku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Employees ; Perceptions ; Performance appraisal ; Kenya Medical Research Institute ; Medical research ;

Abstract:

KEMRI like any other organization spend billions 9f. Shillings yearly on employee performance evaluation. Employees give their best if they perceive to be working in an environment which is not contaminated by patronage, maneuvering, when rewards are linked to performance promotions, based on merit and complaints are addressed. The study sought to determine employee's perception of performance appraisal practice at KEMRI. The study used a descriptive survey approach in collecting data from the respondents. Random sampling was then used to select the study population of 280 respondents who were employees of the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The questionnaires were structured in such a way that they elicit specific information from the respondents. The data was edited and coded before it was analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS). Frequency tables and charts were used to present the results for easier understanding and interpretation. The study found that appraisal process enabled the management in KEMRI to identify areas of strength and opportunity, provide an indication of areas of training need as well as direction for leadership development and performance improvement and succession planning. The appraisal process was also faulted on the basis that it failed to address the shortcomings such as lack of materials and equipment necessary to carry out duties allocated to employees effectively. It was indicated that it was too general as it should be made depending on different level of job description. The study concluded that processing performance appraisals must be done in order to identify employee's rewards, provide an opportunity to set individual development plan, encourage the individual work planning, develop employee's professional and career, accountability check, recognize and compensate, reference the disciplinary procedure as well as to determine salary increment and promotion exercise.

The impact of enterprise resource planning system implementation in KEMRI/CDC

Author: Mudhune, Victor Otieno

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Impact analysis ; Enterprise resource planning ; Strategic management ; Kenya Medical Research Institute ; Center for Disease Control ;

Abstract:

An effective business strategy centers on an aggressive, efficient use of information technology; for this reason the ERP systems have emerged as the core of successful information management, and the enterprise backbone of many organizations. ERP is built on the promise that all critical information will be totally integrated into one single database, however, in practice things have worked different for many organizations. This study evaluated the benefits of implementing an ERP system in KEMRI/CDC as the case organization. The main objectives were to determine the benefits of ERP to the organization, as well as the barriers to benefits realization. The target respondents comprised of KEMRIICDC staffs that had user log-in rights into the organization's ERP system. An online semi-structured questionnaire was developed to collect primary data. 188 respondents were identified and the survey questionnaire sent to them via official email addresses. A total of 71 responses were received, indicating a response rate of 39.01 %. The benefits indicated by majority as having been realized to a great extent include quick and accurate inventory information (28.57%), improved internal customer service (32.81 %), reduced manpower par task (33.33%), improved employee empowerment and accountability (33.33%), ease of access to information and enquiries (28.l3%), better financial performance controls (41.27%), effective strategic planning (28.57%), and improved operational decisions and resource flexibility (28.57%). Only one benefit was indicated by majority as having been realized to a very great extent, which is reduced paperwork (33.85%). Generally, all variables were indicated to have been realized to a greater than moderate extent. The newer staffs seem to believe the benefit of 'improved stock allocation' is realized to a greater extent than the older staffs (p=0.008). Also, the newer staffs seem to believe the benefit of 'reduced paperwork' is realized to a greater extent than the older staffs (p=0.045). The HR module users seemed to have scores higher than average with regard to quick and accurate inventory information, however, the requesters, primary approvers, secondary approvers and accounts modules users seem to have scored relatively lower on the same variable. Other significant findings include lower rating by procurement module users on 'reduced paperwork' and 'improved information security', and also secondary approvers rated lower on 'ease of access to information and enquiries' . Generally the users seem satisfied with the benefit variables that were evaluated to a greater than moderate extent. A satisfied user is an indication of success for an information system. It was also expected that since the users interact with different components of the ERP system, that their judgment would vary depending on the specific module that they use. Organizations need to perceive the system as a whole during implementation, and evaluate each individual module separately post implementation. In additional to the practices that enhance benefit realization, it is important to be aware of the challenges that limit benefit realization. The technical variables were found to hindered benefit realization to a small extent. From poor implementation arises people and process factors, and the findings indicate these variables were scored generally higher indicating a moderate extent of challenge was attributed to these factors.

Strategic change management practices at the Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development in Kenya

Author: Munjua, Mary Wairimu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Strategic management ; Organizational change ; Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development (Kenya) ;

Abstract:

Strategic change management needs to take account of both internal and external factors that affect the implementation of the change programme. It should also make use of appropriate change management models. In strategic change management therefore, organizations adopt various practices in order to ensure that the de~ired change is achieved. The aim of this study was to establish the strategic change management practices at ACORD. The study had two objectives to achieve: To establish the strategic change management practices adopted by ACORD and to find out the challenges of adopting various strategic change management practices at ACORD. The study adopted a case study research design and data was collected through an interview guide from senior management staff at ACORD. The findings revealed that there are a number of strategic change management practices prevalent at ACORD. They include: formation of working groups during the change implementation process; proper and timely communication of the change to all stakeholders; enhancing the resources to create a stable financial base for the organization; reducing chances of resistance through the working groups and adopting a leadership style that respects the views of the stakeholders. The challenges facing ACORD during strategic change management include: scarcity of finances, resistance to change from the stakeholders, cultural diversity and leadership.

Factors influencing the effective implementation of non governmental organizations donor funded projects at the International Livestock Research Institute (Kenya)

Author: Mwangi, Rachael Muringo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Project management ; Nongovernmental organizations ; International Livestock Research Institute ;

Abstract:

The study investigated the factors influencing the effective implementation of non-governmental organization donor funded projects, the case of ILRI. High quality projects are defined as those that deliver the required product service or result within scope, time, budget, good business strategy and good leadership. NGO'S use projects to achieve their objectives. Organizations are operating under high levels of uncertainties due to internal and external factors. Among the variables investigated to establish factors that influence effective implementation of projects included clarity in scope, communication, competence of project managers and management of project resources. Past studies have addressed organizations in general and few have focused on the NGO'S. The NGO'S manage big budgets and influence the economy of a country. The study used qualitative approach to enable better interpretation of results. The target populations were the staffs who work in the research projects at ILRI. Questionnaires were used to collect data. It had both open and closed ended questions. Hard copies were issued to the target population. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data statistical package for social sciences 19.4 version for windows was used to analyze the data. Percentages, mean, standard deviation and regression were attained. All the respondents indicated that clarity in scope to members of staff and communication influenced implementation of projects at ILRI. The results also indicated that project managers' competencies and management of project resources also influenced implementation of projects at ILRI.The study recommends that for ILRI to effectively implement their donor projects effectively the scope must be clear to employees, communication should be effective, project managers should have hard and soft skills and should have policies for managing resources. Areas for further studies are also recommended.

The Rabbit olfactory mucosa : postnatal morphology and the effects of anticancer drugs vinblasine and docetaxel

Author: Mwanzia, Boniface Kavoi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Cancer ; Chemotherapy ; Side effects ; Vinblastine ; Docetaxel ; Rabbits ; Nose ; Mucous membrane ; Medical research ;

Abstract:

The olfactory mucosa is a chemoreceptor structure located withiJ the vertebrate nasal cavity and functions in detecting and discriminating between odors of different substances. Unlike in most parts of the nervous system where neural formation is confined to intra-uterine life, neurogenesis in the olfactory mucosa is a lifelong process. Rabbits are reputed for their heavy reliance on the olfactory cue owing to their being born blind and deaf and the exceptionally little maternal care that they receive during the suckling period. The preponderant use of this species as a model for toxicological research has also been widely reported. In conventional toxicity studies, substances administered by inhalation have been shown to cause injury to the olfactory mucosa. However, when chemicals are administered systemically, the effort to evaluate the mucosa for lesions has been minimal. Cancer chemotherapy, which is mostly antiproliferative, is associated with various forms of olfactory dysfunction of which the accompanying structural lesions remain largely unknown. In the present work, light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and morphometry were used to analyze the extent and the pattern of structural refinement of the rabbit olfactory mucosa at neonatal (0-1 days), suckling (2 weeks), weanling (4 weeks) and adult (6-8 months) stages of postnatal development. Further, the impact of anticancer drugs vinblastine and docetaxel on olfactory mucosal structure, and on olfactory function (using the buried food recovery test) were investigated in adult rabbits. In all the postnatal ages, the basic components of the olfactory mucosa were present. However, Ki-67 immunostaining revealed an age-related decrease in the proliferative rates of cells of the olfactory epithelium. Between birth and adulthood, cross-sectional diameters of axon bundles, packing densities of olfactory cells and cilia numbers per olfactory cell knob increased by 5.5,2.1 and 2.6-fold respectively. Volume fraction for the bundles increased by 5.3% from birth to suckling age and by 7.4% from weaning to adulthood, and the bundle cores were infiltrated with blood capillaries in all age groups except in the adults. Single vinblastine and docetaxel injections to the adults at respective doses of 0.31 and 6.26 mg/kg resulted in marked differences in regard to the degree and duration of lesions that the drugs induced on the olfactory mucosa. On days 3 and 5 in the vinblastine-treated rabbits, there was disarrangement of the normal layering of nuclei of the mucosal epithelia, degeneration of axon bundles, occurrence of blood vessels within the bundles, localized death of cells of Bowman's glands and glandular degeneration. In the docetaxel-exposed animals, the above changes were evident on postexposure days 5 and 10. Relative to control values, bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers in vinblastine-treated animals decreased to as low as 54.4%, 75.2% and 70.8%, respectively, on day 5 whereas in the docetaxel-exposed rabbits, the aforementioned parameters were lowest on day 10, with their respective values being 49.3%,63.4% and 50.0%. In the control animals, volume fractions for the bundles and glands were 26.3% and 41.5% respectively. Respective volume fractions for these structures dropped to a low of 16.8% and 38.4% in the vinblastine-treated rabbits at day 5 and 13.4% and 34.9% in the docetaxel-exposed animals at day 10. In contrast, the volume fraction for the blood vessels in the controls was 19.9%, a value which was significantly lower than that of vinblastine-treated animals at day 3 (34.3%) or day 5 (31.5%) and of docetaxel exposed rabbits at day 5 (26.6%) or day 10 (28.5%). Fifteen days after treatment with the two anticancer drugs, all the above changes were resolved' and the mucosa was morphologically indistinguishable from that of the controls. In the vinblastine-treated rabbits, the buried food test demonstrated a progressive increase