5 Records out of 22207 Records

An investigation of the self-help group approach as a poverty reduction strategy amongst poor women in Pumwani slums, Nairobi

Author: Maina, Loise Waruguru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya ; Low income groups ; Women ; Self help ; Support groups ; Social change ;

Abstract:

This study sought to investigate whether the self-help approach, which has been taunted as an effective poverty alleviation strategy particularly amongst very poor women, is indeed reducing poverty amongst the target beneficiaries in Pumwani slums. The study was guided by the antipoverty theory that was proposed by Caroline Moser in 1993. The anti-poverty approach to women focuses mainly on productive roles on the basis that poverty alleviation and promotion of balanced economic growth requires the increased productivity of women in low-income households. A total of 105 respondents wen purposively selected from the self-help groups in Pumwani to observe changes in their lives as a result of their membership in the groups for a minimum of 2 years.The study helped to highlight the determinants of poverty amongst these women like low literacy levels, high numbers of children/dependants, limited access to credit for business, poor housing, . inadequate access to health services, poor sanitation facilities, abuse of rights and insecurity and revealed that the self-help groups have contributed significantly to improving the members' lives on the economic, social and political fronts. The study recommends that the government and other partners need to support these efforts by ensuring that there is better infrastructure in terms. of toilets, street lights and market facilities as well as an enabling environment for business that is free from violence and insecurity.

Participation in planning and implementation of slum redevelopment. A case study of Pumwani Highrise in Nairobi

Author: Otieno, Danish Onyango L

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya ; Low income groups ; Affordable housing ; Community action ; Majengo, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

'The focus of this study was to inquire the levels of participation of Pumwani community members during Pumwani phase 11 slum redevelopment scheme and whether the issues that emerged thereof were influenced by participation. This paper therefore presents a research on the redevelopment process in slums and whether it promotes effective participation so as to achieve desirable results. Levels and forms of participation were analysed by the study during the conception, planning and implementation stages of the programme. The NBC which was the developer of the scheme targeted the slum dwellers in Majengo area with an aim of constructing decent and affordable housing for them without demolition of the existing structures before the project was completed and ready for occupation. Motivated by Sectional Properties Act of 1987, NHC adopted High-rise type of housing development to bridge the gap of inadequate decent and affordable housing for low-income households. For effective analysis of the people's involvement in the project, various socioeconomic characteristics of the residents were considered. The study found out that Majengo area has a long history of commercial sex workers, a trade that has continuously attracted women to the area. Levels of Education of the residents were also analysed visa viz community participation. Further, age, marital status, religion, occupation and skills of the respondents were also analysed accordingly. The findings herein reveal that the community's level of participation remained minimal at various redevelopment stages where those privileged to participate did so either as individuals, group or both. The limited Community participation was in the forms of; interviews, public barazas and committee meetings. However, rivalry, mistrust and rigidity among various stakeholders undermined the process and principles of participation. Other challenges that faced the programme include; generally low literacy levels, large families, family disputes and unreliable sources of income amongst the Pumwani residents.

Analysis of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Author: Fudyk, Trevor Charles

Awarding University: University of Manitoba, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Immunology ; Neisseria gonorrhoeae ; Neisseria infections ; Gonorrhea ; Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae constitutes an important cause of morbidity in human populations. The Porin protein (Por) is the major outer membrane protein of the gonococcus and displays considerable antigenic diversity among gonococcal strains. Two hypotheses to explain the diversity and dynamics of gonococcal populations is that protective, serovar- specific immunity, mediated by antibody to Por, develops following gonococcal infection, and that the development of protective immune responses within the core group act as a selective force for por antigenic heterogeneity in the gonococcal population. One core group in which gonococcal epidemiology has been studied extensively includes a collection of women working the commercial sex trade in the lower socioeconomic district of Pumwani in Nairobi, Kenya. Two experimental strategies were used to evaluate these hypotheses in a more recent longitudinal study of these female, sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. The first line of experiments sought to examine the nature and distribution of genetic polymorphism in the Por genes of the gonococcal serovars infecting the Nairobi cohort. Nucleotide substitutions were observed predominantly in surface-exposed encoding segments of the 1a and 1b por genes. The majority of substitutions, particularly those occurring in surface- exposed encoding gene segments, resulted in amino acid change. The second line of experiments sought to determine the effect of the antibody response to por on serovar-specific gonococcal infection. Cohort women were assayed for baseline antibody responses to a recombinant 1b2 porin and a collection of polypeptides corresponding to 1b Por surface-exposed loops and followed longitudinally for gonococcal infection. Overall, antibody to the 1b2 porin appeared to provide limited protection from 1b infection, although this protective effect did not appear to extend to infection with 1a serovars. Women with antibody to 1b2 Por experienced significantly fewer homologous 1b2 and heterologous 1b3 serovar infections, compared to women without antibody. The data observed in this study support the hypothesis that the humoral immune response to Por is an important component in the ecologic interaction of human and gonococcal populations, while the generation of antigenically diverse pathogen populations act a mechanism to ensure endemic infection and pathogen survival in the face of this immune barrier. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Role of sexually transmitted infections in accelerated HIV disease progression.

Author: Anzala, Aggrey Omu

Awarding University: University of Manitoba, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Immunology ; AIDS (Disease) ; HIV infection ; Sexually transmitted diseases ; Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The course between initial infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the development of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is highly variable. We have previously shown that over 50% of the women in the Pumwani sex worker cohort in Nairobi, Kenya, progress very rapidly to AIDS following HIV-1 infection with median duration of four years. We have also shown that more frequent condom usage within this cohort is associated with a slower disease progression. Several aspects of our study population could account for the more rapid disease progression including high incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) experienced by these women. The goal of this project was to determine whether STI influence parameters potentially related to accelerated disease progression including HIV-1 plasma viremia and cd4 t cell count. Thirty-two HIV-1 positive and 10 HIV-1 negative women in the Pumwani cohort were serially seen over a 1-5 month duration. Specimens for STI diagnosis, cd4 and cd8 t cell counts, quantitation of HIV-1 plasma viremia and plasma cytokine concentration were obtained at scheduled visits. Statistical analysis was performed with two sample t-tests. Acute bacterial STI resulted in increased plasma viremia, th$/sb2$ type cytokines, tnf-$/alpha$ and stnf-$/alpha$ receptor and decrease in cd4 t cell counts. Evidence from this study suggests that STI influence parameters potentially related to accelerated disease progression and may therefore alter the course of HIV-1 infection.

The study of family structure in Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya.

Author: Hennein, Swailem Sidhom

Awarding University: Northwestern University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1972

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ; University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Families and family life/Pumwani, Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE