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Effects of live parliament broadcasts on the public knowledge, attitude and perception in Kenya : an assessment of Ruiru Town households

Author: Wandera, Alfred Sanday

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Effects/Politicians/Parliaments/Broadcasting/Social impact/Public opinion/Perceptions/Ruiru, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This study aimed at assessmg the effects of live parliament broadcasting on the public knowledge and knowledge gaps, attitude and perception about parliament and its work in Ruiru town. The study applied mixed research design method. Specifically, concurrent triangulation mixed method was used. It involved the separate collection and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data and then integrating them at interpretation stage. Quantitative data was collected using a survey questionnaire. Out of the 90 questionnaires that were to be administered, only 68 responses were received, which were then analysed by SPSS software version 17. Three Indepth-depth interviews were conducted using an in-depth interview guide and then thematically analysed. The study found out that the live parliament broadcast had generally increased knowledge about parliament and its works across the social economic groups. However, the knowledge gained by the upper social class was more than that gained by the lower social class. This helped reinforce the argument that an introduction of a new source of information in the society leads to a widened knowledge gap between social economic groups as posited by the knowledge gap hypothesis. Consequently, the results showed that the live parliament broadcasts had increased public interest in parliament and its works, but it was biased in favour of the upper social class. The study also depicted that the majority. of the public (especially the lower social class) disliked the parliament and its works. In addition, majority of the respondents felt that the parliament was an important institution for Country. However, they lacked confidence and satisfaction in the 10th Kenyan parliament. The study also showed that the majority of the public occasionally either listens' or watch live parliament broadcasts while at home. Moreover, the study results showed that television was the best channel for live parliament broadcasts (especially amongst the middle and upper social class). On the other hand, majority of the lower social class registered their support for radio as their channel of choice. Majority of the respondents said that the live broadcasts should be recorded, edited and replayed at prime hours. The respondents also indicated that the commentators in the live parliament broadcasts should concentrate on explaining to the listeners! viewers which MP is saying what and why. In conclusion, the researcher suggests that the parliament diversifies its channels of communicating and educating the public about it and its works, especially to the lower social class who seems to be disengaged with the parliament.

Rethinking the practice of representative democracy : a case for increased public involvement in the law-making process in Kenya

Author: Sitienei, James Kiplagat

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Political representation/Democracy/Judicial process/Legislation/Kenya Constitution 2010/Constitutions/Kenya National Assembly Standing Orders/Public opinion/ ;

Abstract:

Every democracy ought to have a mechanism through which the public participate in the management of public affairs, including the law-making process. Sovereignty, including that of Parliament, belongs to the people but owing to the impracticability of every citizen participating in the legislative process; their representatives in Parljament represent their views. Kenya, a representative democracy has adopted this model. However, the 2010 Constitution of Kenya introduces aspects of participatory democracy by requiring that the public be involved in, among others, the legislative process. These provisions are yet to be fully implemented since a framework to facilitate public participation has not been put in place. The practice prior to the new constitutional dispensation still obtains, although some attempts have been made to allow the participation of the public. That said, various pieces of legislation have been passed without public input. The lobbying preceding such legislation has invariably put Members of Parliament in a dilemma between serving their own interests and those of the electorate. The concept of public participation is not entirely new; international instruments recognise the right to participate in public affairs, while some countries have put in place mechanisms for public participation in the law-making process and in some instances, the court has nullified legislation passed without the requisite participation of the public. Although the Kenyan Parliament has been strengthened over the years, it has not been responsive to public view. This paper evaluates the existing mechanisms for public participation by examining the Constitution, Standing Orders of the National Assembly and the practices in place for public involvement in the legislative process. The evaluation is based on an analysis of print and electronic material and on the basis of data generated. This paper identifies the existing avenues for public participation and recommends measures to give effect to constitutional provisions on public participation in the law-making process.

Media and constitution making : an assessment of their agenda setting role in the adoption of the new constitution in Kenya

Author: Kariuki, Rosemary Muthoni

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Constitutions/News media/Public opinion/Journalism ;

Abstract:

Agenda-setting theory is about transfer of salience from the mass media's pictures of the world to those in our heads. Elaborating Lippmann's perspectives, the core idea is that elements prominent in media's pictures become prominent in audience pictures. In the metaphorical language of the theory, the media agenda sets the public agenda. Theoretically these agendas could be composed of any set of elements. A vast majority of studies has examined and agenda composed of public issues. For these studies core assertion is that the degree of emphasis placed on issues in the mass media influences the priority accorded these issues in public. This proposition has been supported in more than 200 studies over past 25 years (Dearing and Rogers, 1996) in both election and non-election studies with considerable diversity in their geographical settings, time spans, news media and public issues studied. But agenda setting research has grown beyond this particular point of origin to encompass a wide range of communication situations, including the shaping of media agenda (Dearing and Rogers, 1996: McCombs, 1992). This study is given credence by the core functions of media such as surveillance or being a watchdog to the public, interpretation of facts and data and meaning of significant events, linkage with different elements of societies through advertising, transmission of value or socialization and entertainment. Media is seen as an important link between the public, and the opinion of the public and the decision-making processes of government. A key player in the construction or creation of the public and of public opinion and a means by which the public can come to play a direct and indirect part in the democratic process. 1 nus based on the atoremennonen core tuncnons of media, this study looks at the role of media in constitution making in Kenya, subsequently leading to the August 4, 2010 referendum and adoption of the new laws. An evaluation of the role played by media in the constitution making process in Kenya is critical in understanding how media influences the decision of the political players be they the legislators or voters in a democratic country. The same evaluation could shed light on the relevance of the agenda setting role of the media today. This study delves to establish if there was a causal relationship between the media agenda and the public in the constitution making process in Kenya. The role media played in influences the vote during the constitution referendum held on August 4, 2010. The study explains the role played by media in the constitution making process in Kenya and determines the role of media as opinion leader in influencing the constitution making process in Kenya McCombs (2004) says that agenda setting is a complex and intellectual maps still in the process of evolving. That the role of mass media in the formation of public opinion is changing. With the emergence of new technologies such as internet, mobile phones, cable and satellite television, in contemporary there is need to establish if the diversifying nature of mass media had an impact in the adoption of the new constitution. Did media shape the public opinion? What the public need to know is a recurring phrase in the rhetoric repertoire of professional journalism. Does media agenda really represent what the public need to know? It is common knowledge that most of the information we receive is not through direct experience but second-hand reality, a reality that is structured by journalist reports about this situations and events, through print or television. That daily news alerts us on the latest events and changes in the larger environment beyond immediate experience. That newspaper and television through there day to day selection and displaying news influence our perception. This ability to influence the salience of topics in the public agenda has come to be called the agenda setting roles of news media. Newspapers communicate

Factors influencing staff engagement in corruption in the Public Service of Kenya : a case of the Department of Immigration

Author: Mbogo, Cyrus Murithi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Department of Immigration (Kenya) ; Government employees ; Corruption ; Bribery ; Corporate culture ; Public opinion ;

Abstract:

The study sought to establish the factors that influence staff engagement in corruption in the Department of Immigration in Kenya. The study was identified based on the high corruption perception index of the Department of Immigration in Kenya and equally high corruption perception index of the country worldwide. This is despite the measure put in place to fight corruption. The study objective was to investigate influence of organizational culture, level of automation, legal framework, staff motivation and public perception in the engagement of staff of the department in corruption. The importance of the study was to assist the government to unveil the secret behind the continued corruption in the department despite the efforts to fight the vice. The study used purposive sampling technique and descriptive survey design. The data was collected using mail questionnaires for areas outside Nairobi with additional observation methods. The data analysis used both descriptive qualitative and descriptive quantitative methods. The findings were analysed through comparison of the raw data presented in tabular forms and other illustrative diagrams. The major factors that influence staff to engage in corruption were found to be bad organizational culture and the high public perception that the department is corrupt. The study recommends the department to review the regulations and requirements for clear understanding by the customers, put in place proper and effective automation systems to deal with numerous corruption malpractices, appropriate measures be put in place and seal loopholes that enhance opportunities for bribery by the service seekers. Further, to undertake specific case studies and also motivate public sector employees.

An assessment of the level of preparedness of Kenyans for social health insurance : a case of selected facilities in three districts of North Rift Valley

Author: Weyama, Cecil Daniel

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: National health insurance/Health care policy/National Social Health Insurance Fund (Kenya)/Rift Valley Province/Public opinion ;

Abstract:

Introduction Social Health Insurance is one of the main strategies used in achieving equity in health care in variouscountries in the developed world as well as in a few developing countries. In an effort to address the crises of health care financing, the Kenya Government has proposed the National SocialHealth Insurance Fund, where no payments are to be made by users at the point of being attendedwhen ill but users will have to make regular prescribed mandatory contributions based on their incomes. However, it is unclear if these proposals are owned and have support of all key stakeholders since smooth implementation heavily depends on their participation at formulation hence their awareness, understanding and acceptance for implementation. Objectives The main objective was to review the Social Health Insurance policy formulation process and analyze Kenyans' preparedness for it. The specific research objectives were to determine: (i) the level of participation of Kenyans in the formulation of the scheme; (ii) how the scheme was promotedto them; (iii) their level of awareness about it; (iv) their level of understanding of it (v) their support for it. Methodology This study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out in a sample of health facilities in the North Rift Valley region and at the Ministry of Health and National Hospital Insurance Fund headquarters. The respondents included patients/their visitors/caretakers (218), health facility staff (72), provincial administrators (15) and key informants (10). Data were collected using structured interview schedules and questionnaires with open and closed-ended questions. Purposive and stratified sampling methods were used to arrive at the facilities to be studied and a select key informants, systematic-sampling helped arrive at the wards to be included at the national hospital, visitors interviewed at the gates were consecutively sampled while simple random sampling was used to get the patients to be interviewed at the wards; giving a total of 313 respondents. Data collected were analyzed by use of frequencies, percentages, graphical comparisons and inferential statistics of one sample student's t-test for proportions. The data is presented in linear text, graphs and tables. Results The findings revealed poor participation levels of below twenty percent (20%) of all categories of respondents, awareness level of seventy percent (70%) of all respondents-mainly informed through radio, television and newspapers, low understanding of below fifteen percent (15%) of all respondents and support of below twenty percent (20%) among health care workers but over 80% among provincial administrators and patients/their visitors/caretakers. Conclusions Formulation of this policy had insufficient stakeholder participation, inadequate direct promotion, awareness was high, understanding was poor among all respondents and support was high among patients/caretakers/visitors and provincial administrators but low among health care providers. Recommendations It is recommended that (i)Ministry of Health should make deliberate efforts to enlist the participation of all stakeholders in formulation of the National Social Health Insurance Fund (ii) direct engagement of all key stakeholders during promotion be ensured (iii) Similar studies be done in other parts of the country/on other policies to compare the findings.

Political regimes, public opinion and diplomatic relations : a case study of Kenya and Uganda's bilateral relations (1986-2002)

Author: Lewela, Magdalene Mashaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: International relations ; Uganda ; Politics ; Diplomacy ; Public opinion ;

Abstract:

Political regimes are the structural framework through which a country is governed and through which political processes are established. Political regimes influence how a country is governed. Political regimes formulate the policies of a country and implement the policies. Political regimes have different characteristics that distinguish one regime from another. These characteristic will influence the decisions made and how the decisions are implemented. Public opinion differs from country to country. In some countries public opinion is important in influencing the running of the government while in others public opinion plays an insignificant role in influencing the government's functions Diplomatic relations are the relations of states in regards to their diplomacy. Foreign missions and the sending of ambassadors to other countries reflect the way diplomatic relations are carried out. The president, ministry of foreign affairs and other departments play a role in the diplomatic relations of a country. The diplomatic relations are moulded by the ruling political regime The political regime sets the agenda for foreign policy. Most studies have concentrated on political regimes and public opinion in the context of other international relation topics; however political regimes and public opinion have not been studied as the main variables 10 comparing the bilateral diplomatic relations of states. This study is the outcome of an ongoing interest in how domestic politics shape what nations do in international affairs.