52 Records out of 22207 Records

The impact of logistics management on lead time in public healthcare in Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Tarty, Gabriel P

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Impact analysis/Logistics/Materials management/Public health/Health care delivery/Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This study establishes the factors that influence lead time and the impact logistics management have on lead time in public healthcare in Nairobi, Kenya. The researcher makes use of questionnaires to collect the primary data. The questionnaires consisted of two parts. The first part contained bio data of the respondent and the second part contained questions on the objectives of the study. Closed ended questions were used to collect the data. The questionnaire was administered through drop and pick later method. The respondents mainly constituted procurement officers and in some cases administrators who implemented procurement functions. The data was analyzed by the use of factor, regression and descriptive statistics. The analysis indicated that logistics management is influence by 10 factors that impact on lead time among healthcare facilities in Nairobi. They included: Equipment failures; poor warehouse management; poor flow of information; poor order shipping, poor order listing; poor order sorting; ordering costs; bureaucracy in government; order packaging challenges and poor warehouse planning, The analysis also revealed that the regression results indicated that the independent variables; demand variability, ordering costs, shortage costs, Changes in holding costs and Utilization rate explain 64.9% of the variance in lead time changes. This is an indication that 38.1% of the variance is explained, by other variables outside the ones mentioned above. The coefficient for xl is 0.456 which have moderate direct relationship between demand variability and lead time. The coefficient for ordering costs is 0.671 which is a strong direct relationship hence very significant. The coefficient for shortage costs is -0.500 which is a moderate inverse relationship between lead time and shortage costs. It significance tend towards zero thus a sign that it is very important. Changes in holding costs have ~ strong inverse relationship of -0.697 and a significance of zero which is an indication of very high significance. Utilization rate has a weak direct relationship and a significance value of 0.26 which is a weak factor. The factors and Variables which show strong relationships to demand variability and lead time can be taken seriously in reducing lead time in public healthcare. Healthcare providers in Nairobi, Kenya can place more emphasis in these areas so that patients and others medical facilities users can be served effectively and efficiently.

The role of public relations and branding in health communication programs : (a case study of plan for yourself a good life campaign'')

Author: Sheikh, Abdullahi Abdi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Public relations/Brand image/Health education/Communication/Public health/ ;

Abstract:

This study focused on the role of public relations and branding in health communication Programs. Health is a key component in human life yet it has been neglected by many programs, the realization of the importance of a health society has seen the emergence of many programs geared towards improving individual health. Such programs in certain instances may have faced hiccups in their implementation due to varied reasons albeit communication. It is on this premise that this study sought to find the role that public relations and branding could play in public health campaign to ensure successful implementation of such campaigns. Besides the major factors that may influence communication in public health campaigns, two objectives guided this study. The first objective focused on establishing the influence of branding in reproductive health campaign and the second on determining the impact of social marketing in public health campaigns, I use a conceptual framework to enhance the understanding of the interplay of the role of public relations and branding may play in public health campaigns. Through cross-sectional survey and descriptive design, the study makes methodological and intellectual contribution to the field of public relations.

Employees' perceptions of the effects of motivation on service quality in the Kenyan public sector : a case study of Public Health Department of Thika Municipality

Author: Wa-Mwachai, M A M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Municipal employees/Perceptions/Motivation/Quality of service/Local government/Thika Municipality Public Health Department (Kenya)/ ;

Abstract:

All over the world, organizations exist and function In complex and dynamic environments. The dynamic environments require organizations to develop innovative ways of meeting the needs of the time and closing the gap between goals and actual performance. Most important among the measures taken by organizations, is to deliver quality services to their clients. Delivery of quality services is a key determinant of the survival of organizations. However, the level of achievement of organizational goals including delivery of quality services depends on how well the human resource is motivated. This study was an inquiry into employees' perceptions of the effect of motivation on service quality delivered to the public. The broad objective of the study was to explore the role of motivation on the quality of services provided by the public sector using Thika Municipality Department of Public Health as a case study. The specific objectives of the study included assessing the perceived levels of staff motivation in the Public Health department of Thika Municipality, investigating the perceived effects of motivation on the quality of services delivered to the public, assessing the perceived service quality, and exploring factors that affect staff motivation in Thika Municipality Department of Public Health The study used primary data to achieve its objectives. Primary data were obtained through direct interviews with the employees of Thika Municipality Department of Public Health. To enhance the reliability of data, triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. This means that survey questionnaires and interview guides were used to interview respondents and key informants respectively. Data collected were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The analysis of quantitative data involved use of descriptive statistics in form of percentages and frequencies. Content analysis technique was used to analyze qualitative data. The results of the analysis showed that motivation strongly influences the quality of services provided to the customers/clients. The study further revealed that several factors influence the level of motivation among employees. The factors identified include the work environment, tools and technology, relationships between co-workers, support by the management, salaries, and participation in decision-making and training opportunities among others. The study recommends that management should treat their employees well and fairly because the way employees are treated by the management has a direct impact on the quality of services delivered by the organization. Hence if employees are treated well, they will also treat the customers well. Organizations should also institute training programs for their employees. This should include formal classroom instruction that focuses on job skills and attitudes and the expectations of management, as well as on-the- job training that allows staff to learn about the organization and the work from interaction with co-workers. The management should also allow employees to think independently and participate in decision-making particularly those that most affect them. And finally, management should recognize and offer appropriate rewards to the employees who go an extra mile to provide good services. Similarly, those who work for extra time should be rewarded with appropriate bonuses.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Somalia nationals who have migrated to Nairobi with respect to Tuberculosis Transmission, Preventation and Control

Author: Marubu, Curtis G

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Attitudes ; Somali (African people) ; Migrants ; Nairobi, Kenya ; Tuberculosis ; Disease control ; Public health ; Health education ;

Abstract:

Introduction: The population of Somalia nationals who have migrated to Nairobi contributes significantly to the high prevalence of TB in Nairobi. This group may often have been left out of various studies done because of their 'invisible' nature in terms of access to health services. This justified carrying out a study on their knowledge, attitudes, practices and health seeking behavior with respect to tuberculosis transmission, prevention and control, and from the findings come up with recommendations on what advocacy, communication, educational, prevention and control strategies need to be put in place. Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess their KAP on TB transmission, Prevention and Control. The study also aimed at determining the methods of communication that were the best suited sources of information on TB, for the Somalia nationals who had migrated to Nairobi. Methods: It was a clinic based cross-sectional KAP study carried out in 10M's two clinics in Nairobi. The main data collected for the study was quantitative in the form of a semi structured questionnaire which was also translated into the Somali language, and completed by the Somali speaking research assistants while interviewing the study participants. Qualitative data was also collected in the form of Focus group discussions to complement the quantitative data. Results: The majority of the respondents (68.1%) had average knowledge while 27.8% had good knowledge and 4.1 % poor knowledge. The awareness of the majority (57.3%) was average with 42.7% having poor awareness and none having good awareness.93.1 % had good attitude while 6.9% had poor attitude. The majority (87.5%) had good practices or health seeking behavior while for 12.5% it was poor. There was a statistically significant relationship between the migration status of the Somalia nationals and their Knowledge (p=O.OOO), attitudes (p=O.009) and health seeking behavior and practices (p=O.OOO).There was also a statistically significant relationship between knowledge and household size(p=O.006) Their most preferred source of information on TB was through health care workers(85%), followed by family, friends and neighbors (34.7%) ,community or religious leaders(34%) and electronic media(33%). However, there was no statistically significant relationship between level of knowledge and the most preferred source of information, which is health workers(p=O.933),but there was a statistically significant relationship between level of knowledge and choice of family or relatives, friends and neighbors as preferred source of information on TB(P=O.OOO) ,community or religious leaders (p=O.007) and Electronic media-Radio, TV(p=O.OOO).There was also no statistically significant relationship between the choice of health workers as a source of information and any of the socio-demographics. There was a statistically significant relationship between practices and level of knowledge (p=O.009) and Overall attitudes (p=O.006). Conclusion & Recommendations: Migration status is a key factor in determining the KAP on IB of the Somalia nationals who have migrated to Nairobi. Information on TB would best be disseminated through community or religious leaders, family friends, neighbors or the community in general, and electronic media. Their practices and health seeking behavior are determined by their knowledge and attitudes. Some misconceptions or negative attitudes do exist among this group with regard to various aspects of TB. In addition to this, the minority of study participants who had poor Knowledge, Awareness, Attitudes and Health Seeking behavior also need to be targeted for an effective and successful TB prevention and control program to be realized. Based on the findings, registration of migrants should be speeded up, so that all Somalia nationals who have migrated to Nairobi are at par, in as far as access to TB services is concerned. The TB educational sessions should be held at the

Factors associated with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Kenya

Author: Weyanga, Herman Owuor

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Tuberculosis/Drug resistance/Public health/Socioeconomic factors/ ;

Abstract:

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and weak health systems threaten global tuberculosis control. Kenya is ranked 13th among the 22 high TB burden countries worldwide, and currently has an estimated 2,300 MDR-TB patients. A case-control study to determine factors associated with MDR-TB in Kenya was conducted to inform policy in designing public health interventions that are best suited to the country's needs. This was an unmatched case control study conducted in 41 health facilities in 20 districts across the eight provinces in Kenya from September 2009 to January 2010. Cases were confirmed MDR- TB (resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid) patients while controls were sputum- smear positive TB patients with clinical response and negative sputum smear at the fifth month of treatment with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Study approval was sought and obtained from relevant institutions. Using the health facility TB register as the sampling frame, MDR- TB patients and two randomly selected unmatched controls per case were enrolled. A pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used for patient interviews and to abstract information from records. Data on socio-dernographic, behavioural, and clinical exposure history were obtained. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-info and Stata versions 3.5 and 9.0 software respectively. A total of 81cases {mean age: 32 years (SO: 10), 62% males} and 162 controls {mean age: 35 years (SD: 13), 59% males} there was no statistically significant difference with respect to baseline socio-dernographic characteristics. Six (7.4%) of the MDR-TB cases having no previous history of TB, reported living in the same house with a known MDR-TB patient. Cases were more likely to have history of previous exposure to first line anti-Tuberculosis drugs (OR= 85, 95% CI=29.7- 243.3; P<O.OOOl) and be non Kenyan (OR=5.5, 95% CI=1.4-21.8; P=0.007). Case- patients with positive HIV status (OR=0.34, 95% CI= 0.1-0.9; P=0.025) and those who had received TB treatment under the Directly Observed Therapy program (DOT) (OR=0.23, 95% CI= 0.1-0.6; P=0.002) were less likely to have MDR-TB.

A study of the strategies of community led total sanitation project in eradication of open defecation in Kochogo Location of Nyando District

Author: Wamera, Elizabeth Ketty

Awarding University: St. Paul's University, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: St. Paul's University Bishop Okullu Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Community/Sanitation/Toilet facilities/Kochogo Location, Nyando District/Public health/ ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to investigate strategies used by Community Led Total Sanitation programme in the eradication of open defecation in Kochogo location in Nyando District. The researcher considered the community of Kochogo Location that has an approximate 100 households with an average population of 1,900 individuals which includes men, women, youth and children. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview guides for the key Informants and the data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and presented using descriptive statistic tools such as graphs and tables. Conclusions drawn from this study indicate that participation and sustained interest of the community members to sanitation are some of the major contributing factors to the success of CLTS through awareness creation of individuals? actions contributing to the wellbeing of the entire community through applying social pressure after declaration of ODF status in a community. Other findings to this study indicate that CLTS is considered successful as it promoted the proper and consistent use of toilets as opposed to promotion of a specific technology, giving the community an opportunity to use a technology that is appropriate for them as well as meet their sanitation needs.

Global Health Diplomacy; a 21st century agenda for Africa

Author: Kadima, Silvia Lukondo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: International relations/Public health ;

Abstract:

Global health is the health of populations in a global context. and transcends the perspectives and concerns of individual nations. It aims at improving the health of people worldwide. Global health continues to operate on a financing mechanism that strengthens the hand of donor organizations at the expense of host nations and their priorities. Donors often impose their own funding priorities, and programmes tend to be poorly integrated into local public health systems in developing countries particularly the African region. The field of Global Health Diplomacy draws from a broad range of disciplines including international relations, medical anthropology, political science, history and public health. This paper advocates for the better understanding of some of the historical and conceptual underpinnings of this emerging field. The theory of constructivism discussed in this paper offers a compelling and optimistic analysis of how change is possible through the exchange of ideas and through discourse. The data analysis in this study will be qualitative in nature transcribing information that will be relevant to the better understanding of Global Health practice in Africa.

Extent of media resource use in instruction in the School of Public Health of Moi University, Kenya

Author: Kei, Robert M

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : DPhil

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Media/Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya. School of Public Health/Teaching ;

Abstract:

Introduction and Background: One of the major development challenges confronting Africa today is to develop the capacities, strategies, and mechanisms necessary to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by media resources. Literature review show that lecturers in Universities especially in Kenya are not fully integrating these media resources in instruction as a teaching tool. General objective The general objective of the study was to examine the extent of media resource use in instruction in the School of Public Health. More specifically, the study sought to: identify the type of media resources used in instruction; examine the factors influencing the use of media resources and describe challenges facing the use of media resources in instruction in the School of Public Health of Moi University. Research methods Survey research design was employed in order to cover the study population of all the lecturers and students. Therefore, 24 lecturers and 213 students were chosen making a census of 237 respondents. Convenient sampling technique was used to select key informants. After piloting the instruments, data were collected using questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist. The data collected was coded accordingly and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS v.2). The results were presented using descriptive statistics. Research Findings and Recommendations Findings of the study were that technological factors which had a mean value of (2.73), individual factors (1.82) and organizational factors (1.50) influence the use of media resources. Secondly, lack of skills and literacy on media resources with a mean value of (3.94): high cost of media resources (3.61), and media resources not considering students with special needs (3.61) were the main challenges which influence use of media resources. Based on these findings the study recommended that lecturers should be trained in the use of media resources and the School to formulate sound procedures which will guide the procurement, use, maintenance of Media resources and establishment of instructional Media Centre. Further research should also be done before adoption of media resources and on e-learning plus streaming the Media in the School of Public health

Strategic change in the Kenya National Malaria Strategy by the division of Malaria control of the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation

Author: Nyandigisi, Andrew Johnson

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (Kenya), Division of Malaria Control ; Malaria ; Disease control ; Strategic planning ;

Abstract:

This project set out to do a case study of the strategic change in the Kenya national malaria strategy by the division of malaria control of the ministry of public health and sanitation. Data was collected from the head of DOMC, deputy head of DOMC, focal persons of the various units in DOMC including vector control, case management, epidemic preparedness and control, monitoring and evaluation, advocacy communication and -social mobilization and malaria in pregnancy. Additional data was also collected from the malaria advisors in WHO and MSH. The nature of the questions was structured open ended questions on the need and nature of the strategic change. Secondary data was collected from the national malaria program review, the national malaria strategy 2000 to 2010, the national malaria strategy 2009 to 2017 and other programmatic guidelines. The objectives of the study were to determine the need for strategic change in the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation's Division of Malaria Control and to establish the nature of the strategic change in the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation's Division of Malaria Control. Results showed that the need for the change in the strategy included the adoption of a new vision, the changing malaria epidemiology, the push for impactful indicators, the global economic crisis, the expiry of the old strategy, the need for teamwork, focus and partnerships and the introduction of performance contracting by the government of Kenya. The vision was arrived at through alignment with vision 2030, the Abuja targets and the millennium development goals. The process of developing the new strategy was through a multi-stakeholder, multi-sector participatory approach in line with recommendations from the Malaria Programme Performance Review. The malaria program review provided a situation analysis of malaria in the country outlining its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The nature of the strategic change was planned with the key feature being the malaria program review which provided the situation analysis and recommendations for adoption in the new strategy. The type of change was mainly transitional because the new strategy was not a significantly different from the old one.

Influence of community health workers on uptake of Anti-retroviral therapy among people living with HIV and AIDS in Kawangware, Nairobi Province. a case of Liverpool VCT Care and Treatment , Kenya

Author: Menya, Pamela A Onyango

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Public health ; Antiretrovirals ; Voluntary counseling and testing ; HIV infection ; Disease management ; Liverpool VCT Project, Kawangware, Nairobi, Kenya ; Kawangware, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The involvement of community health Workers (CHWs), in history has been in existence for the past 50years. In Thailand and the U.S, participation of trained workers was documented since 1950's and countries including Indonesia, India, Gambia and Kenya followed suit in engaging the CHWs, which has proven to be very effective especially in reaching out underserved population. One of the greatest challenges within the African health sector is the critical shortage of human resources, the average doctor to patient ratio across Africa is 1 :2000 and therefore CHW s became very critical in bridging the gap in terms of uptake of ART. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Community Health Workers on uptake of anti-retroviral therapy among people living with HIV and AIDS in Kawangware Location, Nairobi Province. The study was guided by the following objectives: To establish the demographic characteristics of CHWs and uptake of ART, To investigate the level of training received by CHWs and uptake of ART, To determine how frequency of follow up of CHWs influence uptake of ART and finally To examine the extent to which activity reports influence the uptake of ART in the implementation of the Liverpool VCT project in Kawangware Location. Purposive sampling method was used in study. The study used questionnaire to collect data through face to face interview. Data was entered using SPSS for windows version 9.1 to generate frequencies and percentages. The study found that demographic characteristics of the CHWs such as gender, level of education and age influenced uptake of ART among PLWHA, the study also discovered that activity reporting by CHWs, level of training undergone by the CHWs and frequency of follow-ups done by the community health workers influenced uptake of ART among People Living with HIV and AIDS. The study therefore concluded that the CHWs had an impact on the uptake of ARTs among persons living with HIV and AIDS. The study recommends that CHWs model be given much attention in ART program for PLWHA. From the research findings, it was clear that CHWs influenced the uptake of ART especially when CHWs had adequate training and therefore were able to follow up clients and document their activities. The study revealed that adequate training, frequent follow-ups and documentation are very crucial in the implementation of LVCT project. Recommendations from the study revealed the need for a comparative study to look at CHW s working in other organizations to see whether different results can be generated. An in depth study to be carried out would suffice in order to get the perception of various groups including: People Living with HIV and AIDS and other stakeholders in the medical field. The study suggests that future researchers should do the same study in other areas such as in the rural areas, or in the Peri-urban areas for the purpose of comparison with the findings of the study. The study also recommends that future research should be done by organizations such as Millennium Villages Project in Siaya District for comparison purposes.