41 Records out of 22207 Records

Analysis of efficiency of public hospitals in Kenya : 2008-2011

Author: Kibe, Nicholas Irungu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Efficiency/Productivity/Public enterprise/Hospitals/Health care delivery ;

Abstract:

Efficiency of health facilities in Kenya is crucial especially in the face of the increased Ibudzetary allocations and recent health care reforms. Provision of health services remains sub optimal and efficiency use remains a challenge to policy makers and health managers. It is therefore imperative to estimate efficiency levels, factor productivity growth and determinants of (in) efficiency to alert the policy makers and health managers of any potential gains towards , provision of quality healthcare. Level 5 (provincial and regional) public general hospitals and Level 4 (district and sub-district) public hospitals were studied. Malmquist data development analysis was used to estimate: technical efficiency scores and total factor productivity, stochastic frontier analysis estimated cost efficiency scores while to bit regression analysis was used to identify the determinants? of (in) efficiency. Data for 2008 to 2011 was used in the analysis. Data envelopment analysis revealed an average technical efficiency score of 95.7~j% for level ~5 hospitals and 97.72% for level 4 hospitals. Stochastic frontier analysis revealed an average cost efficiency score of 77.49% for level 5 hospitals and 66.78% for level 4 hospitals. A ue~~alive technological change for level 4 and 5 public hospitals was found to impact negatively on the total factor productivity for the two levels of public hospitals. An increase in recurrent expenditure was found to reduce cost efficiency in both level 4 and level 5 public hospitals. Increases in number of nurses was found to increase cost efficiency in level 4 public general hospitals while increases of doctors increased cost efficiency in level 4 public hospitals. Conclusively, the study shows that there is potentiality for productivity growth in health sector in Kenya by considering efficiency use and increased investments in technological innovations. Further research study is recommended to seek why increases in recurrent expenditure results into a decline in cost efficiency in level 4 and 5 public hospitals.

Environmental context, implementation of strategic plans and performance of State Corporations in Kenya

Author: Odundo, Edward Owino

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Public enterprise ; Strategic planning ; Financial performance ; Political economy ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the moderating effect of environmental context on the relationship between level of implementation of strategic plans and performance of state corporations in Kenya In the study, political goodwill and support, and policy framework were adopted as the indicators of the environmental context; proportion of strategies in the strategic plan implemented as the independent variable; and return on sales, return on assets and customer satisfaction as the dependent variable measures of financial performance, efficiency and effectiveness, respectively. Eighty-three (83) state corporations drawn from different sectors of the economy and charged with various functions, participated in the study. A combination of cross-sectional survey design and relational study design was employed in the study. Required data was mainly quantitative; therefore, a full questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The study revealed that for commercial state corporations, political goodwill and support has a significant effect on the relationship between the extent of implementation of strategic plans and their financial performance on the one hand, and their effectiveness on the other hand. Policy framework, however, does not moderate the relationship between the extent of implementation of strategic plans and the financial performance of commercial state corporations, but may have a significant effect on the relationship between their extent of implementation of strategic plans and efficiency. Both dimensions of environmental context (political goodwill and support, and policy framework) do not moderate the relationship between the extent of implementation of strategic plans and effectiveness of either commercial or non-commercial state corporations. The study, therefore, provides empirical evidence to support the theory that effective strategic planning and implementation, within a positive environment of political goodwill and support, leads to higher performance. It proposes to policymakers to take into account the practicalities of implementing government policies, and to managers of state corporations to nurture political support and goodwill and to establish robust institutional structures that ensure effective service delivery to the public. Limitations of the study were that it was cross-sectional in nature and it generalized across industries, hence did not take into consideration the competitive pressures that may be unique to certain industries. The study recommends that future research should attempt to gather longitudinal data in order to make stronger causal inferences, and to isolate of the effects of public sector policies and governance structures on the performance of commercial state corporations, vis a vis the performance of private firms.

Challenges of strategy implementation in public corporations in Kenya

Author: Magambo, Donald Oloo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Strategic management ; Parastatals ; Public enterprise ;

Abstract:

Many organizations face significant difficulties with regards to strategy implementation process as most strategies fail to produce superior performance for the firm due to poor implementation. The purpose of the study was to determine the challenges of strategy implementation in public corporations in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to establish the challenges in strategy implementation in public corporation and the possible solutions to the challenges. The study adopted a descriptive research design in which 189 respondents were sampled using census survey. The study targeted the personnel in charge of planning in the organizations. The data was collected using questionnaires which were self administered. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies,percentages, mean score and standard deviation. The study established that inadequate funding and untimely disbursement of resources was a hindrance to the effective implementation of strategies in public corporations. The study also established that staff resistance to change and lack of skills to some extent affected the implementation of strategies by the organizations. However, lack of top management commitment, organizational culture and structure were never in any way a challenge to the implementation of strategies in public corporations in Kenya. The study also established that inadequate staffing was never a challenge to the implementation of the strategies. The study established that according to respondents, the allocation of enough funds and timely distribution of resources would greatly enhance the implementation of strategies in the public corporations. The study also established that most respondents recommended that the managements' commitment to the implementation of strategies in the organizations would minimize the strategy implementation challenges experienced by the organizations. The practicing of proper change management in the organizations would minimize staff resistance to change according to respondents. Respondents indicated that sponsoring employees to further their education would improve their skills hence ensuring effective strategy implementation. The study recommended that first, the management of the state corporations should increase the allocation to the projects so as the ensure that adequate resources are allocated to each project. Secondly, the management should ensure that there is timely distribution of resources to ,:,arious projects for timely implementation of projects in the organization. Third, the management of public corporations should steer clear from politics to avoid political interference in the implementation of strategies in the public corporations. Forth, the organizations should organize for seminars and workshops where the employees skill will be enhanced through training and finally, the study also recommends that the organizations should sponsor its staff to further education.

Curbing corruption in public procurement in Kenya : a case for mainstreaming social accountability

Author: Muraya, Julius Njire

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Corruption in government ; Purchasing ; Public enterprise ; Social responsibility ;

Abstract:

Globally, the last three decades have seen intensified reforms in public procurement in two predominant ways: Bounding discretionary powers within clearly defined transactional rules and opening government contracting to the market discipline of full and fair competition. Kenya has been no exception. Nonetheless, a growing number of scandals and value of loss through corruption in public procurement provide compelling evidence that more has to be done than merely wrestling public procurement from the government's control. This study looks at the phenomenon of corruption in public procurement to challenge the reflexive tendency to fireproof procurement through more intense regulation of the processes coupled with heavier penal sanctions for breach. It makes a case for a recast of the accountability regime. Corruption is identified as a force of an insidious nature, finding host from within and outside the prescriptive rules and the market ordering. It threatens the stability of the new accountability regime. To leverage against debilitating corruption, it is argued that infusion of the diffused social accountability mechanisms of civic oversight and participation is an imperative. This study makes a compelling case for the mainstreaming of social accountability by pointing at the space, place and potency of its mechanisms in the fight against public procurement-related corruption in the Kenyan context. Key words: Corruption, public procurement, social accountability.

Challenges of getting ISO 9000 certification : the case of Kenya Ports Authority

Author: Chikophe,Abdallah Mwarua

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kenya Ports Authority ; Parastatals ; Public enterprise ; Quality standards ; ISO 9000 ;

Abstract:

This study sought to establish the challenges facing Kenyan government parastatals who wish to be ISO 9000 certified and also find out the intervention measures that these parastatals can put in place to deal with these challenges. Primary data was collected by use of two research instruments, that is, a comprehensive interview guide and a structured questionnaire. Content analysis was used in the analysis of the data obtained using the interview guide, while the data obtained using the structures questionnaire was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software. The close-ended questions were analyzed and summarized in form of tables, proportions, percentages, means and standard deviations. The study found out that the major challenges facing government parastatals during the process leading to ISO 9000 certification were: resistance to change, misunderstanding the perception of quality efforts, difficulties in understanding new processes and procedures and corrective actions, problems with auditors and consultants, and un supportive organizational structure and organizational culture. The study also found out that in dealing with these challenges, parastatals should make the following intervention measures: full top management commitment, involve all staff and management in adequate awareness trainings, brainstorming sessions, outings and consistent meetings, follow up audits should be done more frequently and corrective actions made where processes have been flouted, and performance management to be employed. The results may as well form a basis for further research.

Relationship between corporate governance practices and financial performance of commercial state corporations in Kenya

Author: Areba, James Nyamwaro

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Public enterprise ; Corporate governance ; Financial performance ;

Abstract:

The reform of public enterprises has become an issue of top priority for developed as well developing countries, in the last fifteen years. A well defined and functioning corporate governance system helps a firm to attract investment, raise funds and strengthen the foundation for firm financial performance. Kenya many State Corporations have been characterized by monopolistic production, highly indigenized management and appointments of a large number of top managers based on political considerations.This has led to many of the State Corporations in Kenya to struggle to regain their foothold. The major objective of the study was to find out the relationship between corporate governance practices and performance in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya. The study adopted a survey design. The population of the study consisted of 27 commercial state corporations. The study used questionnaire to collect the primary data from the chief finance officers. The primary data collected through the questionnaire was analysed using descriptive statistics such as measures of central tendency which include mean, median and mode using SPSS version 17.5 and Microsoft excel. The study concludes that Good corporate governance approach aims at performing the main function of separating the firm's principals and agent and corporate governance themes in a corporation separates management from the board. The study concludes that board size and composition, Splitting of the roles of chairman and chief executive, optimal mix of inside and outside directions, proportion of outside directors, executive remuneration, number of non-executive directors, participation of outside directors and number board of directors affected the financial performance of the corporation. The study recommends that there should an increase meetings frequency if the situation requires a high quality supervision and control. The study also recommends that state owned enterprises should adopt good governance systems as they enhance the financial performance. The study therefore recommends that policy makers for state owned enterprises should take serious notice of these findings to implement policies that sustain the already existing strong corporate governance structures.

The role of organisational learning in organisational strategy at Industrial Development Bank Capital Limited, Kenya

Author: Mokeira, Sarah

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Industrial Development Bank Capital Limited, Kenya ; Public enterprise ; Organizational learning ; Knowledge management ;

Abstract:

The need for institutional ising organisational learning as a strategic tool cannot be ignored. In the journey of organisational transformation, the critical challenge lies in evolving a performing organisation so that the business deliverables can contribute to the operative efficiency of the organisation. Measuring organisational success and implementing effective strategies for future success represent continuous challenges for managers, researchers and consultants. The continuous need to improve performance of the public sector corporations of which Industrial Development Bank (lDB) Capital Ltd is one of them remains a major challenge. This is in light of scarce resources, competition, and raising public expectations. The increased pressure for performance driven reforms has been brought about by the need for good governance, public accountability, and to address the varied interests of the public and multiple stakeholders. Organisational learning outcomes contribute to the development of a firm's resource-based capability. In spite of the efforts being made by IDB Capital Limited to boost organisational learning so as to better the overall organisational performance, minimal growth in the business and in personal development of staff has been reflected. This is evidenced in the overall organisational performance trends for IDB Capital Limited which has been declining. The research aims at establishing the factors that have affected the organisational learning so as to lead to a decline. This was with a view to improving organisational learning which may in tum enable the organisation to reverse the current trend. This study aimed at examining the role of knowledge management in organisational learning. The objective of the study was mainly to assess the role of organisational learning on organisational strategy. The study was carried out through a case study. Primary data was collected by way of personal in depth interviews with members of staff at different levels of the organisation. It was analyzed using the pattern and content analysis technique. The study findings are that organisational learning outcomes contribute to the development of a firm's resource-based capability, as a basic principle of human resource management. Organisational learning enables companies to understand the environment in which they operate and to respond by developing distinct practices, policies and structures to meet the external challenges and thus improve flexibility to market dynamics.

Public enterprises and the new constitution : towards a better system for corporate governance

Author: Mogaka, Danstan Omari

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Public enterprise ; Corporate governance ; Constitutions ;

Abstract:

State Owned Enterprises (SO E) in Kenya have been poorly managed since independence owing to three factors, the appointment of Board of Directors on political and ethnic basis, poor monetary disclosure and oversight bodies that are lacking in independence and autonomy and often burdened with conflicting roles. Apart from the SOE listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE), that have adopted good corporate governance guidelines provided by the Capital Markets Authority (CMA), a majority of SOE did not consider good corporate governance as a prerequisite to good corporate performance. Other than poor corporate governance, an outdated and often bad legal framework (Companies Act and State Corporations Act) were found to provide loopholes through which the BOD was appointed on grounds that did not meet the grounds of meritocracy. The question of privatization will be interrogated at length and in depth as a solution to poor corporate governance in Public Enterprises. However the promulgation of the Constitution of Kenya 2010, in spite of the many challenges in its implementation has codified corporate governance principles and provided enormous opportunities to correct the mismanagement of SOE.

Chief Executive Officers perception of performance contract evaluation system in state corporations in Kenya

Author: Muli, Linus

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Public enterprise ; Parastatals ; Performance contracts ; Chief executive officers ; Perceptions ;

Abstract:

The study sought to determine CEOs perception of performance Contract Evaluation system and establish factors influencing the perception of performance contact evaluation system in State Corporations. This study was made possible by use of primary source of data (questionnaire) in investigating fifty four (54) CEOs. This study was conducted though querying the CEOs who are the implementers of performance contract evaluation system. Data was gathered in which a structured questionnaire given to a sample of population of the CEOs and designed to elicit specific information from respondents. The information was to establish the perception of performance contract evaluation system in State Corporation in Kenya. The study established that the methodology of performance evaluation in State Corporations should not be across board but should be tailor made to particular industry and environment. It was also noted the major factor influencing performance evaluation is the political environment where the system will be affected by change in political environment. Monitoring and information flow was also factor with most information being either withheld or released in bits and also the tight policing of set targets to be achieved. Lack of incentive was also a factor that influences evaluation since once performance targets are meet there is no incentive to encourage the employees to achieve better performance next time like in private sector.

Challenges facing the implementation of performance contract in selected state corporations in Kenya

Author: Rajoro, Wycliffe Ouma

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Public enterprise/Performance contracts/Parastatals ;

Abstract:

The purpose of Performance contracting is to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the management of public affairs through accountability. However, the implementation process fully began in 2004 covering all the public enterprises and ministries. There was little evidence of success due to a number of challenges in the implementation process. Some of the common challenges encountered by a number of enterprises included fmancial resources challenges, human resources challenges and low level of commitment from both government and organization. In this study a survey was carried out among the managers and their supervisors of state owned corporations with head offices in Nairobi and its environs. The research investigates further whether financial resources, human resources and level of commitment influence the implementation of performance contract within public enterprises. The design adopted for the study was a survey research design. It included both qualitative and quantitative method where information was sought through self administered questionnaires from the staff themselves and from their supervisors .The data collected was processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) technique. The study found that the challenges facing the performance contract included; inadequate flack of commitment from government and top management, inadequate financial resources, manpower in terms of key competence to undertake key tasks, inadequate training and low level of awareness of performance contract. The study recommended that there should be more commitment coming from the government and top management. Also more resources needs to be directed towards the enterprises to enable them perform keys tasks and more training given to staff.