29 Records out of 22207 Records

Perceptions of teachers on primary school children vulnerability to HIV/AIDs during the 2007 post election violence in Kibera slums, Kenya

Author: Situma, Grace Nelima

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Post election violence/Child welfare/Sex crimes/Primary school students/HIV infection/Educators/Perceptions ;

Abstract:

The study aimed at establishing the perceptions of teachers on primary school children vulnerability to HIV/AIDS during the 2007-2008 post election violence in Kibera Slums, Kenya. Four research objectives were formulated to guide the study. This study used descriptive survey design. The sample comprised of 16 headteachers and 160 teachers. Data was collected by use of questionnaires for teachers and headteachers while children were involved in focus group discussions. The data indicated that there were various causes of HIV/AIDS infection among primary school children during post-election violence. Findings indicated that there were various factors that led to primary school children vulnerability to HIV/AIDS during Post Election Violence. It was revealed that during post election violence law enforcement that protect individual rights broke down thus increasing vulnerability of children to sexual intimidation and consequently HIV/AIDS. Poverty during post election violence led to child prostitution among primary school children putting them at the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Children were compelled by the 'push' factors like poverty and lack of protection to indulge in unbecoming behavior like prostitution. Extreme push factors arose when children's families got killed or when they had separated from their parents or customary caretakers who might have provided care and protection. Orphans and separated children decided to join prostitution as a means of obtaining food. Besides, destitution of the children due to the post election violence made them susceptible to such heinous acts as rape thereby increasing their chances of acquiring HIV/AIDS. Some children engaged in small scale businesses to fend for their families. This too exposed them to sexual abuse which could have led to the acquisition of HI V/AIDS. The study concluded that there were various remedial actions towards primary school pupils' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS during post Election Violence. These included initiation of education programmes to support children's psychological welfare, guidance and support to vulnerable children, keeping records of the affected children and linking them to children officers. Also the headteachers had created networks to identify affected children; they also organized educational activities that aimed at promoting awareness among children while programmes for parents on how to report incidents of child sexual abuse were introduced. Based on the findings it was recommended that measures should be put in place during violence to minimize children vulnerability.

The role of print media in conflict escalation : case study of Kenya

Author: Wekesa, Stella Naliaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Journalists/Newspapers/Media coverage/Conflicts/Post election violence/ ;

Abstract:

This study focuses on the role of the press in conflict escalation in Kenya. The reality that will never change is the sense that media is a means of communication that plays an important role for information and community development. Today, all over the world, media is a connecting tool in the country or between countries. However, media is 'accused' of being a source of conflict by the ways of propaganda and bias As a result, media can cause problems because the society relies on it for news and information. The disputed 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulted into widespread skirmishes following the announcement of results on the 30th December 2007. Spontaneous violence erupted in various parts of Kenya leading to massive displacement, loss of lives and livelihoods. About 1,200 people lost their lives and 350,000 people were displaced. Many moved to their ethnic homelands for security reasons while others moved to the periurban areas of the major cities in various parts of Kenya. The actual figure of those who were internally displaced by violence is not known with certainty, because there were people who were not hosted in the official camps but sought refuge among communities where there were relative stability and peace. The local media has been largely accused of fanning this conflict. Media works have been correlated to the issues that result to violent behaviors such as the correlation between massive exposure to the media and the increase of violent behaviors among media audiences. Journalists have been accused paying more attention on certain issues than others. It's also evident that there are players who shape the role ofthe media.

Electronic media in electroral conflict in Kenya

Author: Syallow, Anne Maureen

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media/Post election violence/Journalists/Media coverage/Social impact/ ;

Abstract:

Ethnic diversity in Kenya has been the most outstanding factor in Ali the elections since independence. Over 42 tribes and communities that have lived together in happiness and reverence always clash when it comes to the electioneering period. In the wake of this respectful unity between the different communities, threats on issues of resource distribution and political differences cost ethnic differences and this becomes worse during general elections that come every five years. These differences have been recurrent over the years but it sadly reached its climax during the 2007 general elections when the country broke into ethic fighting after presidential elections results were fiercely disputed. This enhanced the ethnic differences among Kenyans and promoted the destruction of the cultural diversity. Electronic media news source has implications for three entities: the journalists, the organizations that the media houses represent or the involved parties, and the news consumers. Central to the model was the relationship between the involved parties as news source and the reporter. The concept of marketingdriven journalism and the role of public relations in news production lead to the concept of agenda building. In the process of agenda building, public relations practitioners channel information subsidies through the media and subsidize the news reporters' newsgathering. The role of information subsidies in the mass media is termed as 'agenda building,' and the term represents the relationship between a newsroom and its sources. This study was fundamentally a descriptive survey. It entailed the description of the state of electronic media in Kenya. The description was appropriate for collecting information about electronic media fraternity and people's attitudes, opinions and a variety of issues regarding electronic media and conflict in Kenya for the period April 2007 to April 2008. The target populations were residents of the areas affected by the post election violence, such as the Rift valley, Kibera and Naivasha. From the interviews conducted, it was evident that the general Public received most of the information and developments of the election campaigns and the election process through the leading media houses in Kenya. A majority of the respondents said they knew of the current developments through the radio. The actions by the electronic media were so intense at the peak of the electioneering process and the result was upraising and revolts from all the parts of the country were witnessed. However, the researcher found out that both the electronic media and the general public had a part to play in the violence although it was not quite clear whether these actions were deliberate or not.

The role of mediators in peace negotiation in Kenya

Author: Some, Gladys Jerop W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Peace negotiations/Post election violence/Mediation/Conflict resolution/ ;

Abstract:

This study examines the dynamics of conflict resolution through third party mediation focusing on negotiations carried out as a result of the post-election violence in Kenya in 2007/8. The study objectives are; to examine effectiveness of mediation in managing conflict in Kenya, to determine the various types of mediation process used in management of the post electoral dispute in in Kenya and to determine cultural and ethnic differences and degree of homogeneity that affects the success or failure of mediation in the effort of managing conflict in Kenya. Mediation is gaining popularity all over the world and Kenya is not an exception. Third parties might act as consultants, helping one side or both sides analyze the conflict and plan an effective response. Alternatively, they act as facilitators, arranging meetings, setting agendas, and guiding productive discussions. Kenyans have always held this myth of seeing Kenya 'as an island of peace in a sea of chaos' and could hardly think of a possibility of a full scale conflict. The underlying factors of ethnicity, poverty, discrimination land problems and political intolerance played out during the 2007 elections. Dispute management research has not often compared the effectiveness of mediation as a tool. Consequently, applying conflict management techniques to international disputes has sometimes not been effective This study used both primary and secondary data from available data in the Nairobi and other university libraries and internet sources which analyze by trying to explore and to get explanations that led to the outbreak and trends of the conflict in Kenya while secondary data used text books, journals, and academic papers that are to be found in the University of Nairobi and other libraries. This instrument of data collection enables the researcher to eontrol the setting; it is flexible as one can probe and in the process get in-depth information. Research design used in this study was descriptive and exploratory in nature method. This study presented a detailed background of mediation as a mode of conflict resolution. The finding indicated that mediation process is inherently unpredictable, and the mediator must try to constantly reassess, remain open to ambiguity, and to offer new options when necessary. This study notes that mediators are useful in the process of conflict abatement, and they can make positive and direct contributions by focusing the parties on a termination agreement. Further it notes that success of third party mediations is dependent on credibility ofthe mediators and the level of commitment by the parties. The literature of mediations spans several academic fields including, but not limited to, traditional political science and international relations, labor and industrial relations and management studies. The mediator should always do his best make himself acceptable to the parties to conflict at all times. When the post-election conflict began in Kenya, it was immediately so violent a conflict that the solution was also as urgent

Impact of guidance and counselling on school going children affected by armed conflict : a case of PEV victims in Kibera, Nairobi County

Author: Opijah, Diamond P

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Counseling ; Children and youth ; Post election violence ; Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Armed contlict and violence take a heavy toll on children's lives in different parts of the world. Not only do children suffer from the direct consequences of war and armed violence, they are indirectly affected by displacement, loss of relatives and the trauma associated with witnessing acts of violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of guidance and counseling on school going children affected by armed conflict. The study sought to learn from the experiences of the post election violence victims in Kibera slums, Nairobi County. The study established the psychosocial and post-traumatic disorders on school going children as a result of armed conflict. The study further sought to determine the extent to which guidance and counseling is undertaken for school going children in armed conflict situations and ways in which guidance and counseling could be-undertaken during such times. The study employed a descriptive survey design to gather data. 65 respondents of which 48 children who had been affected by the post election and 17 participants were key informants. The study found out that though guidance and counseling could have a great impact in addressing the needs of children during periods of violence and armed conflict, there are no mechanisms, structures or Institutions that have been set up to address this. As a result of conflict children suffer from post-traumatic disorders and the psychosocial implications of armed conflict on children is severe. The researcher recommends that there be measures put in place to ensure that guidance and counseling for children affected by armed conflict is undertaken for children during times of violence. Follow up measures should also be undertaken to ensure that children are well prepared in handling the psychosocial and posttraumatic disorders that arise from armed contlict. In promoting psychological recovery for the traumatized children, the caregivers who might be teachers, social workers or children officers should assure the children that all measures are being taken or have been taken to prevent re-occurrence of the event that caused the trauma. The researcher recommends a participatory research be undertaken to determine how capacity building in children can be enhanced after conflict situations. A study should also be undertaken to determine how governments can be encouraged to improve systems of law enforcement and justice and bring an end to impunity for the perpetrators of violence and violations of children's rights.

Third parties in peace negotiations : a case of Kenya's post-2007 elections peace process

Author: Munyambu, Raphael Kioko

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Third party ; Conflicts ; Post election violence ; Peace negotiations ;

Abstract:

Third party interventions in peace negotiations are as ancient as the peace making itself. In every peace making process, there has been the involvement of third parties with some playing crucial roles towards the success of such process, while others become mere spoilers. Kenya experienced civil strife situation in the aftermath of 200) elections, where disputed presidential election results brought about unprecedented violence occasioning death of over a thousand people and displacement of hundreds of thousands of others. This prompted the international community, regional community and local actors to intervene with a view to finding a solution to bring the two warring parties - Party of National Unity (PNU) and the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) to the negotiating table, to stop the senseless killing and wanton destruction of property. The manner in which the third parties carried themselves was exceptional, unique and exemplary culminating in a peace deal in less than two months. It is this behaviour of third parties that made me to carry out this study. Apart from AU's Panel of Eminent African Personalities who brokered the peace deal, there were other third parties who played a part towards the signing of the National Accord by President Mwai Kibaki and ODM leader Raila Odinga on February 28, 2008. The main third parties identified included the US, UK, UN, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, the civil society, faith-based organizations and many others. The purpose of this study is to show that peace was realized in Kenya after the intervention by the third parties. The study argues that, although the third parties were driven by their own national interests, the need to return Kenya to normalcy was eminent. With unstable country, these interests were at stake, and so the frantic efforts were employed by the third parties to salvage the threatened interests. This exercise saved Kenya from the political stalemate. This study outlines each third parties; contribution toward the success of the peace process. It also presents a pattern of convergence of interest among the third parties which led to a successful peace negotiation culminating i the signing of a workable peace deal (the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, 2008).

The media and conflict management in Kenya, 2007-2008

Author: Mwai, Elizabeth

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media ; Conflict resolution ; Media coverage ; Post election violence ;

Abstract:

With the rapid advancement of Science and Technology in the 21st century the role of media is omnipresent for all positive and negative changes in the society no matter of geographical location but it depends how media functions in its dutjes and responsibilities in such situation. Media as a whole has its potentiality either to affect any social development or to get affected by the factors of the social change. For all types of public opinion which impact mass media in any crisis situation with regard to media coverage or crisis one has to reflect, how mass media can influence the conflict resolution. This study reviews the role of the media in conflict resolution. Using Kenya as a case study, the study seeks to demonstrate that the media can effectively be used either to fuel conflict in a region or to reduce conflict in a region. The Project seeks to demonstrate the role played by the media in conflict and conflict resolution in Kenya during post election violence. It discusses the role of the media in Kenya, traces the roots of the problem of post election violence in Kenya, describes the methodology used in gathering data for the study and presents the results obtained from the study. Finally, the study has identified specific recommendations which if implemented can be used to address the future challenges of conflict in Kenya.

Crisis decision making in East African Community member countries : a case study of 2007-8 Kenya crisis

Author: Mabeya, Franklin M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts ; Decision making ; Management of crises ; East African Community ; Post election violence ;

Abstract:

This study observes the nature of crisis decisions that were made during the Kenyan 2007-8 crisis. The volatility of the East African sub region and the prevalence of crisis and conflicts has necessitated a further inquiry as to examine international crisis decision making processes and structures within states and non state entities. It is notable that crisis especially political crises mostly require states and governments to make certain decisions that are aimed at resolving the crises and that, non state entities such as the EAC have a limited mandate or jurisdiction to intervene unless such crises are referred to them by the state(s) in the crisis. This research will also endeavor to analyze EAC and Kenya's crisis decision making processes and structures while focusing more on their efficacy and ability to resolve crises. The research was based on library books, journals, internet and official publications from EAC for secondary data. Primary data on crisis decision making in EAC and Kenyan government, was collected using questionnaires and interviews with policy makers in the relevant ministries of Foreign affairs, EAC and Internal security and officials from EAC secretariat. The research concluded that there was indeed a clear crisis decision making process and procedure in Kenya during crisis and indeed a crisis decision making process and procedure in EAC but its limited during political crises due to the principle of sovereignty and non-interference enshrined in the EAC treaty. The absence of that coordination in EAC on political crises was found to be retarding economic progress and political federation. A proposal was made to establish a clear body that deals with early warning and response mechanism to avert escalation of crises to violent levels.

The power of music in Kenya's politics, 1992-2008

Author: Matu, Alice Wanjiku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Music ; Political campaigns ; Political behavior ; Post election violence ; Negative ethnicity ;

Abstract:

This study examined the power of music in Kenya's politics and its impact on ethnic relations especially during electoral campaigns. The impact of music on Kenya's post-election violence of 2007/2008 is assessed. The role of music in pre-independent, post-colonial and multi-party Kenya, and its impact during the post-tlection violence of 2007/2008 was explored. The history of music in Kenya's political arena provides important highlights of how music has played an important role and impacted Kenya's political destiny. The study utilized both secondary and primary sources. Secondary information was obtained from books, articles, scholarly journals and internet sources. Gaps in secondary data were filled with data from oral interviews which were conducted by use of unstructured questionnaire. Data was captured by use of note taking, analysed qualitatively and presented through narratives and discussions. Existing studies on Kenya's electoral violence acknowledge the role of hate speech, vernacular radio stations, historical injustices, economic inequalities, poverty, joblessness, corruption and poor governance in fuelling violence, but underplay the contribution of music in fuelling political violence in Kenya. This study therefore aimed at demonstrating the centrality of music in Kenya's competitive electoral politics and its role in ethnic mobilization, fuelling propaganda, violence and negative ethnicity. The power of music in reconciliation, healing and peace building is also demonstrated. Nairobi was chosen as the point of focus as it was the tipping point of political conflict which conflated into violence. As the capital city of Kenya, it has a large pool of heterogeneous Kenyans from all parts of the country likely to share characteristics with the typical population as they migrate from all parts ofthe country. The study examined the role and impact of music during the 2007/2008 post-election violence. It argues that music has played a significant role in Kenya' politics. There is popular and extensive use of music, campaign songs and vernacular political songs during Kenya's electoral campaigns. Music communicates and sets an ethnic-agenda for listeners over time and especially at periods of heightened tensions. This study was guided by Tajfel and Turners' Social Identity Theory which argues that social groups, such as those conceived on the basis of ethnic affiliation construct, sustain and negotiate boundaries that define and maintain social identities of one group when opposed and related to another. This holds true for this study which observes that music has been a means of defining social, cultural and ethnic identities. Music plays an indispensable part as a political campaign tool and for socio-political and ethnic mobilization. It has been manipulated by the political elite towards divisive ethnic politics and violence. Music may be manipulated to stir negative ethnicity just as it helps take it away through peace music.

Relationship between the International Criminal Court and Truth Commission : the case of Transitional Justice in post conflict Kenya

Author: Lukwo, Damaris C

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts ; Post election violence ; International Criminal Court ; Truth Justice and Reconciliation Commission ; Justice ; Judicial process ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines the relationship between the International Criminal Court and Truth Justice and Reconciliation Commission with a specific focus on transitional justice in post conflict Kenya. The first chapter set lays down the background of the study. The second chapter explains the concept of transitional justice and examines its relevance in post conflict states. It looks at the different elements of a comprehensive transitional justice policy among them criminal prosecutions, truth commissions, reparations and reconciliation. It finally proposes that the different transitional justice mechanisms should work together. The third chapter looks at the post conflict situation in Kenya analyzing the history of the conflict. The objective of this chapter is to give the reader an understanding of the conflict in Kenya thus necessitating transitional justice in Kenya. This chapter is concluded with the introduction of the idea of conflict transformation. Chapter four makes an analysis of the International Criminal Court and Truth Justice and Reconciliation Commission in the context of Post Conflict Kenya. It further determines and analyzes the scope of crimes for the two processes and how they complement each other. The final chapter concludes that truth commissions and the international court are two sides of the same coin in the sense that they plays a complementary role to each other.